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Amenorrhea

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1. Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea

%), and ballet dancers (19% to 44%). Kiningham RB, Apgar BS, Schwenk TL. Evaluation of amenorrhea. Am Fam Physician. 1996 Mar;53(4):1185-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8629565?tool=bestpractice.com The prevalence of primary amenorrhoea in the US is <0.1%, compared with 3% to 4% for secondary amenorrhoea. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(suppl 5):S219-25. https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(08 (...) Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2018 Summary Amenorrhoea is the transient or permanent absence of menstrual flow. There is no consensus on the definition of amenorrhoea, but it may be subdivided into primary and secondary presentations

2018 BMJ Best Practice

2. Assessment of primary amenorrhoea

for at least 3 cycles of her previous interval, or lack of menses for 6 months in a patient who was previously menstruating. Although overlapping attributes exist between the two groups, the diagnostic approaches vary significantly. Primary amenorrhoea is rare: about 0.3% of women fail to establish menstruation. Kiningham RB, Apgar BS, Schwenk TL. Evaluation of amenorrhea. Am Fam Physician. 1996;53:1185-1194. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8629565?tool=bestpractice.com The prevalence of primary (...) amenorrhoea in the US is <0.1%, compared with 4% for secondary amenorrhoea. Timmreck LS, Reindollar RH. Contemporary issues in primary amenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2003;30:287-302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836721?tool=bestpractice.com Pettersson F, Fries H, Nillius SJ. Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea: incidence and prevalence rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;117:80-86. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4722382?tool=bestpractice.com Even when causes of primary and secondary

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea

%), and ballet dancers (19% to 44%). Kiningham RB, Apgar BS, Schwenk TL. Evaluation of amenorrhea. Am Fam Physician. 1996 Mar;53(4):1185-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8629565?tool=bestpractice.com The prevalence of primary amenorrhoea in the US is <0.1%, compared with 3% to 4% for secondary amenorrhoea. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(suppl 5):S219-25. https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(08 (...) Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2018 Summary Amenorrhoea is the transient or permanent absence of menstrual flow. There is no consensus on the definition of amenorrhoea, but it may be subdivided into primary and secondary presentations

2018 BMJ Best Practice

5. Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by infrequent or absent ovulation, and high levels of androgens and insulin (hyperinsulinaemia). Hyperinsulinaemia occurs secondary to insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Insulin-sensitising agents such as metformin

2017 Cochrane

6. Bone Parameters in Anorexia Nervosa and Athletic Amenorrhea: Comparison of Two Hypothalamic Amenorrhea States. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bone Parameters in Anorexia Nervosa and Athletic Amenorrhea: Comparison of Two Hypothalamic Amenorrhea States. We have reported low bone mineral density (BMD), impaired bone structure, and increased fracture risk in participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) and normal-weight oligoamenorrheic athletes (OAs). However, data directly comparing compartment-specific bone parameters in participants with AN, OAs, and controls are lacking.A total of 468 female participants 14 to 21.9 years old were

2018 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

7. Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea '); '); Hypothalamic Amenorrhea Guideline Resources | Endocrine Society Hormone Science to Health / › › › Guidelines and Clinical Practice Section + Hypothalamic Amenorrhea Guideline Resources Full Guideline: JCEM | March 2017 Catherine M. Gordon (chair), Kathryn E. Ackerman, Sarah L. Berga, Jay R. Kaplan, George Mastorakos, Madhusmita Misra, M. Hassan Murad, Nanette F. Santoro, and Michelle P. Warren The 2017 guideline addresses: Diagnosing functional (...) hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) Evaluating causal and concomitant conditions, including mental disorders Deciding which laboratory and imaging tests should be performed Treating FHA and concomitant conditions with lifestyle changes and hormone therapy, and providing fertility treatments for women with FHA Resources | ENDO 2017 | ENDO 2017 | Guideline Central | Endocrine News | Hormone Health Network | Endocrine Society Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline Essential Points

2017 The Endocrine Society

8. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system associated amenorrhea: a systematic review and metaanalysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Levonorgestrel intrauterine system associated amenorrhea: a systematic review and metaanalysis Amenorrhea is a polarizing noncontraceptive effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system. Composite amenorrhea prevalence estimates that summarize all clinical data for the first-year after insertion currently are not available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of existing prevalence estimates by the systematic calculation of amenorrhea measures for a general population (...) of levonorgestrel intrauterine system users and to provide 90-day interval point estimates for the first year of use.We identified clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, and randomized comparative trials that were published in English between January 1970 and September 2017 through electronic searches of 12 biomedical and scientific literature databases that included MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov.We considered studies that clearly defined amenorrhea per World Health Organization standards (the complete

2019 EvidenceUpdates

9. Lactational amenorrhoea method for family planning. Full Text available with Trip Pro

LAM and being supported in doing so, and fully breastfeeding amenorrheic women not using any method. As the length of lactation amenorrhoea in women using LAM differed greatly between the populations studied, and was population specific, it is uncertain whether LAM extends lactational amenorrhoea. (...) Lactational amenorrhoea method for family planning. It is estimated that about 40% of pregnancies in the world are unintended and that the major part of these are unwanted. There are several reasons no or ineffective contraception is used to prevent these pregnancies, including difficulty in obtaining contraceptives. The lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM) is a contraceptive method where the mother is informed and supported in how to use breastfeeding for contraception. LAM is available

2015 Cochrane

10. Prognostic Significance of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Induced Amenorrhea in Luminal A and B Subtypes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prognostic Significance of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Induced Amenorrhea in Luminal A and B Subtypes In this retrospective study, chemotherapy induced amenorrhea in patients with early stage breast cancer and its effects on survival were investigated.Two hundred fifty-two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy without ovarian suppression treatment (OST) from 600 premenopausal patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; with amenorrhea and without, and compared (...) with clinicopathologic features and survival. SPSS version 17 was used.Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) was observed in 145 (57.5%) of 252 patients who received no OST during follow-up. The 5-year OS rate of patients with CIA was significantly higher than patients without CIA (p= 0.042, 95.9% vs. 89.7% vs. 158.88 vs. 135.33 months, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, the OS in patients with hormone receptor (+) was significantly higher than in those receptor (-) in patients with CIA (p=0.011, 97.5% vs

2018 European journal of breast health

11. Amenorrhoea

or hyperthyroidism). Iatrogenic causes, including: Contraceptives — extended-cycle combined oral contraceptives, injectable progesterone, implantable etonogestrel (Nexplanon®), and levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena®) may cause amenorrhea [ ]. Drugs (such as antipsychotics, which can cause increased prolactin levels) and illicit drug use (in particular cocaine and opiates, which can cause hypogonadism). Surgery (hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and ovarian surgery). Causes of secondary amenorrhoea (...) Amenorrhoea Amenorrhoea - NICE CKS Share Amenorrhoea: Summary Amenorrhoea is the absence or cessation of menstruation. Primary amenorrhoea is defined as the failure to establish menstruation by 15 years of age in girls with normal secondary sexual characteristics (such as breast development), or by 13 years of age in girls with no secondary sexual characteristics. Secondary amenorrhoea is defined as the cessation of menstruation for 3–6 months in women with previously normal and regular menses

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

12. Treatments to Prevent Bone Loss in Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatments to Prevent Bone Loss in Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the effect of hormonal therapy [estrogen therapy including oral contraceptive pills (OCP)] and bisphosphonates in preventing bone loss in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA).We searched several electronic databases for controlled and noncontrolled studies that enrolled females of any age (...) presenting with FHA (including athletic, weight loss, and stress-associated amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea) through 9 January 2017. The outcomes of interest were fractures and bone mineral density (BMD). Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies expressed as weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI).Nine studies reporting on 280 patients that received different hormonal therapies were included. We did not identify studies that evaluated bisphosphonates. Meta

2017 Journal of the Endocrine Society

13. Induction and Maintenance of Amenorrhea in Transmasculine and Nonbinary Adolescents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Induction and Maintenance of Amenorrhea in Transmasculine and Nonbinary Adolescents The treatment of persistent uterine bleeding in those patients who identify as transmasculine or nonbinary is often straightforward, but can be difficult in a subset of patients. This article reviews the physiology of the normal menstrual cycle and the hormonal influences on the endometrium, and then explores options for the treatment of persistent bleeding for people both already on testosterone and for those

2017 Transgender health

14. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Reactivation by Kisspeptin-10 in Hyperprolactinemic Women With Chronic Amenorrhea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Reactivation by Kisspeptin-10 in Hyperprolactinemic Women With Chronic Amenorrhea Hyperprolactinemia-induced hypogonadotropic amenorrhea (hPRL-HA) is a major cause of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency in women. In hyperprolactinemic mice, we previously demonstrated that hypothalamic kisspeptin (Kp) expression was diminished and that Kp administration restored hypothalamic GnRH release, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian cyclicity

2017 Journal of the Endocrine Society

15. Treatment of postpill amenorrhea with abdominal obesity by traditional Korean medicine treatment focused on pharmacopuncture and moxibustion: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment of postpill amenorrhea with abdominal obesity by traditional Korean medicine treatment focused on pharmacopuncture and moxibustion: A case report. Hormone imbalance and menstrual irregularities are normal for postpill women. Pharmacopuncture and moxibustion can stimulate acupoints with herbal extract and heat, respectively, to regulate the function of qi and blood, expel pathogens, and support health.A 39-year-old female patient presented with amenorrhea, >6 months after she had (...) stopped taking the oral contraceptive pill, which she had taken for more than 10 years, and possible associated infertility. Additionally, she reported sudden weight gain of approximately 12 kg in 1 year.In this study, we examined the amenorrhea lasted more than 6 months for postpill patient.She refused a strong acupuncture stimulus; she underwent lower abdomen pharmacopuncture with wild ginseng complex (WGC) and moxibustion at CV4, 5 times during 1 month. As a secondary treatment, 1 g Geoseub-hwan

2019 Medicine

16. Estrogen administration improves the trajectory of eating disorder pathology in oligo-amenorrheic athletes: A randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Estrogen administration improves the trajectory of eating disorder pathology in oligo-amenorrheic athletes: A randomized controlled trial. Estrogen replacement prevents worsening body dissatisfaction with weight gain in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. However, the impact of estrogen administration on eating disorder (ED) pathology in normal-weight young women with exercise-induced amenorrhea is unknown. We hypothesized that (1) normal-weight oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA) would show greater

2018 Psychoneuroendocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

17. Efficacy of a Herbal Formulation Based on Foeniculum Vulgare in Oligo/Amenorrhea: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (Abstract)

Efficacy of a Herbal Formulation Based on Foeniculum Vulgare in Oligo/Amenorrhea: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal tea based on Foeniculum vulgare, on inducing regular bleeding in women with oligomenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea(oligo/amenorrhea).Forty women aged 18- 40 with oligo/amenorrhea were enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical trial and were allocated to two groups equally. The women in the first group were treated

2018 Current drug discovery technologies Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Amenorrhea after lung cancer treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Amenorrhea after lung cancer treatment. More than 5,000 premenopausal women are diagnosed with lung cancer annually in the United States. Limited data exist regarding the risk of treatment-related amenorrhea, a surrogate for infertility and early menopause, after systemic therapies for lung cancer.Premenopausal women diagnosed with lung cancer under age 50 were surveyed at diagnosis and annually thereafter about their menstrual status as a part of the Mayo Clinic Epidemiology and Genetics

2018 Menopause

19. The role of electrocardiogram in sex verification in a young adult with primary amenorrhea: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of electrocardiogram in sex verification in a young adult with primary amenorrhea: a case report The use of electrocardiogram for sex verification in adults is an emerging concept in medicine. It is feasible through the utilization of Ogunlade Sex Determination Electrocardiographic Score. The aim of this study was to use an electrocardiogram to verify the sex of a woman with primary amenorrhea.We report a case of a 36-year-old woman of Yoruba ethnicity who presented with primary (...) amenorrhea. A physical examination revealed a woman with a feminine appearance characterized by long plaited hair and well-developed breasts. As part of the investigations to unravel the sex status, she had a resting standard 12-lead electrocardiogram which revealed a masculine electrocardiogram pattern with Ogunlade Sex Determination Electrocardiographic Score of 9 (T-wave pattern in lead V1, 3; ST segment in lead V2 or V3, 3; QRS rotation, 2; heart rate of 79, 1). An abdominopelvic ultrasonography done

2018 Journal of medical case reports

20. Müllerian Agenesis Masquerading as Secondary Amenorrhea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Müllerian Agenesis Masquerading as Secondary Amenorrhea The most common cause of primary amenorrhea is congenital malformation of the Müllerian ducts, including Müllerian agenesis, also known as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH). Most general gynecologists and primary care physicians who see female adolescents will encounter MRKH in their careers. We present the case of an adolescent with MRKH who reported secondary, instead of primary amenorrhea. We discuss the subtleties

2018 Case reports in pediatrics

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