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Androgenic Alopecia

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981. Genetic variation in the human androgen receptor gene is the major determinant of common early-onset androgenetic alopecia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic variation in the human androgen receptor gene is the major determinant of common early-onset androgenetic alopecia. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or male-pattern baldness, is the most common form of hair loss. Its pathogenesis is androgen dependent, and genetic predisposition is the major requirement for the phenotype. We demonstrate that genetic variability in the androgen receptor gene (AR) is the cardinal prerequisite for the development of early-onset AGA, with an etiological

2005 American Journal of Human Genetics

982. The Ludwig pattern of androgenetic alopecia is due to a hierarchy of androgen sensitivity within follicular units that leads to selective miniaturization and a reduction in the number of terminal hairs per follicular unit. (Abstract)

The Ludwig pattern of androgenetic alopecia is due to a hierarchy of androgen sensitivity within follicular units that leads to selective miniaturization and a reduction in the number of terminal hairs per follicular unit. Hair follicles exist within follicular units (FUs). In utero the central primary hair follicles are surrounded by smaller secondary follicles. Each FU is nourished by a single arborizing arrector pili muscle that attaches circumferentially around the primary follicle (...) with variable attachment to other follicles. Androgenetic alopecia (AA) miniaturizes susceptible scalp hair follicles in a distinctive and reproducible fashion manifesting in different patterns between men and women.We hypothesized that there is an additional layer to the patterning in AA, with a hierarchy of susceptibility within FUs to AA, and that the diffuse hair loss seen in women with AA is due to a reduction in the number of terminal hairs per FU rather than uniform miniaturization of entire FUs.We

2008 British Journal of Dermatology

983. The E211 G>A androgen receptor polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of metastatic prostate cancer and androgenetic alopecia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The E211 G>A androgen receptor polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of metastatic prostate cancer and androgenetic alopecia. The androgen receptor (AR) gene encodes a transcription factor, which mediates androgen action in target tissues, including the prostate. Prostate cancer is androgen dependent, implicating AR in susceptibility to this male condition. Male pattern balding, androgenetic alopecia, has recently been associated with prostate cancer, suggesting shared androgen (...) and baldness was independent of prostate cancer status (P for interaction = 0.2). These results suggest that the AR-E211 A allele, in linkage with the functional repeat sequences, is associated with a lower risk of metastatic prostate cancer and a lower risk of alopecia.

2005 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

984. Efficacy and tolerability of Hairgain in individuals with hair loss: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy and tolerability of Hairgain in individuals with hair loss: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a new agent for the treatment of hair loss, based on a marine protein, minerals and vitamins. Sixty subjects with hair loss of different aetiologies participated in the 6-month blinded phase of the study. Objective assessments indicated that the treatment was effective (...) and subjective assessments showed a statistically significant positive effect of treatment. Exposure to the active preparation for a further 6 months in an open phase indicated a further improvement in hair growth. Exposure of the patients previously treated with placebo to the active preparation for 12 months gave similar results. Tolerability was good and no side-effects were reported. The product investigated may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy for the treatment of hair-loss problems

2001 The Journal of international medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

985. A comparative study of a new food supplement, ViviScal, with fish extract for the treatment of hereditary androgenic alopecia in young males. (Abstract)

A comparative study of a new food supplement, ViviScal, with fish extract for the treatment of hereditary androgenic alopecia in young males. A controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study compared the effects of ViviScal (a new food supplement incorporating special marine extracts and a silica compound) with those of a fish extract in the treatment of young males with hereditary androgenic alopecia. The pretreatment histological diagnosis was alopecia with a mild to moderate (...) perifollicular inflammation zone. The study consisted of 20 subjects who received two tablets of ViviScal once daily and 20 who received two tablets of fish extract once daily for 6 months. The mean patient age and mean duration and severity of baldness compared well between the two groups. Most patients had been treated with long-term topical 2% minoxidil for 1 year or more prior to the study. At baseline and after 6 months' treatment, a biopsy was taken for histological examination. A non-vellus hair count

1992 The Journal of international medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

986. Essential oils and low-intensity electromagnetic pulses in the treatment of androgen-dependent alopecia. (Abstract)

Essential oils and low-intensity electromagnetic pulses in the treatment of androgen-dependent alopecia. This double-blind randomized study vs placebo in healthy male and female volunteers demonstrates the positive biologic effect on hair loss and hair regrowth of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with essential oils administered according to a regular treatment schedule of 26 weeks. Mean hair count comparisons within the groups significantly favor the treatment group, which (...) exhibited a decrease in hair loss in 83% of the volunteers and a more than 20% hair count increase over baseline in 53% of patients. The process exhibited no side effects or untoward reactions. The histologic examination correlated with the clinical study. A parallel immunohistochemical examination showed an increase in the proliferation index, and when the expression of Ki67 (a cell proliferation marker) is increased, the mitoses are barely visible in the histologic examination. The rationale

2003 Advances in therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

987. The effects of finasteride on scalp skin and serum androgen levels in men with androgenetic alopecia. (Abstract)

The effects of finasteride on scalp skin and serum androgen levels in men with androgenetic alopecia. Data suggest that androgenetic alopecia is a process dependent on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and type 2 5alpha-reductase. Finasteride is a type 2 5alpha-reductase inhibitor that has been shown to slow further hair loss and improve hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia.We attempted to determine the effect of finasteride on scalp skin and serum androgens.Men with androgenetic alopecia (N (...) of finasteride as low as 0.2 mg per day maximally decreased both scalp skin and serum DHT levels. These data support the rationale used to conduct clinical trials in men with male pattern hair loss at doses of finasteride between 0.2 and 5 mg.

1999 Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

988. Female pattern hair loss, sebum excretion and the end-organ response to androgens. (Abstract)

Female pattern hair loss, sebum excretion and the end-organ response to androgens. Although female pattern hair loss can be a feature of hyperandrogenism, many women with hair loss show no clinical or biochemical features of androgen excess. It is possible that hair loss in nonhyperandrogenic women is due to a high level of response to androgens by scalp hair follicles. In this study we explored this idea using sebum excretion as a marker of the cutaneous end-organ response to androgens.To test (...) the hypothesis that hair loss in nonhyperandrogenic women is due to an increased cutaneous end-organ response to androgens.We studied 100 women, 41 with female pattern hair loss (without hirsutism), 29 with hirsutism (with and without scalp hair loss) and 30 subjects without hair problems. We measured hair density on the frontal scalp, forehead sebum excretion, serum free androgen index (FAI), and body mass index (BMI).The mean FAI was significantly raised in hirsute women compared with nonhirsute women (P

2006 British Journal of Dermatology

989. Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias.

1992 Canadian Family Physician

990. Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group. (Abstract)

Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group. Androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss) is caused by androgen-dependent miniaturization of scalp hair follicles, with scalp dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implicated as a contributing cause. Finasteride, an inhibitor of type II 5alpha-reductase, decreases serum and scalp DHT by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to DHT.Our purpose was to determine whether finasteride treatment (...) , all comparisons). Clinically significant increases in hair count (baseline = 876 hairs), measured in a 1-inch diameter circular area (5.1 cm2) of balding vertex scalp, were observed with finasteride treatment (107 and 138 hairs vs placebo at 1 and 2 years, respectively; P < .001). Treatment with placebo resulted in progressive hair loss. Patients' self-assessment demonstrated that finasteride treatment slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance of hair. These improvements

1998 Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

991. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy – A Cure for Male Pattern Baldness Full Text available with Trip Pro

Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy – A Cure for Male Pattern Baldness A 64-year-old woman presented to a dermatologist with male pattern hair loss and was found to have grossly elevated testosterone levels at 22.3 nmol/l (normal range, 0.0-2.9 nmol/l). The diagnosis of an androgen-secreting adrenal tumour was made and she underwent a laparoscopic retroperitoneal right adrenalectomy with an uneventful speedy recovery, being discharged in less than 48 h, underlining the clear advantage of this approach.

2007 Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England

992. Baldness and myocardial infarction in men: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Baldness and myocardial infarction in men: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Because hair loss may be a surrogate measure of androgenic activity-possibly a determinant of coronary atherosclerosis-several studies have explored the presence and magnitude of an association between male pattern baldness and myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, vertex baldness, but not frontal baldness alone, was strongly associated with incident MI in a large, hospital-based, case-control study (...) . The authors examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5,056 men aged 52-75 years, of whom 767 had a history of MI. The sample was derived from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1987-1998). As compared with a baldness-free reference group, the estimated odds ratios for prevalent MI from a multivariable model were 1.28 (frontal baldness), 1.02 (mild vertex baldness), 1.40 (moderate vertex baldness), and 1.18 (severe vertex baldness). Other regression models have yielded

2008 American Journal of Epidemiology

993. Dihydrotestosterone-Inducible Dickkopf 1 from Balding Dermal Papilla Cells Causes Apoptosis in Follicular Keratinocytes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

cells and triggered apoptotic cell death. In addition, DHT-induced epithelial cell death in cultured hair follicles was reversed by neutralizing DKK-1 antibody. Moreover, immunoblotting showed that the DKK-1 level is up in the bald scalp compared with the haired scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that DHT-inducible DKK-1 is involved in DHT-driven balding. (...) Dihydrotestosterone-Inducible Dickkopf 1 from Balding Dermal Papilla Cells Causes Apoptosis in Follicular Keratinocytes. Recent studies suggest that androgen-driven alteration to the autocrine and paracrine factors produced by scalp dermal papilla (DP) cells may be a key to androgen-potentiated balding. Here, we screened dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-regulated genes in balding DP cells and found that dickkopf 1 (DKK-1) is one of the most upregulated genes. DKK-1 messenger RNA is upregulated in 3-6

2007 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

994. Premature Senescence of Balding Dermal Papilla Cells In Vitro Is Associated with p16(INK4a) Expression. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Premature Senescence of Balding Dermal Papilla Cells In Vitro Is Associated with p16(INK4a) Expression. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), a hereditary disorder that involves the progressive thinning of hair in a defined pattern, is driven by androgens. The hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) expresses androgen receptors (AR) and plays an important role in the control of normal hair growth. In AGA, it has been proposed that the inhibitory actions of androgens are mediated via the DP although (...) the molecular nature of these interactions is poorly understood. To investigate mechanisms of AGA, we cultured DP cells (DPC) from balding and non-balding scalp and confirmed previous reports that balding DPC grow slower in vitro than non-balding DPC. Loss of proliferative capacity of balding DPC was associated with changes in cell morphology, expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, as well as decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Bmi-1; upregulation of p16(INK4a

2007 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

995. Male-pattern baldness susceptibility locus at 20p11. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Male-pattern baldness susceptibility locus at 20p11. We conducted a genome-wide association study for androgenic alopecia in 1,125 men and identified a newly associated locus at chromosome 20p11.22, confirmed in three independent cohorts (n = 1,650; OR = 1.60, P = 1.1 x 10(-14) for rs1160312). The one man in seven who harbors risk alleles at both 20p11.22 and AR (encoding the androgen receptor) has a sevenfold-increased odds of androgenic alopecia (OR = 7.12, P = 3.7 x 10(-15)).

2008 Nature Genetics

996. Susceptibility variants for male-pattern baldness on chromosome 20p11. (Abstract)

Susceptibility variants for male-pattern baldness on chromosome 20p11. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 296 individuals with male-pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia) and 347 controls. We then investigated the 30 best SNPs in an independent replication sample and found highly significant association for five SNPs on chromosome 20p11 (rs2180439 combined P = 2.7 x 10(-15)). No interaction was detected with the X-chromosomal androgen receptor locus, suggesting that the 20p11 (...) locus has a role in a yet-to-be-identified androgen-independent pathway.

2008 Nature Genetics

997. Inhibitory autocrine factors produced by the mesenchyme-derived hair follicle dermal papilla may be a key to male pattern baldness. (Abstract)

Inhibitory autocrine factors produced by the mesenchyme-derived hair follicle dermal papilla may be a key to male pattern baldness. Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern baldness, is a common, progressive disorder where large, terminal scalp hairs are gradually replaced by smaller hairs in precise patterns until only tiny vellus hairs remain. This balding can cause a marked reduction in the quality of life. Although these changes are driven by androgens, most molecular mechanisms are unknown (...) within the dermal papilla itself play a key role in altering hair size in response to androgens. Cultured dermal papilla cells offer a useful model system to investigate this as they promote new hair growth in vivo, retain characteristics in vitro which reflect their parent follicle's response to androgens in vivo and secrete mitogenic factors for dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes.To investigate whether cultured dermal papilla cells from balding follicles secrete altered amounts/types

2006 British Journal of Dermatology

998. Evaluation of androgens in the scalp hair and plasma of patients with male-pattern baldness before and after finasteride administration. (Abstract)

Evaluation of androgens in the scalp hair and plasma of patients with male-pattern baldness before and after finasteride administration. Finasteride, a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase II, is widely used as a medical treatment for patients with male-pattern baldness (MPB), which is affected by the distribution of androgenic steroids. It is also notable that the androgenic effect in MPB is different for each region of the head.To study the effect of the drug finasteride, we (...) quantified androgenic steroids in the vertex and occipital scalp hair and in the plasma of patients with MPB.The patients with MPB, aged 23-52 years, were treated with finasteride 1 mg daily for 5 months. The hair and plasma samples were hydrolysed, extracted with n-pentane, and derivatized with MSTFA:NH4I:DTE (1000:4:5, v/w/w). We analysed the concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T) in the hair and plasma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).In the hair, the ratio

2006 British Journal of Dermatology

999. Australian trial of topical minoxidil and placebo in early male pattern baldness. (Abstract)

Australian trial of topical minoxidil and placebo in early male pattern baldness. One hundred and sixty nine men with early male pattern baldness (androgenic alopecia) were treated in a random, double-blind fashion with either 2% minoxidil solution or placebo vehicle for 24 weeks, one ml applied twice daily. After 24 weeks all patients received the active solution until week 48. After 24 weeks the minoxidil treated patients had increased their non-vellus hair counts significantly more than (...) considered that 3 (2%) of the minoxidil group and none of the placebo group had moderate hair regrowth and that none had dense regrowth. After 48 weeks treatment 28 (23%) patients considered that they had moderate hair regrowth and the investigators considered that 14 (12%) patients had moderate regrowth. None had dense growth. No serious adverse reactions or deaths were reported. Minoxidil solution appeared to be an efficacious and safe treatment for early androgenic alopecia.

1990 The Australasian journal of dermatology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1000. A controlled study of the effects of RU58841, a non-steroidal antiandrogen, on human hair production by balding scalp grafts maintained on testosterone-conditioned nude mice. (Abstract)

A controlled study of the effects of RU58841, a non-steroidal antiandrogen, on human hair production by balding scalp grafts maintained on testosterone-conditioned nude mice. Human hair growth can be monitored for several months after the transplantation of scalp samples from men with androgen-dependent alopecia on to female nude mice. Hair production from balding sites has been shown to be inhibited in testosterone-conditioned nude mice. We used this recently reported model to study the effect (...) . The values for the linear hair growth rates (LHGR) were significantly (P < 0.04) higher in the RU58841-treated group. Recycling and increased LHGR indicate a positive action for RU58841 on human hair growth from balding samples grafted on to testosterone-conditioned nude mice, and encourage a clinical trial to evaluate its potential in the treatment of androgen-dependent alopecia.

1997 The British journal of dermatology

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