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Antibiotic Chemotherapy

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1. Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. (PubMed)

Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. Febrile neutropenia (FN) and other infectious complications are some of the most serious treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy for cancer, with a mortality rate of 2% to 21%. The two main types of prophylactic regimens are granulocyte (macrophage) colony-stimulating factors (G(M)-CSF) and antibiotics, frequently quinolones (...) , MEDLINE, EMBASE, databases of ongoing trials, and conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Hematology (1980 to December 2015). We planned to include both full-text and abstract publications. Two review authors independently screened search results.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylaxis with G(M)-CSF versus antibiotics for the prevention of infection in cancer patients of all ages receiving chemotherapy. All study

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2015 Cochrane

2. Enhanced emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria after in vitro induction with cancer chemotherapy drugs. (PubMed)

Enhanced emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria after in vitro induction with cancer chemotherapy drugs. Infections with antibiotic-resistant pathogens in cancer patients are a leading cause of mortality. Cancer patients are treated with compounds that can damage bacterial DNA, potentially triggering the SOS response, which in turn enhances the bacterial mutation rate. Antibiotic resistance readily occurs after mutation of bacterial core genes. Thus, we tested whether cancer (...) to 57.72-fold; P = 0.016) and cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteria cloacae (up to 4.57-fold; P = 0.018).Our results suggest that chemotherapy could accelerate evolution of the microbiota and drive the emergence of antibiotic-resistant mutants from bacterial commensals in patients. This reveals an additional level of complexity of the interactions between cancer, chemotherapy and the gut microbiota.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society

2019 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

3. Pre- and post-operative antibiotics in conjunction with cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) should be considered for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) treatment. (PubMed)

Pre- and post-operative antibiotics in conjunction with cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) should be considered for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) treatment. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a subtype of peritoneal carcinomatosis that is traditionally treated by cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). A growing body of evidence suggests that microbes are associated with various tumor types and have been found (...) of antibiotics to current treatment protocols.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2019 European Journal of Surgical Oncology

4. Protocol for a systematic review of time to antibiotics (TTA) in patients with fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer (FN) and interventions aiming to reduce TTA. (PubMed)

Protocol for a systematic review of time to antibiotics (TTA) in patients with fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer (FN) and interventions aiming to reduce TTA. Fever and neutropenia (FN) is a common complication of chemotherapy for cancer. Prompt empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in FN is typically considered standard of care, but the definition of prompt is not clear. We seek to systematically review the available data on the association between time to antibiotics (...) (TTA) administration and clinical outcomes in patients with FN being treated with chemotherapy. There have been several efforts to reduce TTA in patients with FN, by implementing specific interventions, presuming there will be a beneficial effect on patient-important outcomes. This systematic review will also collect data on such interventions and their effect to reduce TTA and potentially change clinical outcomes.The search will cover MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations

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2019 Systematic reviews

5. Protection from chemotherapy- and antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis of the gut microbiota by a probiotic with digestive enzymes supplement (PubMed)

Protection from chemotherapy- and antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis of the gut microbiota by a probiotic with digestive enzymes supplement There are numerous downstream consequences of marketed drugs like antineoplastic agents on the gut microbiome, an effect that is suggested to contribute to adverse event profiles and may also influence drug responses. In cancer, progress is needed toward modulation of the host microbiome to prevent off-target side effects of drugs such as gastrointestinal (...) mucositis that result from gut dysbiosis. The objective of this study was evaluation of the bioactivity of a supplement consisting of capsules with a blend of 9 probiotic organisms of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium plus 10 digestive enzymes, in protecting the human gastrointestinal tract from chemotherapy and an antibiotic. We used the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) model, an in vitro model of a stable colon microbiota, and introduced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU

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2018 Oncotarget

6. Fecal microbiota transplantation reverses antibiotic and chemotherapy-induced gut dysbiosis in mice (PubMed)

Fecal microbiota transplantation reverses antibiotic and chemotherapy-induced gut dysbiosis in mice Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is now widely used to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but has been less studied as a means to restore microbiome diversity and composition following antibiotic or chemotherapy treatments. The purpose of our study was to assess the efficacy of FMT to reverse antibiotic- and chemotherapy-induced gut dysbiosis in a mouse model. C57BL/6J mice (...) were treated with ampicillin for 1 week and/or received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5-Fluorouracil. Fresh stool was collected and analyzed using shotgun metagenomics and the Illumina sequencing platform. Ampicillin caused a significant and immediate decrease in bacterial species richness and diversity that persisted for one week. In mice that received FMT, disruption of the intestinal microbiota was reversed immediately. Antibiotic and chemotherapy administration caused significant

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2018 Scientific reports

7. Antibiotic selection in the treatment of acute invasive infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Guidelines by the Spanish Society of Chemotherapy (PubMed)

Antibiotic selection in the treatment of acute invasive infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Guidelines by the Spanish Society of Chemotherapy Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by a notable intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, mainly mediated by the expression of inducible chromosomic β-lactamases and the production of constitutive or inducible efflux pumps. Apart from this intrinsic resistance, P. aeruginosa possess an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to nearly all available (...) antimicrobials through selection of mutations. The progressive increase in resistance rates in P. aeruginosa has led to the emergence of strains which, based on their degree of resistance to common antibiotics, have been defined as multidrug resistant, extended-resistant and panresistant strains. These strains are increasingly disseminated worldwide, progressively complicating the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. In this scenario, the objective of the present guidelines was to review and update

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2018 Revista Española de Quimioterapia

10. Ultrasonography‐driven combination antibiotic therapy with tigecycline significantly increases survival among patients with neutropenic enterocolitis following cytarabine‐containing chemotherapy for the remission induction of acute myeloid leukemia (PubMed)

Ultrasonography‐driven combination antibiotic therapy with tigecycline significantly increases survival among patients with neutropenic enterocolitis following cytarabine‐containing chemotherapy for the remission induction of acute myeloid leukemia Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is an abdominal infection reported primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following chemotherapy, especially cytarabine, a notable efficacious cytotoxic agent for AML remission. Specific data (...) of intestinal mural thickening) of NEC therapy with antibiotic combinations including tigecycline were significantly associated with low mortality. In multivariate analysis, high-dose cytarabine-containing chemotherapy was the independent predictor of poor outcome (odds ratio [OR]: 0.109; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.032-0.364; P < 0.001), whereas ultrasonography-driven NEC therapy with antibiotic regimens including tigecycline was associated with a favorable outcome (OR: 13.161; 95% CI: 1.587-109.17; P

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2017 Cancer medicine

11. Retrospective survey and evaluation of first-line antibiotics for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (PubMed)

Retrospective survey and evaluation of first-line antibiotics for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with acute myeloid leukemia Patients with acute leukemia are susceptible to chemotherapy-induced severe myelosuppression, and therefore are at a high risk for febrile neutropenia (FN). In such cases, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fourth-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems is recommended as first-line antimicrobial treatment; however, the effectiveness (...) of these agents in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been investigated in detail. We retrospectively examined and evaluated the effectiveness of first-line antibiotic treatment regimens for chemotherapy-induced FN in patients with AML in Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daiichi Hospital. The evaluated first-line treatment regimens were as follows: cefozopran (CZOP) + amikacin (AMK) in 38 cases, cefepime (CFPM) alone in 2 cases, CFPM + AMK in 2 cases, piperacillin (PIPC) + AMK in 2 cases, and CZOP

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2017 Nagoya Journal of Medical Science

12. Induction of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage by Antibiotic Drug Doxycycline Enhances the Responsiveness of Glioblastoma to Chemotherapy (PubMed)

Induction of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage by Antibiotic Drug Doxycycline Enhances the Responsiveness of Glioblastoma to Chemotherapy BACKGROUND Inducing mitochondrial dysfunction has been recently demonstrated to be an alternative therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Doxycycline is an antibiotic that has been shown to have anti-cancer activities in various cancers by way of targeting mitochondria. In this work, we examined whether doxycycline can be repurposed (...) ROS, 8-OHdG, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. An antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly abolished the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of doxycycline, demonstrating that doxycycline acts on glioblastoma via inducing oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS In our study, we show that the antibiotic doxycycline is effective in targeting glioblastoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress. Our work also demonstrated the importance of mitochondrial

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2017 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

13. Effect of Different Antibiotic Chemotherapies on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection In Vitro of Primary Human Corneal Fibroblast Cells (PubMed)

Effect of Different Antibiotic Chemotherapies on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection In Vitro of Primary Human Corneal Fibroblast Cells Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of bacterial keratitis (BK) worldwide. Inappropriate or non-optimal antibiotic chemotherapy can lead to corneal perforation and rapid sight loss. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 invades primary human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs) in vitro and persists intracellularly, despite chemotherapy (...) with antibiotics used commonly to treat BK. In rank order, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and polymyxin B showed the highest activity against planktonic PAO1 growth (100% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤1 μg/mL), followed by gentamicin and ofloxacin (100% inhibitory concentration ≤50 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL). These bactericidal antibiotics (50-200 μg/mL concentrations) all killed PAO1 in the extracellular environment of infected hCF monolayers. By contrast

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

14. Beta lactam antibiotic monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside antibiotic combination therapy for sepsis. (PubMed)

Beta lactam antibiotic monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside antibiotic combination therapy for sepsis. Optimal antibiotic treatment for sepsis is imperative. Combining a beta lactam antibiotic with an aminoglycoside antibiotic may provide certain advantages over beta lactam monotherapy.Our objectives were to compare beta lactam monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy in patients with sepsis and to estimate the rate of adverse effects with each treatment (...) regimen, including the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.In this updated review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 11); MEDLINE (1966 to 4 November 2013); EMBASE (1980 to November 2013); LILACS (1982 to November 2013); and conference proceedings of the Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1995 to 2013). We scanned citations of all identified studies and contacted all corresponding authors. In our previous

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2014 Cochrane

15. Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics?

Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics? 1 Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics? Technical Report Prepared for National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Submitted by University of South Australia Division of Health Sciences Submission date 24th April 2017 2 Contents Page 1. Review Team and Background…………………………..…………………………….….3 2. Methods (...) in ‘chlorhexidine resistance’ within different healthcare settings? 2. Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increase the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? Table 1: PICOS overview Question 1 Population and setting Intervention Outcome Types of studies Qu 1 All patients (isolates) / participants (isolates) including children and adults in different

2018 National Health and Medical Research Council

16. The Collaborative Assessment, OTCA12, on “C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)

The Collaborative Assessment, OTCA12, on “C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) Dec2015 © EUnetHTA, 2015. Reproduction is authorised provided EUnetHTA is explicitly acknowledged 1 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 Version 1.4, +31 January 2019] Rapid assessment of other technologies using the HTA Core Model ® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment C-REACTIVE PROTEIN POINT-OF-CARE (...) TESTING (CRP POCT) TO GUIDE ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIBING IN PRIMARY CARE SETTINGS FOR ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS (RTIS) Project ID: OTCA012 C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in primary care EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 2 DOCUMENT HISTORY AND CONTRIBUTORS Version Date Description V1.0 26/10/2018 First draft. V1.1 03/12/2018 Input from co-author has been processed. V1.2 03/12/2018 Input from dedicated reviewers has been

2019 EUnetHTA

17. HTA of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing

HTA of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority i Health Technology Assessment of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in primary care settings April 2019 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority ii Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health (...) a range of health services, in conjunction with the Department of Health and the HSE. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority iv Foreword Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria adapt in response to the use of medicines. When bacteria become antibiotic resistant, infections become more difficult to manage and treat. Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to public health, and widely acknowledged to be associated with the excessive

2019 Health Information and Quality Authority

18. Antibiotic Chemotherapy

Antibiotic Chemotherapy Antibiotic Chemotherapy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Antibiotic Chemotherapy Antibiotic (...) Chemotherapy Aka: Antibiotic Chemotherapy From Related Chapters II. Agents Anthracyclines Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) Daunorubicin (Cerubidine) Dactinomycin (Actinomycin D, Cosmegen) Plicamycin (Mithramycin) Mitomycin (Mitomycin C, Mitocin-C, Mutamycin) Bleomycin Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Antibiotic Chemotherapy." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies

2018 FP Notebook

19. Dental Management of Pediatric Patients Receiving Chemotherapy, Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, and/or Radiation Therapy

Dental Management of Pediatric Patients Receiving Chemotherapy, Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, and/or Radiation Therapy 392 RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES REFERENCE MANUAL V 40 / NO 6 18 / 19 Purpose The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recognizes that the pediatric dental professional plays an im- portant role in the diagnosis, prevention, stabilization, and treatment of oral and dental problems that can compromise the child’s quality of life before, during, and after (...) immuno- suppressive therapy which lowers the body’s normal immune response. This can be deliberate as in lowering the immune response to prevent the rejection of an organ or hematopoietic cell transplant* (HCT), or it can be incidental as in a side effect of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or HCT conditioning. Dental intervention with certain modifications must be done promptly and efficiently, with attention to the patient’s medical history, treatment protocol, and health status. Immunosuppressive

2018 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

20. Impact of selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results on the appropriateness of antibiotics chosen by French general practitioners in urinary tract infections: a randomised controlled case-vignette study. (PubMed)

%, depending on the clinical vignette. Most (106/131, 81.0%) participants favoured the routine use of selective reporting of AST results. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results seems to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in primary care, and may be considered a key element of antimicrobial stewardship programmes.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. (...) Impact of selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results on the appropriateness of antibiotics chosen by French general practitioners in urinary tract infections: a randomised controlled case-vignette study. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general

2018 International journal of antimicrobial agents

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