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antepartumdepression and antidepressant use were not significant predictors of infant sleep problems. Likewise, infant sleep problems were not significant predictors of postpartum maternal depression. However, maternal cognitions about infant sleep, characterised by maternal expectations to immediately attend to their crying child, did demonstrate positive reciprocal effects with infant nocturnal waking between six and 12 months postpartum.Infant sleep outcomes were reported by the mother and the sample (...) Perinatal maternal depression, antidepressant use and infant sleep outcomes: Exploring cross-lagged associations in a pregnancy cohort study. Both perinatal depression and infant sleep problems are common concerns in many communities, with these problems often coinciding. Findings in this area conflict and much of the research relies on poor measures of sleep and/or depression. Adding to this complexity is the rise in antidepressant treatment for perinatal maternal depression and no previous
Latent trajectory classes of postpartum depressive symptoms: A regional population-based longitudinal study. This study aimed to (a) assess trajectories of women's depressive symptoms during the first year postpartum to (b) identify potential unobserved classes of women as defined by their trajectories, (c) identify antepartum and early postpartum risk factors associated with trajectory classes, and (d) examine the association between trajectory classes and counselling during the postpartum (...) period.Data on depressive symptoms, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), were collected from 1374 women across nine Norwegian well-baby clinics at 1.5, 4, 6, and 12 months postpartum. Well-baby clinics offer universal, free services to all families living in the municipality. Thus, there were no specific exclusion criteria for this study. All clinics had implemented the Edinburgh-method which combines screening for PPD, using the EPDS, with supportive counselling.Analyses showed
at 6-10 weeks postpartum, 18.7% (95% CI: 13.3-25.5) were found to have postpartum depression using an EPDS cut off of 10. In multivariate analyses, the odds of having postpartum depression was increased more than seven-fold in the presence of conflict with partner (OR = 7.52, 95% CI: 2.65-23.13). The association between antepartum and postpartum depression was quite strong but did not reach statistical significance (OR = 3.37, 95% CI: 0.98-11.64).The high prevalence of significant postnatal (...) Demographic, psychosocial and clinical factors associated with postpartum depression in Kenyan women. Few longitudinal studies have examined associations between risk factors during pregnancy and mental health outcomes during the postpartum period. We used a cohort study design to estimate the prevalence, incidence and correlates of significant postpartum depressive symptoms in Kenyan women.We recruited adult women residing in an urban, resource-poor setting and attending maternal and child
/MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), EMBASE (Elsevier; 1974-), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), and Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters). Unique abstracts were screened using the following inclusion criteria: (1) maternal cortisol assessed during pregnancy; (2) antepartumdepression assessed during pregnancy using a screening instrument; (3) reports on the association between maternal cortisol and antepartumdepression; (4 (...) ) provides information on timing of cortisol assessment during pregnancy, including time of day and gestation; and (5) not a review article or a case study. One thousand three hundred seventy-five records were identified, resulting in 826 unique abstracts. Twenty-nine articles met all inclusion criteria. On balance, most studies reported no association between maternal cortisol and antepartumdepression (N = 17), and saliva and blood were the most common reported matrices. Morning and second and third
A systematic review of cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin in peripartum women with major depression. Pregnancy and postpartum are periods of high susceptibility to major depression (MD) and other mood disorders. The peripartum period is also a time of considerable changes in the levels of hormones, including cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, gonadotropins, and gonadal steroids. To investigate the relationship between mood and hormonal changes during (...) and after pregnancy, we reviewed published reports of hormonal measures during this time frame, searched via PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were included if women in the antepartum or postpartum periods were clinically diagnosed with MD, and if there were repeated measures of cortisol, TSH, or prolactin. For these three hormones, the numbers of human studies that met these criteria were 15, 7, and 3, respectively. Convergent findings suggest that morning cortisol is reduced in pregnant
measures, hence no meta-analysis was performed.Women who requested an ECS had higher antepartumdepression and anxiety levels but no different postpartum depression levels than women who delivered vaginally. One study of good quality examined the effect of vaginal delivery in women preferring ECS: These women had significantly higher symptom levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression than women with normal vaginal delivery.The prospect of an ECS does not lower antepartum anxiety (...) The effect of an elective cesarean section on maternal request on peripartum anxiety and depression in women with childbirth fear: a systematic review. Obstetricians are often reluctant to grant requests for an elective cesarean section (ECS) due to childbirth fear. To date, it is unknown if an ECS on request improves mental well-being in the mother in the peripartum period and if possible beneficial effects on anxiety and depression could outweigh the increased risk of complications associated
on postpartum stress, anxiety, and depression.This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. A total of 12 619 women who underwent cesarean birth and 12 619 control women who underwent vaginal birth were matched by propensity score based on age, socioeconomic status, residential urbanicity, antepartum comorbidity, and index year of delivery. We compared the incidence of stress, anxiety, and depression during the first postpartum year between (...) Understanding the relationship between cesarean birth and stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth: A nationwide cohort study. Women who undergo cesarean birth might have an increased risk for poor mental health after childbirth, possibly because of maternal and neonatal physical problems, low parental confidence, and decreased levels of oxytocin. However, this relationship remains controversial and requires further examination. The study aimed to examine the effect of cesarean birth
2017 and February 15th 2017 were interviewed. A self-administered questionnaire used for data collection asked about socio-demographic variables and included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most common contributor was the harming herself (mean±SD, 2.7±0.60). Factors significantly associated with depression among participants were the number of daughters, previous diagnosis of depression, and financial problems.The prevalence of antepartumdepression among pregnant women in Jeddah (...) Prevalence and determinants of antenatal depression among women attending primary health care centers in Western Saudi Arabia To measure the prevalence of antenatal depression among pregnant women attending the primary health care (PHC) antenatal care clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to determine associated factors.Following a cross-sectional study design, 320 pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinics in the Ministry of Health PHC Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1st
Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries Maternal depression, a non-psychotic depressive episode of mild to major severity, is one of the major contributors of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. Maternal depression (antepartum or post partum) has been linked to negative health-related behaviours and adverse outcomes, including psychological and developmental disturbances in infants, children, and adolescents. Despite (...) its enormous burden, maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries remains under-recognised and undertreated. In this Series paper, we systematically review studies that focus on the epidemiology of perinatal depression (ie, during antepartum and post-partum periods) among women residing in low-income and middle-income countries. We also summarise evidence for the association of perinatal depression with infant and childhood outcomes. This review is intended to summarise findings
belonging to each trajectory. Model fit was evaluated using the Bayesian information criterion. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare characteristics across the trajectories.Five distinct trajectory groups with constant and variable patterns were identified for both depressive and anxiety symptoms: minimal, mild, antepartum, postpartum, and chronic. Common risk factors of depression and anxiety across groups with elevated symptoms were history of mental health issues (odds (...) Trajectories of Perinatal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Community Cohort. The evidence on trajectories of perinatal depression is mostly based on studies composed of women at high risk for poor mental health. Research on maternal anxiety trajectories is also scarce. Using a large community cohort, the All Our Babies study, in Alberta, Canada, we examined trajectories of perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms and compared characteristics of women across trajectories.Anxiety
for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy studies and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines respectively.Overall, we retrieved 996 unduplicated articles and selected 74 for full-text review. Of these, 14 articles examining 21 different instruments were included in the systematic review. The 10 item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale had the most stable (lowest variation) and highest diagnostic performance during the antepartum and postpartum (...) Diagnostic performance of major depression disorder case-finding instruments used among mothers of young children in the United States: A systematic review. Growing recognition of the interrelated negative outcomes associated with major depression disorder (MDD) among mothers and their children has led to renewed public health interest in the early identification and treatment of maternal MDD. Healthcare providers, however, remain unsure of the validity of existing case-finding instruments. We
in prenatal care at the participating sites, 8840 women (98%) were screened for depressionantepartum, and 7780 women (86%) were screened postpartum. A total of 576 women (6.5%) screened positive for probable depression; of these, 69% screened positive antepartum, and 31% screened positive postpartum (P < .01). All women who screened positive were referred for an evaluation by a mental health professional; 79% of the women were evaluated, which was more common antepartum than postpartum (83% vs 71%; P (...) with an antidepressant medication, which was more frequent during the postpartum period than during the antepartum period (54% vs 28%; P < .001). After adjustment for maternal age, parity, race, and household income, women who screened positive antepartum were significantly more likely to link to mental health services compared with women who screened positive postpartum (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.24-3.24; P = .001).This study demonstrates the feasibility of universal depression screening during both
Cortisol Response to the Trier Social Stress Test in Pregnant Women at Risk for Postpartum DepressionAntepartumdepression and anxiety are risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD). Postpartum abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity are associated with PPD. It is not known if antepartum HPA abnormalities exist in women at risk for PPD (AR-PPD). We measured salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 44 (24 AR-PPD, 20 healthy comparison (...) ) pregnant women. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S). We analyzed longitudinal changes in cortisol using generalized estimating equation methods to control for the correlation within subjects at the six TSST time points. Group differences in area under the curve (AUC) were examined. A majority (70.8 %) of the AR-PPD had prior depression. EPDS total score was higher in AR-PPD vs. comparison
Summary diagnostic validity of commonly used maternal major depression disorder case finding instruments in the United States: A meta-analysis. Major Depression Disorder (MDD) is common among mothers of young children. However, its detection remains low in primary-care and community-based settings in part due to the uncertainty regarding the validity of existing case-finding instruments. We conducted meta-analyses to estimate the diagnostic validity of commonly used maternal MDD case finding (...) operating models.Overall, 1130 articles were retrieved and 74 articles were selected for full-text review. Twelve articles examining six maternal MDD case-finding instruments met the eligibility criteria and were included in our meta-analyses. Pooled sensitivity and specificity estimates were highest for the BDI-II (91%; 95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI): 68%; 99% and 89%; 95% BCI: 62%; 98% respectively) and EPDS10 (74%; 95% BCI: 46%; 91% and 97%; 95% BCI: 84%; 99% respectively) during the antepartum
concentrations among women with PTSD with and without depression. A total of 2928 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited. Antepartum PTSD and depression were evaluated using PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scales, respectively. BDNF concentrations were measured in a subset of the cohort (N = 944) using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (...) (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Antepartum PTSD (37.4 %) and depression (27.6 %) were prevalent in this cohort of low-income pregnant Peruvian women. Approximately 19.9 % of participants had comorbid PTSD-depression. Median serum BDNF concentrations were lower among women with comorbid PTSD-depression as compared with women without either condition (median [interquartile range], 20.44 [16.97-24.30] vs. 21.35 [17.33-26.01] ng/ml; P = 0.06). Compared to the referent group (those without PTSD
); the primary predictor was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale antepartum score of 10 or greater, indicating symptoms of depression. Logistic regression models were used with and without consideration of antidepressant exposure during pregnancy.Among 7,267 women, 831 (11%) screened positive for depression. In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal age, race, income, body mass index, tobacco use, lifetime diagnosis of major depression and anxiety, diabetes, hypertension, and preeclampsia, women (...) who screened negative), depressive symptoms were not associated with a significantly increased risk of preterm and very preterm birth or an SGA neonate.In a large cohort of women screened for depressionantepartum, those with depressive symptoms had an increased likelihood of preterm and very preterm delivery as well having an SGA neonate. Such risk was not apparent among women who were treated with an antidepressant medication.
of antepartumdepression is necessary. Both psychotherapy and antidepressant medication, first choice treatments in a non-pregnant population, have limitations in treating depression during pregnancy. Therefore, it is urgent and relevant to investigate alternative treatments for antepartumdepression. Bright light therapy (BLT) is a promising treatment for pregnant women with depressive disorder, for it combines direct availability, sufficient efficacy, low costs and high safety, taking the safety (...) , in maternal sleep quality and gestational age, birth weight, infant behaviour, infant cortisol exposure and infant cortisol stress response.If BLT reduces depressive symptoms in pregnant women, it will provide a safe, cheap, non-pharmacological and efficacious alternative treatment for psychotherapy and antidepressant medication in treating antepartumdepression, without any expected adverse reactions for the unborn child.Netherlands Trial Register NTR5476 . Registered 5 November 2015.
lymphocytes isolated from 38 antepartum maternal and 44 neonatal cord blood samples were analyzed using Illumina Methylation 450 K microarrays. Previously obtained methylation data sets using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and array-hybridization of 62 postmortem hippocampal samples of adult males were re-analyzed to test associations with history of maternal depression. We found 145 (false discovery rate (FDR) q<0.05) and 2520 (FDR q<0.1) differentially methylated CG-sites in cord blood T lymphocytes (...) of neonates from the maternal depression group as compared with the control group. However, no significant DNA methylation differences were detected in the antepartum maternal T lymphocytes of our preliminary data set. We also detected 294 differentially methylated probes (FDR q<0.1) in hippocampal samples associated with history of maternal depression. We observed a significant overlap (P=0.002) of 33 genes with changes in DNA methylation in T lymphocytes of neonates and brains of adult offspring. Many
campuses. Suicidal ideation on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and prediction of suicide risk were examined through multivariable modeling and qualitative analysis of clinical assessments.Among 22,118 Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaires studied, suicidal ideation was reported on 842 (3.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-4.1%) and was positively associated with younger maternal age (antepartum mean age 30.9 compared with 31.9 years, P=.001), unpartnered relationship status (...) Suicide Risk Among Perinatal Women Who Report Thoughts of Self-Harm on Depression Screens. To estimate the incidence and clinical significance of suicidal ideation revealed during perinatal depression screening and estimate the associated suicide risk.Retrospective cohort study of women completing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 24-28 weeks of gestation and 6 weeks postpartum through a suburban integrated health system with approximately 5,000 annual deliveries on two hospital