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Anti-Retroviral Therapy

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121. Efficacy of anti-IL-23 monotherapy versus combination therapy with anti-IL-17 in estrogen deficiency induced bone loss conditions. (PubMed)

Efficacy of anti-IL-23 monotherapy versus combination therapy with anti-IL-17 in estrogen deficiency induced bone loss conditions. Recent studies have identified that Interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in pathogenesis of inflammation and bone destruction. IL-23 is thought to promote joint destruction in arthritis by stimulating Th17 cells. IL-23 directly mediates bone loss by inducing osteoclastogenesis and receptor activator of kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression in T cells. IL-23 (...) and its combination with anti-IL-17 suppressed Th17 cell differentiation and promoted development of T regulatory cells. Anti-IL-23 and its combination with anti-IL-17 prevented bone loss. However, the individual monotherapies of anti-IL-23 and anti-IL-17 were more effective than combination therapy. Treatment of IL-17 and IL-23 cytokines to bone marrow stromal cells led to increased differentiation towards osteoblast lineage. Double neutralization of IL-23 and IL-17 might be inhibiting

2018 Bone

122. Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy in Cancer—Alterations to Anti-VEGF Pathway (PubMed)

Resistance to Anti-Angiogenic Therapy in Cancer—Alterations to Anti-VEGF Pathway Anti-angiogenic therapy is one of the promising strategies for many types of solid cancers. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, was approved for the first time as an anti-angiogenic drug for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004. In addition, the other VEGF pathway (...) inhibitors including small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib), a soluble VEGF decoy receptor (aflibercept), and a humanized monoclonal antibody of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) (ramucirumab) have been approved for cancer therapy. Although many types of VEGF pathway inhibitors can improve survival in most cancer patients, some patients have little or no beneficial effect from them. The primary or acquired resistance towards many oncological drugs, including anti-VEGF

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2018 International journal of molecular sciences

123. Anti-Inflammatory Biologics and Anti-Tumoral Immune Therapies-Associated Colitis: A Focused Review of Literature (PubMed)

Anti-Inflammatory Biologics and Anti-Tumoral Immune Therapies-Associated Colitis: A Focused Review of Literature An increasing number of drugs including monoclonal antibodies and small molecules, either anti-inflammatory or immunity-enhancing, have been developed to treat human diseases and the number of medications in these classes is likely to expand in the future. The two most commonly used categories of such therapies are the anti-inflammatory group (anti- tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α (...) biologics or anti-tumoral agents can be broad. Optimal diagnosis and treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to provide an overview of the literature on the clinical features, histology, and treatment of these newly recognized anti-inflammatory biologic and anti-tumoral immune therapy-induced colitises and hopes this outlines will raise the vigilance of all clinicians of these entities.

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2018 Gastroenterology research

124. Anti-PD-1 and Anti-CTLA-4 Therapies in Cancer: Mechanisms of Action, Efficacy, and Limitations (PubMed)

Anti-PD-1 and Anti-CTLA-4 Therapies in Cancer: Mechanisms of Action, Efficacy, and Limitations Melanoma, a skin cancer associated with high mortality rates, is highly radio- and chemotherapy resistant but can also be very immunogenic. These circumstances have led to a recent surge in research into therapies aiming to boost anti-tumor immune responses in cancer patients. Among these immunotherapies, neutralizing antibodies targeting the immune checkpoints T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA (...) -4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are being hailed as particularly successful. These antibodies have resulted in dramatic improvements in disease outcome and are now clinically approved in many countries. However, the majority of advanced stage melanoma patients do not respond or will relapse, and the hunt for the "magic bullet" to treat the disease continues. This review examines the mechanisms of action and the limitations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies which

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2018 Frontiers in oncology

125. Comparative anti-fracture effectiveness of different oral anti-osteoporosis therapies based on “real-world” data: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database (PubMed)

Comparative anti-fracture effectiveness of different oral anti-osteoporosis therapies based on “real-world” data: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database This paper aims to compare the clinical effectiveness of oral anti-osteoporosis drugs based on the observed risk of fracture while on treatment in primary care actual practice.We investigated two primary care records databases covering UK National (...) Health Service (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, CPRD) and Catalan healthcare (Information System for Research in Primary Care, SIDIAP) patients during 1995-2014 and 2006-2014, respectivey. Treatment-naive incident users of anti-osteoporosis drugs were included and followed until treatment cessation, switching, death, transfer out, or study completion. We considered hip fracture while on treatment as main outcome and major osteoporotic fractures (hip, clinical spine, wrist, and proximal humerus

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2018 Clinical epidemiology

126. Polyfunctional anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (anti-HER3) antibodies induced by HER3 vaccines have multiple mechanisms of antitumor activity against therapy resistant and triple negative breast cancers. (PubMed)

Polyfunctional anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (anti-HER3) antibodies induced by HER3 vaccines have multiple mechanisms of antitumor activity against therapy resistant and triple negative breast cancers. Upregulation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is a major mechanism of acquired resistance to therapies targeting its heterodimerization partners epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but also exposes HER3 (...) -dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays and for its effect on HER3 internalization and degradation, downstream signaling of HER3 heterodimers and growth of metastatic HER2+ (BT474M1), HER2 therapy-resistant (rBT474), and triple negative (MDA-MB-468) breast cancers.HER3-VIAs mediated CDC and ADCC, HER3 internalization, interruption of HER3 heterodimer-driven tumor signaling pathways, and anti-proliferative effects against HER2+ tumor cells in vitro and significant antitumor effects against

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2018 Breast cancer research : BCR

127. Anti-VEGF Monotherapy Versus Photodynamic Therapy and Anti-VEGF Combination Treatment for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis. (PubMed)

Anti-VEGF Monotherapy Versus Photodynamic Therapy and Anti-VEGF Combination Treatment for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of anti-VEGF monotherapy with verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-VEGF combination treatment in neovascular AMD.This study used a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.We included a total of 16 studies that included 587 patients in the monotherapy group and 673 (...) in the combination treatment group. There was no statistical difference between best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) at end of the study and the proportions of patients who gained ≥15 BCVA letters between the two treatment groups. Nevertheless, combination therapy required fewer anti-VEGF injections than monotherapy. Subgroup analyses showed that CRT at end of the study was thinner in the standard-fluence (SF) PDT combination therapy group than in the monotherapy group

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

128. Pre- and post-operative anti-PD-L1 plus anti-angiogenic therapies in mouse breast or renal cancer models of micro- or macro-metastatic disease. (PubMed)

Pre- and post-operative anti-PD-L1 plus anti-angiogenic therapies in mouse breast or renal cancer models of micro- or macro-metastatic disease. There are phase 3 clinical trials underway evaluating anti-PD-L1 antibodies as adjuvant (postoperative) monotherapies for resectable renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); in combination with antiangiogenic VEGF/VEGFR2 inhibitors (e.g., bevacizumab and sunitinib) for metastatic RCC; and in combination with chemotherapeutics (...) as neoadjuvant (preoperative) therapies for resectable TNBC.This study investigated these and similar clinically relevant drug combinations in highly translational preclinical models of micro- and macro-metastatic disease that spontaneously develop after surgical resection of primary kidney or breast tumours derived from orthotopic implantation of murine cancer cell lines (RENCAluc or EMT-6/CDDP, respectively).In the RENCAluc model, adjuvant sunitinib plus anti-PD-L1 improved overall survival compared

2018 British Journal of Cancer

129. Outcomes of Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Nurse-Led Clinics in Rural Lesotho. (PubMed)

Outcomes of Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Nurse-Led Clinics in Rural Lesotho. This survey assessed virologic outcomes of children on antiretroviral therapy and potential predictors in 10 nurse-led clinics in Lesotho. Viral suppression was achieved in 72% of the 191 children. No predictors for virologic outcome were found, underlining the need for routine viral load testing in resource-limited settings to achieve 90-90-90.

2015 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

130. Lipid levels in HIV-positive men receiving anti-retroviral therapy are not associated with copy number variation of reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes (PubMed)

Lipid levels in HIV-positive men receiving anti-retroviral therapy are not associated with copy number variation of reverse cholesterol transport pathway genes The exacerbation of HIV-1 associated dyslipidemia seen in a subset of patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy suggests that genetic factors put these individuals at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes of and influencing the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway (...) are associated with lipid levels but little is known regarding their copy number variation (CNV). This form of quantitative genetic variation has the potential to alter the amount of gene product made, thereby also influencing lipid metabolism.To examine if CNV in RCT pathway genes was associated with altered serum lipid profiles in HIV-positive individuals receiving therapy, we designed a custom multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay to screen 16 RCT genes within a subset of individuals from

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2015 BMC research notes

131. Intestinal Parasitosis in Relation to Anti-Retroviral Therapy, CD4+ T-cell Count and Diarrhea in HIV Patients (PubMed)

Intestinal Parasitosis in Relation to Anti-Retroviral Therapy, CD4+ T-cell Count and Diarrhea in HIV Patients Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the major causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of many opportunistic infections, but parasite-related diarrhea still remains frequent and often underestimated especially in developing countries. The present hospital-based study was conducted

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2015 The Korean journal of parasitology

132. Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal (PubMed)

Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal Little evidence exists on the connections between nutrition, diet intake, and quality of life (QoL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV). The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition among PLHIV in Nepal, and identify risk factors and assess correlations with PLHIVs' QoL and nutritional status.This quantitative cross

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2015 AIDS research and therapy

133. Idiopathic Esophageal Ulcers in AIDS Completely Healed With Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (PubMed)

Idiopathic Esophageal Ulcers in AIDS Completely Healed With Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy 26157937 2015 07 09 2019 02 26 2326-3253 2 3 2015 Apr ACG case reports journal ACG Case Rep J Idiopathic Esophageal Ulcers in AIDS Completely Healed With Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy. 127-8 10.14309/crj.2015.28 Bromberg David J DJ Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL. Gill Jeffrey A JA Department of Gastroenterology, Division

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2015 ACG case reports journal

134. Comparison of anti-retroviral therapy treatment strategies in prevention of mother-to-child transmission in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia (PubMed)

Comparison of anti-retroviral therapy treatment strategies in prevention of mother-to-child transmission in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia More than 90% of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is acquired due to mother-to-child transmission, which is spreading during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding.To determine the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral and short course antiretroviral regimens in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated (...) factors Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH).A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV infected pregnant mothers who gave birth and had follow up at anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic for at least 6 months during a time period paired with their infants. The primary and secondary outcomes were rate of infant infection by HIV at 6 weeks and 6 months respectively. The Chi-square was used for the comparison of categorical data multivariate logistic regression model

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2015 Pharmacy Practice

135. Prevalence and correlates of anemia among HIV infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Ethiopia. (PubMed)

Prevalence and correlates of anemia among HIV infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Ethiopia. Ethiopia is one of the most seriously HIV affected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Anemia is a known predictor of disease progression and death among HIV infected patients. In this study, we investigated the magnitude and correlates of anemia among HIV infected patients receiving HAART at a referral hospital in Ethiopia.A retrospective cohort study

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2015 BMC Hematology

136. Retention in HIV Care and Predictors of Attrition from Care among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa (PubMed)

Retention in HIV Care and Predictors of Attrition from Care among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa Patient retention in chronic HIV care is a major challenge following the rapid expansion of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Ethiopia.To describe the proportion of patients who are retained in HIV care and characterize predictors of attrition among HIV-infected adults receiving cART in Addis Ababa.A retrospective analysis was conducted (...) on individual patient data from the medical records, nearly 80% (95%CI: 76.7, 82.1) of the patients were retained in care in the first 3 and half years of antiretroviral therapy. After successfully tracing more than half of the LTFU patients, the updated one year retention in care estimate became 86% (95% CI: 83.41%, 88.17%). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, severe immune deficiency at enrolment in care/or at cART initiation and 'bed-ridden' or 'ambulatory' functional status at the start of cART

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2015 PloS one

137. HIV-free survival according to the early infant-feeding practices; a retrospective study in an anti-retroviral therapy programme in Makurdi, Nigeria. (PubMed)

HIV-free survival according to the early infant-feeding practices; a retrospective study in an anti-retroviral therapy programme in Makurdi, Nigeria. In Nigeria, reports of the outcomes of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions had been limited to the MTCT rates of HIV, with no information on HIV-free survival (HFS) in the HIV-exposed infants over time.A retrospective study between June 2008 and December 2011 at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria

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2015 BMC Infectious Diseases

138. Efficacy and biological safety of lopinavir/ritonavir based anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (PubMed)

Efficacy and biological safety of lopinavir/ritonavir based anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is the first ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitor used in second-line anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited regions. To evaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes of LPV/r in treatment-naïve and -experienced HIV-infected adults and pregnant women, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized

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2015 Scientific reports

139. Safety of discontinuing Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among HIV infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy in Uganda (COSTOP Trial): Design. (PubMed)

Safety of discontinuing Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among HIV infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy in Uganda (COSTOP Trial): Design. Cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis is recommended by the World Health Organisation for HIV infected persons. However, once HIV infected patients have commenced ART in resource limited settings, the benefits of continued CTX prophylaxis are not known. The few studies that investigated the safety of discontinuing CTX prophylaxis in these settings had limitations (...) due to their design.COSTOP is a randomised double blind placebo controlled non-inferiority trial among HIV infected Ugandan adults stabilised on anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Participants with CD4 count of 250 or more cells/mm(3) are randomised to two arms: the intervention arm in which CTX is discontinued and the control arm in which CTX prophylaxis is continued. The study aims to assess whether the intervention regimen is not inferior, with respect to the incidence of pre-defined CTX

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2015 Contemporary clinical trials

140. Electronic medication monitoring-informed counseling to improve adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy and virologic treatment outcomes: a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Electronic medication monitoring-informed counseling to improve adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy and virologic treatment outcomes: a meta-analysis. Adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infection is a primary determinant of treatment success, but is often suboptimal. Previous studies have suggested that electronic medication monitoring-informed counseling is among the most effective adherence intervention components. Our objective was to review available

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2015 Frontiers in public health

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