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Antibiotic Food Interactions

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81. Antibiotic misuse

representative livestock data for the key organisms under surveillance. “NARMS partners at CDC and USDA have published over 150 peer-reviewed research articles examining the nature and magnitude of antimicrobial resistance hazards associated with antibiotic use in food-producing animals.” In 2014, the FDA began working with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore additional mechanisms to obtain data that is representative (...) of antibiotic use in food-producing animals. In 2015, the FDA issues the (VFD) final rule. Under this rule veterinarians must authorize the use of antimicrobials within feed for the animals they serve. Instances of antibiotic misuse [ ] Health advocacy messages such as this one encourage patients to talk with their doctor about safety in using antibiotics. Common situations in which antibiotics are overused include the following: Apparent viral in children should not be treated with antibiotics

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2012 Wikipedia

82. Food irradiation

that irradiating food might lead to radiation-tolerant strains, similar to the way that strains of bacteria have developed to antibiotics. Bacteria develop a resistance to antibiotics after an individual uses antibiotics repeatedly. Much like pasteurization plants, products that pass through irradiation plants are processed once, and are not processed and reprocessed. Cycles of heat treatment have been shown to produce heat-tolerant bacteria, yet no problems have appeared so far in pasteurization plants (...) Food irradiation Food irradiation - Wikipedia Food irradiation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sterilization of food with ionizing radiations for enhanced preservation and longer shelflife irradiation facility is used to test irradiation as a tool to ensure food safety. The international logo, used to show a food has been treated with ionizing radiation. A portable, trailer-mounted food irradiation machine, circa 1968 Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging

2012 Wikipedia

83. Whole food supplements

or authorized for investigation as a new drug, antibiotic, or biologic, unless it was marketed as a food or a dietary supplement before such approval or authorization. Under DSHEA, dietary supplements are deemed to be food, except for purposes of the drug definition." Per DSHEA, dietary supplements are consumed orally, and are mainly defined by what they are not: conventional foods (including meal replacements), , or . Products intended for use as a nasal spray, or topically, as a lotion applied to the skin (...) are permitted. Foods with live microorganisms (yogurt, kefir) can be sold, but without claims. Probiotic supplements are generally regarded as safe. The greatest concern, evidenced by reviews reporting on case studies, is that for people with compromised gut wall integrity there may be a risk of systemic infection. For this reason, probiotic research is expected to exclude bacteria species that are antibiotic resistant. Industry In 2015, the American market for dietary supplements was valued at $37 billion

2012 Wikipedia

84. Preventing and Managing Infectious Diseases Among People who Inject Drugs in Ontario

infections without being addressed; • curable but long-term or hard-to-diagnose infections (e.g., hepatitis C); • chronic and incurable infections (e.g., HIV); and • life-threatening infections that require timely intervention with antibiotics or surgery (e.g., endocarditis, osteomyelitis and serious complications from invasive group A streptococcus). For example, HIV estimates in Canada have found that PWID are 59 times more likely to contract HIV than people who do not inject drugs. In 2014 (...) . estimating that approximately one-third of PWID are co-infected with HIV and either hepatitis B or C. Not only does co-infection place the individual at significantly higher risk for mortality and morbidity, it complicates the treatment of each infection, given the concern of medication interactions.(4) The risk of infection among PWID substantially increases through the sharing of syringes, with individuals placing themselves at risk of using dirty equipment as well as infections transmitted by blood

2019 McMaster Health Forum

85. Healthy beginnings: applying All Our Health

be recommended for around the first 6 months of life - with continued breastfeeding alongside solid foods for at least the first year of life improving breastfeeding rates in lower socioeconomic groups and young parents can play an important role in reducing health inequalities responsive feeding has benefits for mother and infant, including emotional attachment protection against the risk of respiratory infections, gastroenteritis and ear infections in breastfed infants improved oral health and reducing (...) . Emotional health and wellbeing The earliest experiences, starting in the womb, shape a baby’s brain development. During the first 2 years of life, the brain displays a remarkable capacity to absorb information and adapt to its surroundings. Positive early experiences can improve the child’s readiness to learn, school-readiness and longer-term life chances. Positive influences include: responsive parenting, and the quality of parent-child interaction socio-economic status and access to resources like

2019 Public Health England

86. Preparing Emerging Leaders for Alternative Futures in Health Systems Across Canada

climate change, its effect on resource availability, and weather-related morbidity and mortality, o pollution and toxicity in the air and its impacts on health, o population mortality and work days lost to communicable disease as well as antibiotic resistance o access to sanitary tools to prevent exposure to waste and ensuring water and food quality, notably in Indigenous communities; • political forces such as: o ability and willingness of political bodies and organizations that have been given (...) in their own care and in health systems decision-making; and 6) emerging leaders increasingly embrace and integrate new technologies (including advances in artificial intelligence, virtual care, and precision medicine) into the health system, changing who the system interacts with (e.g., types of patients) and the modes of these interactions. While we at the Forum continued to work on this evidence brief, in parallel the Health Leadership Academy developed three alternative futures intended to challenge

2019 McMaster Health Forum

87. AI in health and care: from bench to bedside

AND MECHANISMS 3 Improving diagnosis, treatment, and healthcare delivery Sepsis Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death across the world, and the main cause of mortality in hospitals. As disease progresses, it affects multiple organ systems, including cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, renal, haematological, intestinal and hepatic systems. Therapy for septic shock relies on the early administration of antibiotics, alongside support for the function of the aforementioned systems. This can include (...) respiratory interventions and oxygenation, monitoring of potassium levels in the kidneys, or cardiac interventions. Different treatment strategies may be necessary depending on disease progression, and treatment often needs to manage complex patterns of interactions between organs. T o help navigate this complexity, a US study has developed an ‘AI clinician’ – based on the analysis of 17,000 previous cases – to make recommendations about the optimal treatment strategies for sepsis patients in intensive

2019 Academy of Medical Sciences

88. Optimisation of RIZIV – INAMI lump sums for incontinence

therapeuthic chemical (classification) AUS Artificial urinary sphincter BAMS Bone anchored male sling BCFI-CBIP Belgisch Centrum voor Farmacotherapeutische Informatie – Le Centre Belge d’Information Pharmacothérapeutique BT Bladder training DDD Defined daily dosis EAS External anal sphincter muscle EPS Echantillon Permanent – Permanente Steekproef ER Extended release EStim Electrical stimulation FI Faecal incontinence FPS Public Health Federal Public Service for Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment (...) • Multifactorial incontinence: Complaint of involuntary loss of urine related to multiple interacting risk factors, including factors both within and outside the lower urinary tract such as comorbidity, medication, age- related physiological changes and environmental factors. Two types of continence problems that in the first place give cause to retention of urine (bladder is full and can’t be emptied) and in a second instance can cause incontinence are: • Urinary retention results from a blockage

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

89. Diagnosis and management of gonorrhoea and syphilis

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control EIA Enzyme immunoassays EMA European Medicines Agency EUCAST European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing FDA US Food and Drug Administration FP False positive FN False negative FTA-ABS Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test GDG Guideline development group 12 Diagnosis and management of gonorrhoea and syphilis KCE Report 310 GRADE Grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IM (...) – Conclusions and recommendations from guidelines – Referral 166 Table 59 – STI consultation tool: overview of international and national guidance documents 169 Table 60 – An STI consultation tool: proposed structure 170 KCE Report 310 Diagnosis and management of gonorrhoea and syphilis 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATION DEFINITION AGREE Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation AMR Antimicrobial resistance BAPCOC Belgian Antibiotic Policy Coordination Committee BCFI – CBIP Belgisch Centrum voor

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

90. Recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: AUA/CUA/SUFU

seeking prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the operative or procedural setting. In this document, the term UTI will refer to acute bacterial cystitis unless otherwise specified. This document seeks to establish guidance for the evaluation and management of patients with rUTIs to prevent inappropriate use of antibiotics, decrease the risk of antibiotic resistance, reduce adverse effects of antibiotic use, provide guidance on antibiotic and non-antibiotic strategies for prevention (...) : Grade C) 8. Clinicians should not treat ASB in patients. (Strong Recommendation; Evidence Level: Grade B) Antibiotic Treatment 9. Clinicians should use first-line therapy (i.e., nitrofurantoin, TMP-SMX, fosfomycin) dependent on the local antibiogram for the treatment of symptomatic UTIs in women. (Strong Recommendation; Evidence Level: Grade B) 10. Clinicians should treat rUTI patients experiencing acute cystitis episodes with as short a duration of antibiotics as reasonable, generally no longer

2019 Canadian Urological Association

91. Menopause

of previous fragility fracture. Other risk factors include alcohol abuse, immobility, hyperthyroidism and conditions associated with the poor absorption of food, such as coeliac disease. Young women (under the age of 40) experiencing menopause need particular advice about osteoporosis prevention and a baseline bone densitometry should be performed. Older women who had an untreated early menopause should also be assessed for risk of fracture. Testing for osteoporosis Testing for osteoporosis involves (...) -respected member of the family group, to whom younger family members frequently turn for advice. Loss of regular bleeding is beneficial for some Muslim women and Orthodox Jewish women, as they are no longer seen as ‘impure’ during menstruation and can enter the temple, handle and prepare food, or continue to have sexual intercourse throughout the month. Conversely, in some cultures the menopause is viewed negatively, as it signals the end of fertility and the loss of a woman’s ‘usefulness

2018 Royal College of Nursing

92. Review of effective strategies to promote breastfeeding

literature during a period of 10 years (2007–2017). The global public health recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) is that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health. Thereafter, to meet their evolving nutritional requirements, infants and young children should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods while breastfeeding continues until up to two years of age or beyond. 5 In Australia (...) , national dietary guidelines recommend that infants are exclusively breastfed until about six months of age, when solid foods are introduced, and that breastfeeding is continued until 12 months of age and beyond, for as long as the mother and child desire. 6 However, only about one in 10 Australian children are breastfed according to national dietary guidelines, and only about one in 20 meet WHO optimal breastfeeding recommendations. Virtually all children (92%– 96%) in Australia initiated breastfeeding

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

93. The Patient Centred Medical Home: barriers and enablers to implementation

(GPs). • Traditional payment policies (such as fee-for-service) may focus GPs/practices on activities that are not aligned with PCMH • Lack of financial incentives coupled with the cost of implementing PCMH may deter practices from pursuing it. • Consider payment models that move the focus away from specific service interactions to ones that focus on patient needs over time • Include additional incentives that focus on quality of care delivered • Explore models that allow primary care practices

2018 Sax Institute Evidence Check

94. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

to food outside the home, 13% to 16% was inherent to food, 4% to 9% was added in home food preparation, 3% to 8% was added at the table, and <1% was from dietary supplements and home tap water; amounts varied modestly by race/ethnicity. After a 1 peso per liter excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was implemented in Mexico in January 2014, SSB purchases were reduced by 5.5% after 1 year and 9.7% after 2 years compared with predicted SSB purchases based on pretax trends. The effect of the SSB (...) tax was greatest among households of the lowest socioeconomic status. A similar 1 cent per ounce excise tax on SSBs was implemented in Berkeley, California, in January 2015, and SSB sales declined by 9.6% after 1 year compared with predicted SSB purchases based on pretax trends. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package was revised in 2009 to include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lower-fat milk. These food package revisions were

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2019 American Heart Association

95. Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel

antibiotic by HIV specialists. Co-trimoxazole was showed to be effective in preventing bacterial infections despite widespread resistance (1). Some Travel medicine experts prefer azithromycin prophylaxis which is given daily for TD prevention. TD is an unlicenced but commonly utilized indication for azithromycin prophylaxis. Drug interactions with antiretrovirals should be checked, see www.hiv-druginteractions.org. For patients taking standby treatment or prophylaxis: • Advise to seek medical care (...) Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel 1 Guideline: Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel Authors: Natalie Prevatt Date of preparation: February 2017 Next review date: February 2019 Contents Summary 2 Introduction to the guideline 2 General travel health and safety advice for travel 2 Traveller’s diarrhoea: prevention and treatment 4 Malaria prevention 4 Personal protection 6 Chemoprophylaxis 6 Important interactions between antimalarials and ART 7

2018 The Children's HIV Association

96. Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy

during pregnancy and breastfeeding 3212 12.1 General principles 3212 12.1.1 Pharmacokinetics in pregnancy 3212 12.1.2 Drug classes in pregnancy 3213 12.2 US Food and Drug Administration classification 3214 12.3 Internet databases 3214 12.4 Pharmaceutical industry3214 12.5 Recommendations3214 13. Gaps in the evidence3231 14. Key messages3231 15. ‘What to do’ and ‘what not to do’ messages from the Guidelines3233 16. Appendix3236 References3237 List of tables Table . Classes of recommendation 3170 Table (...) Calcium channel blocker CI Confidence interval CO Cardiac output CoA Coarctation of the aorta CPG Committee for Practice Guidelines CT Computed tomography CVD Cardiovascular disease DBP Diastolic blood pressure DCM Dilated cardiomyopathy DES Drug-eluting stent DVT Deep vein/venous thrombosis ECG Electrocardiogram EF Ejection fraction ESC European Society of Cardiology FDA US Food and Drug Administration HCM Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy HF Heart failure HFrEF Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

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2018 European Society of Cardiology

97. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Infantile Hemangiomas

until 12 months of age (occasionally longer). Topical timolol may be used to treat select small, thin, superficial IHs. Surgery and/or laser treatment are most useful for the treatment of residual skin changes after involution and, less commonly, may be considered earlier to treat some IHs. Abbreviations: AAP — American Academy of Pediatrics AHRQ — Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality CPG — clinical practice guideline ECG — electrocardiography FDA — Food and Drug Administration IH — infantile (...) . Clinicians may also use telemedicine (either live interactive or store and forward of photographs taken in the office) to assist with triage, evaluation, and management. Key Action Statement 2A ( ) View this table: TABLE 8 Key Action Statement 2A: Clinicians should not perform imaging unless the diagnosis of IH is uncertain, there are 5 or more cutaneous IHs, or associated anatomic abnormalities are suspected (grade B, moderate recommendation). Clinicians should not perform imaging unless the diagnosis

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

98. 2018 Update on Diagnosis, Treatment, Chemoprophylaxis, and Institutional Outbreak Management of Seasonal Influenza

and circulatory deaths each year in the United States [9]. A recent modeling study estimated that 291243–645832 seasonal influenza–associated respiratory deaths occur annually worldwide [10]. Use of available diagnostic modalities and proper interpretation of results can accurately identify patients presenting with influenza. Timely diagnosis may decrease unnecessary laboratory testing for other etiologies and use of antibiotics, improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control measures (...) , obstetricians, emergency medicine providers, hospitalists, and infectious disease specialists. The guidelines may be also useful for occupational health physicians and clinicians working in long-term care facilities. It adds new information on diagnostic testing, use of antivirals, and considerations of when to use antibiotics and when to test for antiviral resistance, and presents evidence on harm associated with routine use of corticosteroids. The panel followed a process used in the development

2019 Infectious Diseases Society of America

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