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Antibiotic Food Interactions

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141. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when COVID-19 is suspected

assessment for patients with sepsis. Remark 1: Although the patient may be suspected to have COVID-19, administer appropriate empiric antimicrobials within 1 hour of identification of sepsis (5). Empiric antibiotic treatment should be based on the clinical diagnosis (community- acquired pneumonia, health care-associated pneumonia [if infection was acquired in health care setting] or sepsis), local epidemiology and susceptibility data, and national treatment guidelines. Remark 2: When there is ongoing (...) - detail/laboratory-testing-for-2019-novel-coronavirus-in-suspected-human-cases-20200117). Additionally, guidance on related biosafety procedures is available (https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331138/WHO-WPE-GIH-2020.1-eng.pdf). Collect blood cultures for bacteria that cause pneumonia and sepsis, ideally before antimicrobial therapy. DO NOT delay antimicrobial therapy to collect blood cultures. Collect specimens from the upper respiratory tract (URT; nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal

2020 WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic

142. COVID-19 Guidelines for Outbreaks in Residential Care Facilities

etiquette ? Appropriate use of PPE such as gloves, gowns, eye protection and masks, including how to don and doff PPE correctly ? Actions on experiencing symptoms of COVID-19 (do not work or visit an RCF) ? Handling and disposal of clinical waste ? Processing of reusable equipment ? Environmental cleaning ? Laundering of linen ? Food handling and cleaning of used food utensils 3.1.5. Consumable Stocks Facilities should ensure that they hold adequate stock levels of all consumable materials required (...) Case and Outbreak Management 5.1. Response to a Suspected Case of COVID-19 in a Resident Residents with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 require appropriate healthcare support, including access to their primary care provider for medical management. Special considerations in the management of residents with suspected or confirmed COVID- 19 in an RCF include: ? Immediately isolate ill residents (or cohort) and minimise interaction with other residents. ? If COVID-19 is suspected, have a low threshold

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc guidelines

143. ESC Guidance for the Diagnosis and Management of CV Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic Full Text available with Trip Pro

confirmed cases, 41.3% were considered acquired infection from the hospital, and more than 70% of these patients were . 59 Health care workers are in fact at increased risk for contracting the virus, as demonstrated by Wu and colleagues, who reported that in China 1716 of the 44 672 (3.8%) infected individuals were professionals (see later). 8 Generally, protection against needs to be differentiated according to the level of risk based on patient presentation, type of procedures and interaction and risk

2020 European Society of Cardiology

144. Covid-19 drug vignettes: Azithromycin

to Description of the drug, including regulatory status Azithromycin is a macrolide antibacterial drug, derived from erythromycin, licensed in the and in the , and used to treat bacterial infections. It has been used in combination with hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19. However, there is an adverse drug–drug interaction between the two, which contraindicates their combined use. Mechanism of action Azithromycin exerts its antibacterial action by binding to the RNA of susceptible organisms (...) of powder for solution for intravenous infusion, and one for eye drops, 15 mg/g. Azithromycin is given once a day either 1 hour before or at least 2 hours after food. A typical adult is 500 mg/day for 3 days. For some infections 1000 mg or 2000 mg can be given as a single dose. A typical adult is 500 mg/day for at least two consecutive days, followed by 500 mg/day orally for up to 7–10 days.. Pharmacokinetics After oral administration azithromycin is slowly and poorly (about 37%) absorbed

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

145. Coronavirus (COVID-19) guidelines for outbreaks in residential care facilities

-19 • Exposure risk levels for COVID-19, including international travel • Personal hygiene, particularly hand hygiene, sneeze and cough etiquette • Appropriate use of PPE such as gloves, gowns, eye protection and masks, including how to don and doff PPE correctly • Actions on experiencing symptoms of COVID-19 (do not work or visit an RCF) • Handling and disposal of clinical waste • Processing of reusable equipment • Environmental cleaning • Laundering of linen • Food handling and cleaning of used (...) food utensils • Collection and handling of respiratory swabs, where appropriate with the staff’s prior training and skillset 9 Online training modules for Hand Hygiene and COVID-19 infection prevention and control are available. All staff should undergo regular refresher training on infection prevention and control measures. Consumable Stocks Facilities should ensure that they hold adequate stock levels of all consumable materials required during an outbreak, including: • personal protective

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc guidelines

146. Pomalidomide (multiple myeloma) - Benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book V

aciclovir or equivalent antiviral medication according to institutional guidelines ? for the treatment of complications from myeloma or myeloma treatment at the investigator’s discretion: ? antibiotics, analgesics, antihistamines ? platelet, erythrocyte and fresh frozen plasma transfusions ? bisphosphonates and haematopoietic growth factors ? radiotherapy for pathological fractures or to treat bone pain ? inhaled, local, intranasal corticosteroids or local steroid injections ? only if medically required

2019 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

147. Lenvatinib (thyroid carcinoma) - Benefit assessment according to §35a Social Code Book V

carcinoma ECOG PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status EMA European Medicines Agency EQ-5D European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions FACT-G Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General FDA Food and Drug Administration G-BA Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss (Federal Joint Committee) IQWiG Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care) IU international units PFS progression-free survival RAI radioactive iodine RCT randomized (...) , cancer treatment = 21 days or treatment with an investigational agent = 30 days before the first study medication (exception: treatment with TSH-suppressive thyroid hormones) ? anticoagulants (e.g. warfarin), except treatment with low molecular weight heparin Permitted concomitant treatment: ? all drugs that were required for the patients’ health and did not interact with the study intervention ? treatment of complications and AEs as well as treatment for the alleviation of symptoms (e.g. blood

2019 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

148. British guideline on the management of asthma

This guideline will be of particular interest to healthcare professionals involved in the care of people with asthma including general practitioners, consultants and specialists in respiratory medicine, nurses, pharmacists and other allied health professionals with an interest in respiratory care. The guideline will also be of interest to people with asthma, their parents and carers; those who interact with people with asthma outside of the NHS, such as teachers; voluntary organisations with an interest (...) 25 Table 5: Clinical clues to alternative diagnoses in adults Clinical clue Possible diagnosis Without airflow obstruction Predominant cough without lung function abnormalities Chronic cough syndromes; pertussis Prominent dizziness, light-headedness, peripheral tingling Dysfunctional breathing Recurrent severe ‘asthma attacks’ without objective confirmatory evidence Vocal cord dysfunction Predominant nasal symptoms without lung function abnormalities Rhinitis Postural and food-related symptoms

2019 SIGN

149. Optimisation of RIZIV – INAMI lump sums for incontinence

therapeuthic chemical (classification) AUS Artificial urinary sphincter BAMS Bone anchored male sling BCFI-CBIP Belgisch Centrum voor Farmacotherapeutische Informatie – Le Centre Belge d’Information Pharmacothérapeutique BT Bladder training DDD Defined daily dosis EAS External anal sphincter muscle EPS Echantillon Permanent – Permanente Steekproef ER Extended release EStim Electrical stimulation FI Faecal incontinence FPS Public Health Federal Public Service for Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment (...) • Multifactorial incontinence: Complaint of involuntary loss of urine related to multiple interacting risk factors, including factors both within and outside the lower urinary tract such as comorbidity, medication, age- related physiological changes and environmental factors. Two types of continence problems that in the first place give cause to retention of urine (bladder is full and can’t be emptied) and in a second instance can cause incontinence are: • Urinary retention results from a blockage

2020 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

150. Intramuscular diaphragm stimulation for ventilator-dependent chronic respiratory failure caused by high spinal cord injuries

) was reported in 1 patient in a case series of 6 patients with spinal cord injuries included in the systematic review of 148 patients. 5.3 Superficial wound infection along tunnelled wires (which resolved with oral antibiotics, shortening and terminating electrodes) was reported postoperatively in 1 patient with spinal cord injuries in the case series of 88 patients included in the systematic review. Delayed wound infection at the superficial wire connection site was reported in 1 patient in the case series (...) of 6 patients included in the systematic review. 5.4 The diaphragm pacing stimulator interacting with a pre-existing cardiac pacemaker was reported in 1 patient in a case series of 20 patients included in the systematic review. 5.5 Right shoulder pain during maximum stimulation of a single electrode (which was relieved by reducing the current) was reported in 1 patient in the case series of 6 patients included in the systematic review. 5.6 Fever symptoms redeveloped in 1 patient (which were common

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

151. Cerebral palsy in under 25s: assessment and management

of functional impairment than other causes. 1.2.5 Recognise that the clinical syndrome of neonatal encephalopathy can result from various pathological events, such as a hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury or sepsis, and if there has been more than 1 such event they may interact to damage the developing brain. 1.2.6 When assessing the likely cause of cerebral palsy, recognise that neonatal encephalopathy has been reported at the following approximate prevalences in Cerebral palsy in under 25s: assessment (...) videofluoroscopy if any of the following apply: There is uncertainty about the safety of eating, drinking and swallowing after specialist clinical assessment. The child or young person has recurrent chest infection without overt clinical signs of aspiration. There is deterioration in eating, drinking and swallowing ability with increasing age (particularly after adolescence). There is uncertainty about the impact of modifying food textures (for example, use of thickeners or pureeing). Parents or carers need

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

152. The Effect of Fiber Snack Foods on Dietary Intake in Healthy Adults

on how to record your dietary intake using the ASA24. The ASA24 is a web-based interactive program that asks you to record the foods you ate during the previous day Randomization: Measure weight, waist circumference, and body composition. We will use the BodPod to measure your body composition. The BodPod uses air displacement to measure body volume Receive dietary counseling on how to incorporate the study foods into your current diet. You will be asked to use these foods to replace foods you (...) or either or greater than 4000 kcal per day, consuming on average greater than 10 g dietary fiber/1000 kcal Unwilling to discontinue any prebiotic and fiber supplements, or probiotic supplement Antibiotic use within 2 months from study start Known food allergies Physician-diagnosed gastrointestinal disease or condition (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, gastroparesis, cancer, peptic ulcer disease, Celiac disease, short bowel disease, ileostomy, colostomy other than GERD, constipation

2011 Clinical Trials

153. The difficulties of polytherapy: examples from antimicrobial chemotherapy. (Abstract)

or pharmacodynamic, on the basis of their mechanisms. Pharmacokinetic interactions are the most important and can emerge during various phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism and drug elimination. The absorption of many antimicrobial agents can be modified through various mechanisms. Some drugs (for example the anticholinergics and opiates) or food can slow gastric motility, slowing the absorption and reducing maximum concentrations of the antibiotic. Variations in gastric pH can alter the solubility (...) The difficulties of polytherapy: examples from antimicrobial chemotherapy. Medical therapy in patients with more than one pathology means using more pharmaceuticals, which results in a higher risk of drug interactions which are modifications in the action of one drug when it is administered in the presence of another. The consequences can be diminished therapeutic effect or increased adverse reactions. The pharmacological interactions can be either physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic

2011 Internal and emergency medicine

154. Preparing Emerging Leaders for Alternative Futures in Health Systems Across Canada

climate change, its effect on resource availability, and weather-related morbidity and mortality, o pollution and toxicity in the air and its impacts on health, o population mortality and work days lost to communicable disease as well as antibiotic resistance o access to sanitary tools to prevent exposure to waste and ensuring water and food quality, notably in Indigenous communities; • political forces such as: o ability and willingness of political bodies and organizations that have been given (...) in their own care and in health systems decision-making; and 6) emerging leaders increasingly embrace and integrate new technologies (including advances in artificial intelligence, virtual care, and precision medicine) into the health system, changing who the system interacts with (e.g., types of patients) and the modes of these interactions. While we at the Forum continued to work on this evidence brief, in parallel the Health Leadership Academy developed three alternative futures intended to challenge

2019 McMaster Health Forum

155. Surviving Sepsis Campaign International Guidelines for the Management of Septic Shock and Sepsis-Associated Organ Dysfunction in Children Full Text available with Trip Pro

demonstrated that a bundled approach to initial resuscitation that includes early blood cultures is associated with improved outcomes ( , , ). If collection of the blood cultures is likely to delay administration of antimicrobial therapy to the patient, then administration of antimicrobials should take precedence, in view of the impact of delayed antimicrobial administration on patient outcomes ( ). However, because blood cultures may be the only source of information identifying bacterial antibiotic (...) sensitivities, as well as the effect of previous therapy on diagnostic yield. New molecular technologies are becoming available to facilitate earlier and faster microbiological diagnoses. Such techniques may be able to identify a range of pathogens well before blood cultures are positive ( ), and may potentially identify pathogens even after the administration of antimicrobial therapy. However, new molecular diagnostics are currently relatively expensive, are not sufficient for all pathogens and antibiotic

2020 Society of Critical Care Medicine

157. Gout — achieving the management goal

with the combination of an oral NSAID plus an oral corticosteroid due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcer or bleeding. Colchicine adverse effects and interactions Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea are the most common adverse effects of colchicine. The frequency of adverse effects increases with higher doses or longer duration of use. Colchicine has the potential for many drug-drug (such as macrolide antibiotics, azole antifungals, statins, verapamil, or diltiazem) and drug-food interactions. ** Patients (...) between healthcare professionals and patients on what gout is and key elements of a healthy lifestyle for gout. The information presented here is not exhaustive of the subject matter. This aid is designed to complement, but not replace, advice provided by a healthcare professional.) Excessive alcohol (especially beer and spirits) Low-fat dairy products Sugary drinks Vegetables Excessive high-purine foods, such as seafood or meat, including organ meats (the body converts purine into uric acid) Fluids

2020 Appropriate Care Guides, Agency for Care Effectiveness (Singapore)

158. Polatuzumab vedotin in combination with bendamustine and rituximab for the treatment of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who are not candidates for haematopoietic stem cell transplant

participating institutions, the European Commission and/or the Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency or any other body of the European Union. The European Commission and the Agency do not accept any responsibility for use that may be made of the information it contains. PTJA06 - Polatuzumab vedotin for relapsed/refractory DLBCL February 2020 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 3 Assessment team Author Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und (...) European Network for Health Technology Assessment FDA Food and Drug Administration HAS Haute Autorité de santé HR Hazard ratio HRQOL Health-related quality of life HTA Health technology assessment IPI International Prognostic Index IQWiG Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen) IRC Independent Review Committee ITT Intention-to-treat mAb Monoclonal antibody MAH Market authorisation holder MAIC Matching adjusted indirect

2020 EUnetHTA

159. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain

back pain. In total, 62 volunteers participated in this effort, including 11 stakeholder societies. Names of guideline panelists are listed on page 2 and dis- closures are listed in the Technical Report associated with this document. The stakeholder groups can also be found on page 3. NASS spearheaded this guideline effort by providing staff support and financial support, including liter- ature searches, full text articles, webinar/conference capabilities and food and beverage and facility fees

2020 North American Spine Society

160. From innovation to implementation: team science two years on

, such as how to combat antimicrobial resistance or food security, often requires a team based approach. Team science, defined as output-focused research involving two or more research groups, may involve a small number of teams where collaborations provide expertise in complementary specialisms, or major collaborations of thousands of researchers, scattered across the globe. Team science has dramatically increased within academic institutions in recent decades as the benefits of team working in research (...) to middle authors (often early career researchers) is challenging, likely due to their lack of interaction with submission systems. To encourage a positive shift in the upcoming generation of researchers, more should be done to encourage all researchers to register with ORCID and link their manuscript submissions to their ID. One step to support this would be the adoption of ORCID by employers instead of institution specific software currently used to record research outputs. • Funders, employers

2019 Academy of Medical Sciences

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