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Amblyopia

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2. Amblyopia

Amblyopia Amblyopia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Amblyopia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2018 Summary A visual impairment resulting from abnormal visual stimulation during early childhood, the prevalence of which ranges from 1% to 4%. Can result from strabismus, form deprivation (e.g., due to congenital cataracts or corneal opacities), and various types of refractive error (...) . These errors include anisometropia (unequal refractive error between the 2 eyes), isoametropia (high but similar refractive error in the 2 eyes), and high astigmatism in 1 or both eyes. Amblyopia due to strabismus with or without refractive error is commonly treated with initial optical correction, and subsequent patching or atropine penalisation of the better-seeing eye. Amblyopia due to refractive error alone frequently responds to optical correction alone. Amblyopia due to form deprivation is treated

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Treatment outcomes for amblyopia using PEDIG amblyopia protocols: a retrospective study of 877 cases. (PubMed)

Treatment outcomes for amblyopia using PEDIG amblyopia protocols: a retrospective study of 877 cases. The landmark Pediatric Eye Disease Investigators Group (PEDIG) Amblyopia Treatment Studies (ATS) 2A and 2B concluded that 6 hours of occlusion were as efficacious as full-time occlusion in treating severe amblyopia and that 2 hours occlusion were as effective as 6 in treating moderate amblyopia. We present the first retrospective study of real-world outcomes of amblyopia treatment using PEDIG (...) amblyopia protocols in 877 patients treated at a single center.Electronic patient records were reviewed retrospectively to identify children of Leeds, England, meeting ATS2A (severe amblyopia) and ATS2B (moderate amblyopia) inclusion criteria who presented at the Gloucestershire Eye Unit from 2013 to 2017. Clinical data for each patient were entered during routine clinical care. Severely amblyopic children were prescribed 6 hours occlusion daily, and moderately amblyopic children 2 hours, after 12 weeks

2019 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

4. Effect of amblyopia treatment on choroidal thickness in hypermetropic anisometropic amblyopia using swept-source optical coherence tomography. (PubMed)

Effect of amblyopia treatment on choroidal thickness in hypermetropic anisometropic amblyopia using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Recent studies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) have indicated that choroidal thickness (CT) in the anisometropic amblyopic eye is thicker than that of the fellow and normal control eyes. However, it has not yet been established as to how amblyopia affects the choroid thickening. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect (...) of amblyopia treatment on macular CT in eyes with anisometropic amblyopia using swept-source OCT.Thirteen patients (mean age: 6.2 ± 2.4 years) with hypermetropic anisometropic amblyopia were included in this study. Visual acuity (VA), axial length (AL), and CT were measured at the enrollment visit and at the final visit, after at least 6 months of treatment. CT measurements were corrected for magnification error and were automatically analyzed using built-in software and divided into three macular regions

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2018 BMC Ophthalmology

5. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia. (PubMed)

Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia. Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes (...) . Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

6. Amblyopia risk factors in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A longitudinal case-control study. (PubMed)

Amblyopia risk factors in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A longitudinal case-control study. To investigate longitudinal changes in risk factors for amblyopia in children treated with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO).Retrospective observational case control study. A total of 446 children under 4 years of age who underwent probing and/or intubation for CNLDO between January 2004 and January 2018, and 446 age-matched controls were included. Cycloplegic refraction (...) and ocular alignment were investigated at the time of treatment and after at least one year of symptom improvement. Children were classified as having amblyopia risk factors on the basis of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus guideline in 2013.The prevalence of amblyogenic refractive errors, and determinants associated with the presence of amblyogenic refractive errors in CNLDO patients.The prevalence of amblyogenic refractive errors in CNLDO patients (5.4%) was similar

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2019 PLoS ONE

7. Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years. (PubMed)

Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years. Current treatments for amblyopia in children, occlusion and pharmacological blurring, have had limited success, with less than two-thirds of children achieving good visual acuity of at least 0.20 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, limited improvement of stereopsis, and poor compliance. A new treatment approach, based on the dichoptic presentation of movies or computer games (...) (images presented separately to each eye), may yield better results, as it aims to balance the input of visual information from each eye to the brain. Compliance may also improve with these more child-friendly treatment procedures.To determine whether binocular treatments in children aged three to eight years with unilateral amblyopia result in better visual outcomes than conventional occlusion or pharmacological blurring treatment.We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (last

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2015 Cochrane

8. Interventions for strabismic amblyopia. (PubMed)

Interventions for strabismic amblyopia. Amblyopia is reduced visual acuity in one or both eyes in the absence of any demonstrable abnormality of the visual pathway. It is not immediately resolved by the correction of refractive error. Strabismus develops in approximately 5% to 8% of the general population. The aim of treatment for amblyopia is to obtain the best possible level of vision in the amblyopic eye. Different treatment options were examined within the review.By reviewing the available (...) evidence we wanted to establish the most effective treatment for strabismic amblyopia. In particular this review aimed to examine the impact of conventional occlusion therapy for strabismic amblyopia and to analyse the role of partial occlusion and optical penalisation for strabismic amblyopia.We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2013, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE

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2014 Cochrane

9. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia. (PubMed)

Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one

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2014 Cochrane

10. Strabismus surgery before versus after completion of amblyopia therapy in children. (PubMed)

Strabismus surgery before versus after completion of amblyopia therapy in children. Normal visual development occurs when the brain is able to integrate the visual input from each of the two eyes to form a single three-dimensional image. The process of development of complete three-dimensional vision begins at birth and is almost complete by 24 months of age. The development of this binocular vision is hindered by any abnormality that prevents the brain from receiving a clear, similar image (...) from each eye, due to decreased vision (e.g. amblyopia), or due to misalignment of the two eyes (strabismus or squint) in infancy and early childhood. Currently, practice patterns for management of a child with both strabismus and amblyopia are not standardized.To study the functional and anatomic (ocular alignment) outcomes of strabismus surgery before completion of amblyopia therapy as compared with surgery after completion of amblyopia therapy in children under seven years of age.We searched

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2014 Cochrane

11. Changes in choroidal blood flow and choroidal thickness after treatment in two cases of pediatric anisohypermetropic amblyopia (PubMed)

Changes in choroidal blood flow and choroidal thickness after treatment in two cases of pediatric anisohypermetropic amblyopia We aimed to examine the changes in choroidal blood flow (CBF) and central choroidal thickness (CCT) in children with anisohypermetropic amblyopia using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).The patients were both 6-year-old Japanese male children with complaints of worsening right visual acuity and were (...) diagnosed with anisohypermetropic amblyopia. The decimal best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) in cases 1 and 2 were both 0.5. In both cases, LSFG results demonstrated CBF impairment in amblyopic eyes compared with fellow eyes. EDI-OCT results also showed that the CCTs of amblyopic eyes were greater than those of fellow eyes at the initial visit. Several months after the first visit, the decimal BCVAs in both cases had improved to 1.0 because of treatment. Further, the CBF gradually increased along

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2017 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

12. Efficacy comparison of 12 interventions for amblyopia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Efficacy comparison of 12 interventions for amblyopia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files

2019 PROSPERO

13. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia (PubMed)

Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children.Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 (...) using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic.78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively.The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate

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2016 Croatian medical journal

14. Self-perception in Children Aged 3 to 7 Years With Amblyopia and Its Association With Deficits in Vision and Fine Motor Skills. (PubMed)

Self-perception in Children Aged 3 to 7 Years With Amblyopia and Its Association With Deficits in Vision and Fine Motor Skills. Deficits in fine motor skills and slow reading speed have been reported in school-aged children and adults with amblyopia. These deficits were correlated with lower self-perception of athletic and cognitive competence. Although perceived competence and social acceptance are key determinants of developing self-perception in young children, the association of amblyopia (...) with self-perception and the association of altered self-perception with fine motor skills to date have not been reported for young children aged 3 to 7 years.To investigate whether amblyopia is associated with altered self-perception in young children and to assess whether any differences in self-perception are associated with deficits in vision and fine motor skills.In this cross-sectional study, conducted at a pediatric vision laboratory from January 10, 2016, to May 4, 2018, healthy children aged 3

2019 JAMA ophthalmology

15. Driver licensing and motor vehicle crash rates among young adults with amblyopia and unilateral vision impairment. (PubMed)

Driver licensing and motor vehicle crash rates among young adults with amblyopia and unilateral vision impairment. This retrospective cohort study investigated whether unilateral vision impairment (UVI) or amblyopia are associated with driver licensing and crash risk among adolescents. Electronic health records for New Jersey residents who were patients with the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's healthcare network were linked to statewide driver licensing and crash data. We compared young (...) adults with a diagnosis of UVI and/or amblyopia to peers without such a diagnosis. Young adults with UVI or amblyopia were less likely to acquire a driver's license than those without these conditions. However, among licensed drivers, the risk of a police-reported crash was similar in all three groups.Copyright © 2019 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

16. Differential effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS) on contrast sensitivity and visual acuity when combined with a short perceptual training in adults with amblyopia. (PubMed)

Differential effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (hf-tRNS) on contrast sensitivity and visual acuity when combined with a short perceptual training in adults with amblyopia. Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder characterised by several functional impairments in spatial vision even with the best optical correction. There is evidence that extensive perceptual training can improve visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) in adults with amblyopia (...) . In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of a recently developed neuro-modulatory technique (i.e., high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation; hf-tRNS) combined with a short perceptual training in adults with amblyopia. One group of ten participants underwent a short (8 sessions) monocular training in a contrast detection task with concurrent hf-tRNS, whereas another group of ten participants underwent the same training protocol but with Sham stimulation (control group). The training

2019 Neuropsychologia

17. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in Hani school children in rural southwest China: a cross-sectional study. (PubMed)

Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in Hani school children in rural southwest China: a cross-sectional study. To determine the prevalence rate of amblyopia and strabismus in Chinese Hani ethnic school-aged children.All grade 1 and grade 7 students in Mojiang Hani Autonomous County, located in southwest China, were invited for comprehensive eye examinations performed by experienced ophthalmologists and optometrists, including visual acuity, ocular alignment and movements, cycloplegic (...) autorefraction, anterior segment and fundus examinations. Standard definitions of amblyopia and strabismus were applied to calculate their prevalence rate.A total of 1656 (91.0% response rate) grade 1 Hani students and 1394 (92.8% response rate) grade 7 Hani students participated in the study. Amblyopia was present in 25 Hani students (0.82%, 95% CI 0.55% to 1.20%), with no significant differences in grade (p=0.42) and gender (p=0.69). Among these 25 amblyopic children, 17 had unilateral amblyopia and eight

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2019 BMJ open

19. Impaired Spatial Hearing in Amblyopia: Evidence for Calibration of Auditory Maps by Retinocollicular Input in Humans. (PubMed)

Impaired Spatial Hearing in Amblyopia: Evidence for Calibration of Auditory Maps by Retinocollicular Input in Humans. Evidence from animals and blind humans suggests that early visual experience influences the developmental calibration of auditory localization. Hypothesizing that unilateral amblyopia may involve cross-modal deficits in spatial hearing, we measured the precision and accuracy of sound localization in humans with amblyopia.All participants passed a standard hearing test (...) . Experiment 1 measured sound localization precision for click stimuli in 10 adults with amblyopia and 10 controls using a minimum audible angle (MAA) task. Experiment 2 measured sound localization error (i.e., accuracy) for click train stimuli in 14 adults with amblyopia and 16 controls using an absolute sound localization task.In Experiment 1, the MAA (mean ± SEM) was significantly greater in the amblyopia group compared with controls (2.75 ± 0.30° vs. 1.69 ± 0.09°, P = 0.006). In Experiment 2

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2019 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

20. Postural stability and visual impairment: Assessing balance in children with strabismus and amblyopia. (PubMed)

Postural stability and visual impairment: Assessing balance in children with strabismus and amblyopia. Vision plays an important role in controlling posture and balance in children. Reduced postural control has been reported in children with strabismus, but little has been reported specifically in amblyopia.To investigate whether children with amblyopia have reduced balance compared to both children with strabismus without amblyopia and healthy controls.In this cross-sectional study, a total (...) of 56 patients and healthy controls were recruited from the Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Clinics at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. Participants were divided into three groups: (1) 18 with unilateral amblyopia (strabismic amblyopia or mixed mechanism); (2) 16 with strabismus only without amblyopia; and (3) 22 visually-normal controls. The primary outcome was the balance performance as measured by the balance subtest of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 [BOT2].The age

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2018 PLoS ONE

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