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Alpha-Hydroxy acid

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141. THE SYNTHESIS AND TURNOVER OF RAT LIVER PEROXISOMES : I. Fractionation of Peroxisome Proteins Full Text available with Trip Pro

THE SYNTHESIS AND TURNOVER OF RAT LIVER PEROXISOMES : I. Fractionation of Peroxisome Proteins Rat liver peroxisomes isolated by density gradient centrifugation were disrupted at pH 9, and subdivided into a soluble fraction containing 90% of their total proteins and virtually all of their catalase, D-amino acid oxidase, L-alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities, and a core fraction containing urate oxidase and 10% of the total proteins. The soluble proteins were (...) chromatographed on Sephadex G-200, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, hydroxylapatite, and sulfoethyl (SE)-Sephadex. None of these methods provided complete separation of the protein components, but these could be distributed into peaks in which the specific activities of different enzymes were substantially increased. Catalase, D-amino acid oxidase, and L-alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase contribute a maximum of 16, 2, and 4%, respectively, of the protein of the peroxisome. The contribution of isocitrate

1969 The Journal of cell biology

142. The initiation of haemoglobin synthesis in rabbit reticulocytes Full Text available with Trip Pro

group. This high value suggests that most if not all nascent peptides contain valine in the N-terminal position. 3. Cell-free preparations containing reticulocyte ribosomes and pH5 enzymes incorporated alpha-hydroxy-[(14)C]isovaleryl-tRNA (where tRNA refers to transfer RNA), which was obtained by deamination of [(14)C]valyl-tRNA from yeast or liver with nitrous acid, into both soluble and nascent protein. 4. When the soluble protein was chromatographed on CM-cellulose, radioactivity was found (...) The initiation of haemoglobin synthesis in rabbit reticulocytes 1. The incorporation of labelled valine by rabbit reticulocytes into the N-terminal position of nascent haemoglobin was investigated by deaminating the nascent peptides with nitrous acid and isolating labelled alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid and valine after acid hydrolysis. 2. The amount of radioactivity in alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid relative to that in valine indicated the presence of 12.3% N-terminal valine having a free amino

1969 Biochemical Journal

143. Unusual responses of rat hepatic and renal peroxisomes to RMI 14, 514, a new hypolipidemic agent Full Text available with Trip Pro

the appearance of a peroxisome-within-a-peroxisome, and (b) narrow, dense extensions of canaliculi or cisterns from the periphery of the peroxisome, forming partial circlets or surrounding irregular areas of cytoplasm. The unusual enzyme responses were (a) elevation of catalase activity in liver and kidney in female rats, (b) increased activity of three hydrogen peroxide-producing oxidases (urate oxidase, L-alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase, and D-amino acid oxidase) in the liver of both sexes, and (c) elevation (...) Unusual responses of rat hepatic and renal peroxisomes to RMI 14, 514, a new hypolipidemic agent RMI 14, 514 ([5-tetradecycloxy]-2-furancarboxylic acid) represents a new class of hypolipidemic agents which cause unusual ultrastructural changes in liver of male rats and in selected peroxisomal enzymes in liver and kidney of both sexes. Among the principal ultrastructural changes in peroxisomes of male rat liver were (a) cavitation and compartmentalization of the matrix, often giving

1978 The Journal of cell biology

144. Pathway of degradation of nitrilotriacetate by a Pseudomonas species. Full Text available with Trip Pro

metabolized by the enzyme, but was not an intermediate in the pathway. No intermediate before IDA was found, but an unstable alpha-hydroxy-NTA intermediate was postulated. IDA did undergo cleavage in the presence of the purified monooxygenase to give glyoxylate and glycine, but was not metabolized in cell-free extracts. Glyoxylate was further metabolized by cell-free extracts to yield CO2 and glycerate or glycine, products also found from NTA metabolism. Of the three bacterial isolates in which the NTA (...) Pathway of degradation of nitrilotriacetate by a Pseudomonas species. The pathway of degradation of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) was determined by using cell-free extracts and a 35-fold purification of NTA monooxygenase. The first step in the breakdown was an oxidative cleavage of the tertiary amine by the monooxygenase to form the aldo acid, glyoxylate, and the secondary amine, iminodiacetate (IDA). NTA N-oxide acted as a substrate analog for induction of the monooxygenase and was slowly

1978 Applied and environmental microbiology

145. THE LARGE-SCALE SEPARATION OF PEROXISOMES, MITOCHONDRIA, AND LYSOSOMES FROM THE LIVERS OF RATS INJECTED WITH TRITON WR-1339 : Improved Isolation Procedures, Automated Analysis, Biochemical and Morphological Properties of Fractions Full Text available with Trip Pro

the L-alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase of the liver, as well as a small, but significant fraction of its NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase activity. Another small fraction of the latter enzyme is present in the mitochondria, the remainder being associated with the cell sap. The mitochondrial localization of the metabolically active cytoplasmic DNA could be verified. The relative content of the fractions in mitochondria, whole peroxisomes, peroxisome cores, lysosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum

1968 The Journal of cell biology

146. The oxidation of d- and l-glycerate by rat liver Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and in the presence of sodium chloride the reduction of hydroxypyruvate is activated. Michaelis constants for these substrates of d-glycerate dehydrogenase and an equilibrium constant for the NAD-catalysed reaction have been calculated. 3. An explanation for the lowered V(max.) with d-glycerate as compared with dl-glycerate for the rabbit-kidney d-alpha-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase has been proposed.

1965 Biochemical Journal

147. DEGRADATION OF PYRUVATE BY MICROCOCCUS LACTILYTICUS I. : General Properties of the Formate-Exchange Reaction Full Text available with Trip Pro

-ketoisovalerate to the corresponding alpha-hydroxy acids. (...) exchange of formate into the carboxyl group of pyruvate. At an acid pH, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and acetyl phosphate are produced, and carbon dioxide is exchanged into the carboxyl group of pyruvate. A concentration of approximately 1 m phosphate is required for the phosphoroclastic reaction and formate exchange; the production of carbon dioxide and hydrogen is greatly inhibited by high concentrations of phosphate. Formate exchange requires a divalent metal ion and is stimulated by reducing agents

1962 Journal of bacteriology

148. What is the evidence for excision of seborrheic keratosis?

and management (1). On treatment this states: “Medical Care Ammonium lactate and alpha hydroxy acids have been reported to reduce the height of seborrheic keratoses. Superficial lesions can be treated by carefully applying pure trichloroacetic acid and repeating if the full thickness is not removed on the first treatment. Topical treatment with tazarotene cream 0.1% applied twice daily for 16 weeks caused clinical improvement in seborrheic keratoses in 7 of 15 patients. Surgical Care A variety of techniques (...) nitrogen generally gives better results than liquid nitrogen alone. • Application of 70% glycolic acid for 3-5 minutes prior to curetting also is effective.” 1. Answered 7 December 2011 Follow us: © 2019 Trip Database Ltd. company number 04316414. Trip is proud to be made in the UK.

2011 TRIP Answers

149. Chronic Effects of Sunlight

also substantially increases the risk of malignant . Treatment Minimization of UV light exposure Topical treatments for photoaged skin Treatment begins with to minimize UV light exposure—avoiding the sun and tanning beds and wearing protective clothing and sunscreen. Photoaging Various combination therapies, including chemical peels, 5- fluorouracil (5-FU), topical alpha-hydroxy acids, imiquimod , photodynamic therapy, and tretinoin, have been used to reduce carcinogenic changes and improve

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

150. Ichthyosis

of increased absorption and toxicity. An emollient, preferably plain petrolatum, mineral oil, or lotions containing urea or alpha-hydroxy acids (eg, lactic, glycolic, and pyruvic acids), should be applied twice daily, especially after bathing while the skin is still wet. Blotting with a towel removes excess applied material. Ichthyosis typically responds well to the topical keratolytic propylene glycol. To remove scale (eg, if ichthyosis is severe), patients can apply a preparation containing 40 to 60 (...) % propylene glycol in water under occlusion (eg, a thin plastic film or bag worn overnight) every night after hydrating the skin (eg, by bathing or showering); in children, the preparation should be applied twice daily without occlusion. After scale has decreased, less frequent application is required. Other useful topical agents include ceramide-based creams, 6% salicylic acid gel, hydrophilic petrolatum and water (in equal parts), and the alpha-hydroxy acids in various bases. Topical calcipotriol cream

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

151. Cryosurgery and Cream Combination for Actinic Keratosis

other topical agents such as glycolic acid products, alpha-hydroxy acid products, retinoids and chemical peel agents on teh treatment area while on study. The use of these products are not allowed four weeks prior to study enrollment. Introduction of any other prescription medication, topical or systemic for actinic keratosis while participating in the study is not permitted. Pregnant women, women who are breast feeding, or women of childbearing potential who are not practicing two acceptable

2011 Clinical Trials

152. A Bioequivalence Study With Clinical Endpoints Comparing Generic Imiquimod Cream, 3.75% and Zyclaraâ„¢ (Imiquimod) Cream, 3.75% in Subjects With Actinic Keratoses

to the Baseline Visit. Subject had used topical medications, corticosteroids, alpha hydroxy acids (e.g., glycolic acid, lactic acid etc. > 5%), beta hydroxy acid (salicylic acid > 2%), urea >5%, 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac, imiquimod or prescription retinoids (e.g., tazarotene, adapalene, tretinoin) to the face or balding scalp within one month prior to the Baseline Visit. Subject had used topical creams, lotions or gels of any kind to the selected Treatment Area within one day prior to the Baseline Visit

2011 Clinical Trials

153. A Comparative Study of Adapalene Gel,0.3% Versus Tretinoin Emollient Cream, 0.05% for the Treatment of Photoaging

period (e.g. other types of chemical peelings, microdermabrasion, etc.); Individuals with significant medical history, concomitant disease or condition in which the investigator believes that participation in the study is not propitious; Patients with known sensitivity to retinoids or to any component of the study products; Patients with a diagnosis or history of keloids; Patients without the minimum wash-out period for the following treatments: 2 weeks for topical alpha- hydroxy acid, glycolic acid (...) , salicylic acid, lactic acid, betahydroxy acid on the face. 2 weeks for topical products containing vitamin A, ascorbic acid, vitamin E on the face. 2 weeks for topical corticosteroids. 4 weeks for systemic corticosteroids. 3 months for topical retinoids. 1 year for oral retinoids. Patients who underwent superficial chemical peelings, microdermabrasion or exfoliation on the face in the last 3 months; Patients who applied botulinum toxin or soft tissue fillers for facial rejuvenation in the last 6 months

2011 Clinical Trials

154. Chemical peel

hydroxy acid peels [ ] (AHAs) are naturally occurring such as , a natural constituent of sugar cane juice and lactic acid, found in sour milk and tomato juice. This is the mildest of the peel formulas and produces light peels for treatment of fine wrinkles, areas of dryness, uneven pigmentation and acne. Alpha hydroxy acids can also be mixed with facial washes, serums or creams in lesser concentrations as part of a daily skin-care regimen to improve the skin's texture. There are five usual fruit acids (...) : , , , and . Many other alpha hydroxy acids exist and are used. AHA peels are not indicated for treating wrinkles. AHA peels may cause stinging, , mild skin irritation, and . Higher pH levels and lower percentages of hydroxy acids are commonly used as home peels. These will not work as quickly as an in-office procedure, but can be economical for many people. Beta hydroxy acid peels [ ] is a beta hydroxy acid. It is antibacterial and antiinflammatory and, as a result, works well for acne. Salicylic acid also has

2012 Wikipedia

155. What is the best cream/treament for cracked skin on the feet?

(humectant) agents, such as: Urea Salicylic acid Alpha-hydroxy acids Saccharide isomerate Feet should be inspected daily and on the first sign of any cracking, a moisturising routine 2-3 times a day may be all that is needed to heal the heel. A pumice stone can be rubbed gently against the callus to take away some of the thick hard skin before applying moisturiser. The fissures may be treated with a liquid, gel or spray bandage to reduce pain, protect and allow more rapid healing. For severely cracked (...) heels or if no improvement is seen after a week of self-treatment a visit to a podiatrist may be required. Treatments may involve the following. Debridement – cutting away hard thick skin (this should not be attempted at home using scissors or razor blade as there is a risk of removing too much skin and infection occurring) Strapping – bandage/dressings around the heel to reduce skin movement Prescription for stronger softening or debriding agents, e.g. urea or salicylic acid creams Insoles, heel

2009 TRIP Answers

156. Topical proteolytic enzymes affect epidermal and dermal properties. (Abstract)

months. The control group showed modest improvements in surface properties only. These results demonstrate that significant appearance benefits can be derived from use of exfoliative proteolytic enzymes. Such improvements are the result of changes to the epidermis and dermis and are strikingly similar to results observed with higher concentrations of AHAs (alpha hydroxy acids). (...) Topical proteolytic enzymes affect epidermal and dermal properties. Although proteolytic enzymes have a history of use in skin care products it is not known whether they simply induce superficial exfoliation or with continued use can alter epidermal and dermal skin properties. We examined herein whether enhanced exfoliation resulting from treatment with an aspartyl dependent acid protease produces appearance improvements and over time, changes in the epidermis and dermis. Test participants

2010 International journal of cosmetic science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

157. Atralin Gel for the Treatment of Rosacea

in the past 4 weeks. Use of systemic retinoids within the past 6 months. Use of topical retinoids within the past 3 months Use of laser or light based rosacea treatments within the past 2 months. Cosmetic procedures (e.g., superficial chemical peels, exfoliation or microdermabrasion of the face) within the past two months Use of topical anti-aging medications including alpha hydroxy acids, salicylic acid, beta-hydroxy acid, vitamin A, vitamin E, ascorbic acid Other dermatologic conditions that require

2010 Clinical Trials

158. [Trial of device that is not approved or cleared by the U.S. FDA]

and continued therapy with some cosmeceuticals (e.g., alpha hydroxy acids, glycolic acids, retinol, or retinoic acids) is allowed if the regimen was established ≥ 3months (90 days) prior to enrollment and the regimen remains unchanged during the study Have a history of anaphylaxis, multiple severe allergies, atopy, allergy to lidocaine, hyaluronic acid products or Streptococcal protein, or be planning to undergo desensitization therapy during the term of the study Have an active inflammation, infection (...) by (Responsible Party): Allergan Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of Juvederm(R) Ultra XC Injectable Gel for lip augmentation Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Lip Augmentation Device: hyaluronic acid gel Not Applicable Detailed Description: All subjects were randomized to either the treatment group, Juvederm(R) Ultra XC Injectable Gel, or to the control group (no treatment). At month 3, subjects

2010 Clinical Trials

159. Progestagens for the Tertiary Prophylaxis of Preterm Delivery

randomized treatment through a web site and it will collect data through the same way. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Preterm Delivery Neonatal Complications Drug: 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone caproate Drug: micronized Progesterone Procedure: Control Phase 3 Detailed Description: Background: According to the last reviews Progesterone (P) and (17P) are able to reduce preterm delivery (PTD), either as prophylactic administration in the presence of previous PTD or as a treatment (...) treated with i.m. 17P injection/weekly (Lentogest, IBSA, Italy) Drug: 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone caproate weekly injection of 17 P Other Name: Lentogest Active Comparator: Micronized Progesterone micronized P 200 mg per vagina /day (Utrogestan, Besins Healthcare, Belgium) Drug: micronized Progesterone daily administration of vaginal progesterone Other Name: Utrogestan Active Comparator: Control Routine clinical controls Procedure: Control Other Name: Routine clinical cares Outcome Measures Go

2010 Clinical Trials

160. Study to Determine if Fibrin Affects the Ability of a Wound to Heal

are known to interfere with healing, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-neoplastic drugs, or immunosuppressive drugs. Are using topical glycolic acid products, alpha-hydroxy acid products, retinoids, or chemical peel agents in the treatment areas. Are using systemic steroids or immunosuppressant agents, or have used these drugs within the past three months. The Principal Investigator may declare any subject ineligible for a valid medical reason. Contacts and Locations Go to Information

2010 Clinical Trials

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