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Anti-Retroviral Therapy

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121. Intestinal Parasitosis in Relation to Anti-Retroviral Therapy, CD4+ T-cell Count and Diarrhea in HIV Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intestinal Parasitosis in Relation to Anti-Retroviral Therapy, CD4+ T-cell Count and Diarrhea in HIV Patients Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the major causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of many opportunistic infections, but parasite-related diarrhea still remains frequent and often underestimated especially in developing countries. The present hospital-based study was conducted

2015 The Korean journal of parasitology

122. Comparison of anti-retroviral therapy treatment strategies in prevention of mother-to-child transmission in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of anti-retroviral therapy treatment strategies in prevention of mother-to-child transmission in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia More than 90% of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is acquired due to mother-to-child transmission, which is spreading during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding.To determine the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral and short course antiretroviral regimens in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated (...) factors Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH).A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV infected pregnant mothers who gave birth and had follow up at anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic for at least 6 months during a time period paired with their infants. The primary and secondary outcomes were rate of infant infection by HIV at 6 weeks and 6 months respectively. The Chi-square was used for the comparison of categorical data multivariate logistic regression model

2015 Pharmacy Practice

123. Retention in HIV Care and Predictors of Attrition from Care among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa Full Text available with Trip Pro

Retention in HIV Care and Predictors of Attrition from Care among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa Patient retention in chronic HIV care is a major challenge following the rapid expansion of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Ethiopia.To describe the proportion of patients who are retained in HIV care and characterize predictors of attrition among HIV-infected adults receiving cART in Addis Ababa.A retrospective analysis was conducted (...) on individual patient data from the medical records, nearly 80% (95%CI: 76.7, 82.1) of the patients were retained in care in the first 3 and half years of antiretroviral therapy. After successfully tracing more than half of the LTFU patients, the updated one year retention in care estimate became 86% (95% CI: 83.41%, 88.17%). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, severe immune deficiency at enrolment in care/or at cART initiation and 'bed-ridden' or 'ambulatory' functional status at the start of cART

2015 PloS one Controlled trial quality: uncertain

124. HIV-free survival according to the early infant-feeding practices; a retrospective study in an anti-retroviral therapy programme in Makurdi, Nigeria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

HIV-free survival according to the early infant-feeding practices; a retrospective study in an anti-retroviral therapy programme in Makurdi, Nigeria. In Nigeria, reports of the outcomes of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions had been limited to the MTCT rates of HIV, with no information on HIV-free survival (HFS) in the HIV-exposed infants over time.A retrospective study between June 2008 and December 2011 at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria

2015 BMC Infectious Diseases

125. Idiopathic Esophageal Ulcers in AIDS Completely Healed With Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Idiopathic Esophageal Ulcers in AIDS Completely Healed With Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy 26157937 2015 07 09 2019 02 26 2326-3253 2 3 2015 Apr ACG case reports journal ACG Case Rep J Idiopathic Esophageal Ulcers in AIDS Completely Healed With Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy. 127-8 10.14309/crj.2015.28 Bromberg David J DJ Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL. Gill Jeffrey A JA Department of Gastroenterology, Division

2015 ACG case reports journal

126. Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal Little evidence exists on the connections between nutrition, diet intake, and quality of life (QoL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV). The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition among PLHIV in Nepal, and identify risk factors and assess correlations with PLHIVs' QoL and nutritional status.This quantitative cross (...) -sectional study used Body Mass Index (BMI) as an indicator for nutritional status, and additional information on opportunistic infections (OIs), CD4 count, and World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging was collected from medical records. Participants were asked to complete surveys on food security and QoL. Descriptive analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of under nutrition. To assess associations between nutrition status and independent variables, bivariate and multivariate analysis

2015 AIDS research and therapy

127. Prevalence and correlates of anemia among HIV infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Ethiopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence and correlates of anemia among HIV infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Ethiopia. Ethiopia is one of the most seriously HIV affected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Anemia is a known predictor of disease progression and death among HIV infected patients. In this study, we investigated the magnitude and correlates of anemia among HIV infected patients receiving HAART at a referral hospital in Ethiopia.A retrospective cohort study

2015 BMC Hematology

128. Safety of discontinuing Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among HIV infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy in Uganda (COSTOP Trial): Design. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Safety of discontinuing Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among HIV infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy in Uganda (COSTOP Trial): Design. Cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis is recommended by the World Health Organisation for HIV infected persons. However, once HIV infected patients have commenced ART in resource limited settings, the benefits of continued CTX prophylaxis are not known. The few studies that investigated the safety of discontinuing CTX prophylaxis in these settings had limitations (...) due to their design.COSTOP is a randomised double blind placebo controlled non-inferiority trial among HIV infected Ugandan adults stabilised on anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Participants with CD4 count of 250 or more cells/mm(3) are randomised to two arms: the intervention arm in which CTX is discontinued and the control arm in which CTX prophylaxis is continued. The study aims to assess whether the intervention regimen is not inferior, with respect to the incidence of pre-defined CTX

2015 Contemporary clinical trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

129. Clinical utility of HCV core antigen detection and quantification using serum samples and dried blood spots in people who inject drugs in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(Architect assay; Abbott Diagnostics, Chicago, IL, USA).Out of 153 HCV-seropositive individuals, 65 (42.5%) and 15 (9.8%) were co-infected with HIV (41 (63%) were on anti-retroviral therapy (ARVs)) and hepatitis B respectively. In total, 116 were viraemic, median viral load of 5.7 (Interquartile range (IQR); 4.0-6.3) log iU/ml (75 (68.2%) were genotype 1a, 35 (31.8%) genotype 4a). The median alanine transaminase (ALT) (iU/l), aspartate transaminase (AST) (iU/l) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (iU/l (...) Clinical utility of HCV core antigen detection and quantification using serum samples and dried blood spots in people who inject drugs in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A lack of access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnostics is a significant barrier to achieving the World Health Organization 2030 global elimination goal. HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) quantification and dried blood spot (DBS) are appealing alternatives to conventional HCV serology and nucleic acid testing (NAT) for resource-constraint

2017 Journal of the International AIDS Society

130. Nevirapine- versus Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy regimens in antiretroviral-naive patients with HIV and Tuberculosis infections in India: a multi-centre study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nevirapine- versus Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy regimens in antiretroviral-naive patients with HIV and Tuberculosis infections in India: a multi-centre study. According to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which have also been adopted by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), India, Efavirenz-based Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) is better in Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus (HIV)-infected patients who are also being treated with Rifampicin-based Anti-Tuberculous Therapy (...) (ATT). However, Efavirenz is much more expensive. We hypothesize that Nevirapine is a cheaper alternative that possesses equal efficacy as Efavirenz in HIV-Tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients.A parallel open-label randomized clinical trial was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi and National AIDS Research Institute (NARI), Pune. Those who were ART-naïve and co-infected with TB were randomized to receive either Nevirapine (Group 1)- or Efavirenz (Group 2)-based

2017 BMC Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

131. The impact of antiretroviral therapy on symptom burden among HIV outpatients with low CD4 count in rural Uganda: nested longitudinal cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The impact of antiretroviral therapy on symptom burden among HIV outpatients with low CD4 count in rural Uganda: nested longitudinal cohort study. Individuals with HIV have a high prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms throughout their disease course. Despite the clinical and public health implications of unresolved pain and symptoms, little is known about the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact on symptom burden

2017 BMC Palliative Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

132. Dual Therapy Etravirine + Raltegravir by Once Daily in HIV-positive Patients (ETRAL QD)

: December 12, 2017 Last Update Posted : August 21, 2018 See Sponsor: Centre de Recherches et d'Etude sur la Pathologie Tropicale et le Sida Information provided by (Responsible Party): Centre de Recherches et d'Etude sur la Pathologie Tropicale et le Sida Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Efficacy of etravirin + raltegravir dual therapy was showed in the ANRS 153 ETRAL protocol, in HIV-1 seropositive patients. The use of these two drugs avoids the use of nucleoside reverse (...) : Layout table for MeSH terms HIV Infections Lentivirus Infections Retroviridae Infections RNA Virus Infections Virus Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral Sexually Transmitted Diseases Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes Immune System Diseases Raltegravir Potassium Etravirine Anti-HIV Agents Anti-Retroviral Agents Antiviral Agents Anti-Infective Agents HIV Integrase Inhibitors Integrase Inhibitors Enzyme Inhibitors Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

2017 Clinical Trials

133. Optimizing the Efficiency and Implementation of Cash Transfers to Improve Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

to Layout table for additonal information Responsible Party: Sandra McCoy, PI, University of California, Berkeley ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: First Posted: November 24, 2017 Last Update Posted: May 2, 2018 Last Verified: April 2018 Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Anti-Retroviral Agents Antiviral Agents Anti-Infective (...) that there are two cash value arms. Primary Purpose: Health Services Research Official Title: Optimizing the Efficiency and Implementation of Cash Transfers to Improve Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Actual Study Start Date : April 24, 2018 Estimated Primary Completion Date : February 28, 2019 Estimated Study Completion Date : July 30, 2019 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment No Intervention: Comparison Arm

2017 Clinical Trials

134. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence as a Function of Regimen Simplification Full Text available with Trip Pro

Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence as a Function of Regimen Simplification Barriers to HIV medication adherence may differ by levels of dosing schedules.The current study examined adherence barriers associated with medication regimen complexity and simplification.A total of 755 people living with HIV currently taking anti-retroviral therapy were recruited from community services in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants completed audio-computer-assisted self-interviews that assessed demographic (...) and behavioral characteristics, provided their HIV viral load obtained from their health care provider, and completed unannounced phone-based pill counts to monitor medication adherence over 1 month.Participants taking a single-tablet regimen (STR) were more likely to be adherent than those taking multi-tablets in a single-dose regimen (single-dose MTR) and those taking multi-tablets in a multi-dose regimen (multi-dose MTR), with no difference between the latter two. Regarding barriers to adherence

2017 Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine

135. Genetic Modulation Therapy Through Stem Cell Transplantation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic Modulation Therapy Through Stem Cell Transplantation for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic

2017 Cureus

136. EARLY ANTIBODY THERAPY CAN INDUCE LONG LASTING IMMUNITY TO SHIV Full Text available with Trip Pro

to a specific decline in levels of CD8+ T cells and the rapid reappearance of plasma viraemia. In contrast, macaques treated for 15 weeks with combination anti-retroviral therapy, beginning on day 3 after infection, experienced sustained rebound plasma viraemia when treatment was interrupted. Our results show that passive immunotherapy during acute SHIV infection differs from combination anti-retroviral therapy in that it facilitates the emergence of potent CD8+ T-cell immunity able to durably suppress (...) EARLY ANTIBODY THERAPY CAN INDUCE LONG LASTING IMMUNITY TO SHIV Highly potent and broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) have been used to prevent and treat lentivirus infections in humanized mice, macaques, and humans. In immunotherapy experiments, administration of bNAbs to chronically infected animals transiently suppresses virus replication, which invariably returns to pre-treatment levels and results in progression to clinical disease. Here we show that early administration

2017 Nature

137. Compartment-specific distribution of human intestinal innate lymphoid cells is altered in HIV patients under effective therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

translocation, respectively. Both expression of the IL-7 receptor CD127 on ILCs as well as mucosal IL-7 mRNA levels were decreased in HIV(+) patients, especially in those parts of the GI tract with reduced ILC frequencies, suggesting that impaired IL-7 responses of ILCs might contribute to incomplete reconstitution of ILCs under effective anti-retroviral therapy. This is the first report comparing distribution and function of ILCs along the intestinal mucosa of the entire human gastrointestinal tract in HIV (...) Compartment-specific distribution of human intestinal innate lymphoid cells is altered in HIV patients under effective therapy Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs), a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa

2017 PLoS pathogens

138. Using Technology to Improve Adherence to HIV Medications in Transitional Age Youth: Research Reviewed, Methods Tried, Lessons Learned Full Text available with Trip Pro

Using Technology to Improve Adherence to HIV Medications in Transitional Age Youth: Research Reviewed, Methods Tried, Lessons Learned In transitional age youth living with HIV or AIDS, non-adherence (<80%) to anti-retroviral medication is associated with viral resistance, disease progression, and an increased risk of death. This feasibility study investigated the Maya MedMinder electronic pillbox and cell phone texting with personalized motivational interviewing strategies to improve medication (...) adherence in non-adherent youth. Twenty patients out of 30 identified as non-adherent by the Pediatric HIV team at the Medical University of South Carolina were approached, and 15 were recruited (Ages 12 to 20; 13.3% male, 86.7% female; 100% African-American). Following baseline MedMinder monitoring, subjects were randomized to intervention groups with reminder signals on or off. The time medications were taken was collected by the MedMinder, resulting in adherence scores. All were interviewed

2017 Journal of general medicine (Dover, Del.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

139. Early virological failure and HIV drug resistance in Ugandan adults co-infected with tuberculosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Genotypic resistance testing was available for 16/22 (72.7%) patients, of which 15 (93.8%) had at least one major mutation, most commonly M184V (81.2%) and K103NS (68.8%).We found a high proportion of TB/HIV co-infected patients with virological failure, the majority of which had developed relevant resistance-mutations after a median time on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of 6 months. Virological monitoring should be prioritized in TB/HIV co-infected patients in resource-limited settings. (...) Early virological failure and HIV drug resistance in Ugandan adults co-infected with tuberculosis This cross-sectional study took place in the integrated tuberculosis (TB) clinic of a large outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of TB/HIV co-infected adults with virological failure, type and frequency of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, and the proportion of patients with suboptimal efavirenz levels.HIV-1

2017 AIDS research and therapy

140. Decreasing prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Iceland, 1996–2012 Full Text available with Trip Pro

(n=1, 0.9%) and L90M (n=1, 0.9%). Six patients harbouring T215C/D, were linked in a supported phylogenetic cluster. No significant association was found between TDR and demographic or risk groups. Trend analysis showed a decrease in the prevalence of TDR (1996-2012, p=0.003). Conclusions: TDR prevalence in Iceland was at a moderate level and decreased during 1996-2012. Screening for TDR is recommended to limit its local spread and to optimize HIV-1 therapy. Abbreviations: ART: Anti-retroviral (...) Decreasing prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Iceland, 1996–2012 Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using

2017 Infection ecology & epidemiology

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