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Alpha-Hydroxy acid

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81. Alpha Lipoic Acid Plus Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Vestibulodynia Associated With Painful Bladder Syndrome. (PubMed)

Alpha Lipoic Acid Plus Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Vestibulodynia Associated With Painful Bladder Syndrome. This study assessed the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in combination with amitriptyline therapy in patients with vestibulodynia/painful bladder syndrome (VBD/PBS).Women with VBD/PBS were randomly assigned to receive amitriptyline or amitriptyline plus a commercially available preparation (ALAnerv Age; Alfa Wassermann, Bologna (...) , Italy) containing, in 2 capsules, ALA 600 mg plus docosahexaenoic acid 250 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 16.67 mg. Symptoms of burning and pain were assessed using a 10-cm visual analog scale and the short form of the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire.Among 84 women who were randomized, the mean ± standard deviation dose of amitriptyline was 21.7 ± 6.6 mg/day, without statistical difference between the two groups. Pain, as assessed using both the pain rating index of the visual analog scale

2017 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC

82. Comparison of shock wave therapy and nutraceutical composed of Echinacea angustifolia, alpha lipoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and quercetin (perinerv) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. (PubMed)

Comparison of shock wave therapy and nutraceutical composed of Echinacea angustifolia, alpha lipoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and quercetin (perinerv) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Even though the initial treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is conservative, knowledge of the clinical effects of supplements and of some methods of physiotherapy is still preliminary. Many biological mechanisms can support the administration of shock wave therapy (ESWT) or of alpha lipoic acid (...) (ALA) based nutraceutical, conjugated linoleic acid (GLA), anti-oxidants and Echinacea angustifolia for CTS. The shock waves reduce the nerve compression, produce an anti-inflammatory action, and accelerate the regeneration of neuropathy. ALA and GLA induce antioxidant protective actions, reduce inflammation, promote neuroregeneration, and decrease pain. The Echinacea modulates the endogenous cannabinoid system.The aim of study is to verify the efficiency of shock wave therapy versus nutraceutical

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2017 International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology

83. Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate-induced liver injury and bile acid cycle disruption (PubMed)

Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate-induced liver injury and bile acid cycle disruption Alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT) is a common hepatotoxicant experimentally used to reproduce the pathologies of drug-induced liver injury in humans, but the mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. To determine the metabolic alterations following ANIT exposure, metabolomic analyses was performed by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Partial least (...) squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of liver, serum, bile, ileum, and cecum of vehicle- and ANIT-treated mice revealed significant alterations of individual bile acids, including increased tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurohydrodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, and decreased ω-, β- and tauro-α/β- murideoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and taurocholic acid in the ANIT-treated groups. In accordance with these changes, ANIT treatment altered the expression of mRNAs

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2017 Toxicology

84. Bile acid malabsorption assessed by 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: correlation to clinical and laboratory findings. (PubMed)

Bile acid malabsorption assessed by 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: correlation to clinical and laboratory findings. Measurement of 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) in serum is a semiquantitative test for bile acid malabsorption (BAM). We have previously established pediatric normal values for C4 with an upper limit of normal of 66.5 ng/mL, independent of age and sex. Here we performed the C4 test in 58 pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD (...) -bloody diarrhea in the absence of active disease or elevated inflammatory markers. The C4-test identifies a subgroup of CD patients with persistent diarrhea in spite of clinical remission which may benefit from bile acid binding therapy.Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2014 Journal of Crohn's & colitis

85. Investigation into the Mode of Phosphate Activation in the 4-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2-Oxoglutarate/4-Carboxy-4-Hydroxy-2-Oxoadipate Aldolase from Pseudomonas putida F1. (PubMed)

Investigation into the Mode of Phosphate Activation in the 4-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2-Oxoglutarate/4-Carboxy-4-Hydroxy-2-Oxoadipate Aldolase from Pseudomonas putida F1. The 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate (HMG)/4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate (CHA) aldolase is the last enzyme of both the gallate and protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathways which links aromatic catabolism to central cellular metabolism. The enzyme is a class II, divalent metal dependent, aldolase which is activated in the presence (...) of inorganic phosphate (Pi), increasing its turnover rate >10-fold. This phosphate activation is unique for a class II aldolase. The aldolase pyruvate methyl proton exchange rate, a probe of the general acid half reaction, was increased 300-fold in the presence of 1 mM Pi and the rate enhancement followed saturation kinetics giving rise to a KM of 397 ± 30 μM. Docking studies revealed a potential Pi binding site close to, or overlapping with, the proposed general acid water site. Putative Pi binding

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2016 PLoS ONE

86. Metabolism of 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid (HOHA) Lactone by Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells (PubMed)

Metabolism of 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid (HOHA) Lactone by Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenic acid (HOHA)-lactone is a biologically active oxidative truncation product released (t1/2 = 30 min at 37 °C) by nonenzymatic transesterification/deacylation from docosahexaenoate lipids. We now report that HOHA-lactone readily diffuses into retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells where it is metabolized. A reduced glutathione (GSH) Michael adduct of HOHA-lactone

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2016 Chemical research in toxicology

87. Cross-regulation of Phosphodiesterase 1 and Phosphodiesterase 2 Activities Controls Dopamine-mediated Striatal α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptor Trafficking (PubMed)

Cross-regulation of Phosphodiesterase 1 and Phosphodiesterase 2 Activities Controls Dopamine-mediated Striatal α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptor Trafficking Dopamine, a key striatal neuromodulator, increases synaptic strength by promoting surface insertion and/or retention of AMPA receptors (AMPARs). This process is mediated by the phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of AMPAR by cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, making cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases

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2016 The Journal of biological chemistry

88. The Study of Structure—Analgesic Activity Relationships in a Series of 4-Hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic Acid Toluidides and Xylidides (PubMed)

The Study of Structure—Analgesic Activity Relationships in a Series of 4-Hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic Acid Toluidides and Xylidides In continuing the search for new analgesics among derivatives of 2,1-benzothiazines, a series of corresponding toluidides and xylidides of 4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ⁶,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid has been synthesized by the reaction of ethyl 4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ⁶,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylate with equimolar amounts of mono (...) and piroxicam. Among the substances studied, highly active oral painkillers have been found; they exceed the analgesic effect of the reference drugs using the same dose. Interesting structural and biological regularities have been described; they will be useful in further research on creating promising new analgesics based on 4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ⁶,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxamides.

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2016 Scientia pharmaceutica

89. Synthesis of 13(R)-Hydroxy-7Z,10Z,13R,14E,16Z,19Z Docosapentaenoic Acid (13R-HDPA) and Its Biosynthetic Conversion to the 13-Series Resolvins (PubMed)

Synthesis of 13(R)-Hydroxy-7Z,10Z,13R,14E,16Z,19Z Docosapentaenoic Acid (13R-HDPA) and Its Biosynthetic Conversion to the 13-Series Resolvins Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators are biosynthesized during the resolution phase of acute inflammation from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Recently, the isolation and identification of the four novel mediators denoted 13-series resolvins, namely, RvT1 (1), RvT2 (2), RvT3 (3) and RvT4 (4), were reported, which showed potent bioactions (...) characteristic for specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Herein, based on results from LC/MS-MS metabololipidomics and the stereoselective synthesis of 13(R)-hydroxy-7Z,10Z,13R,14E,16Z,19Z docosapentaenoic acid (13R-HDPA, 5), we provide direct evidence that the four novel mediators 1-4 are all biosynthesized from the pivotal intermediate 5. The UV and LC/MS-MS results from synthetic 13R-HDPA (5) matched those from endogenously and biosynthetically produced material obtained from in vivo infectious

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2016 Journal of natural products

90. 9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9+13 HODE) are inversely related to granulocyte colony stimulating factor and IL-6 in runners after 2 h running. (PubMed)

9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9+13 HODE) are inversely related to granulocyte colony stimulating factor and IL-6 in runners after 2 h running. This study utilized a pro-inflammatory exercise mode to explore potential linkages between increases in 9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid (9+13 HODE) and biomarkers for inflammation, oxidative stress, and muscle damage. Male (N=10) and female (N=10) runners ran at ∼70% VO2max for 1.5h followed by 30min of downhill running (-10%). Blood

2016 Brain, behavior, and immunity

91. Effects of 4 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training and β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric Free Acid Supplementation on the Onset of Neuromuscular Fatigue. (PubMed)

Effects of 4 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training and β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric Free Acid Supplementation on the Onset of Neuromuscular Fatigue. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMB) supplementation on physical working capacity at the onset of neuromuscular fatigue threshold (PWC(FT)). Thirty-seven participants (22 men, 15 women; 22.8 ± 3.4 years) completed an incremental cycle ergometer test (graded

2016 Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association

92. Possible inhibition of hydroxy methyl glutaryl CoA reductase activity by nicotinic acid and ergosterol: as targeting for hypocholesterolemic action (PubMed)

Possible inhibition of hydroxy methyl glutaryl CoA reductase activity by nicotinic acid and ergosterol: as targeting for hypocholesterolemic action Coronary artery diseases including atherosclerosis is considered as commonest problem worldwide. Ergosterols are the main components of vegetable oils and nuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential hypoplipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of ergosterol in combination with niacin in rats fed high fat diet (HFD).Eighty male (...) control while HDL-c was significantly reduced in HFD rats compared with control group. Supplementation of diet with niacin or ergosterol or combined exerts improvement in the studied parameters by lowering triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, LDL-c and atherogenic factor and elevate HDL-c near to the value of control. Niacin combined with ergosterol were effective in the reduction of hydroxy methyl glutaryl-CoA reducatase (HMGCoA) compared with control (p<0.001). The combined effect was more potent

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2016 African health sciences

93. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study (PubMed)

Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (...) /kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF

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2016 Drug Metabolism and Disposition

94. The Phenazine 2-Hydroxy-Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Promotes Extracellular DNA Release and Has Broad Transcriptomic Consequences in Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30–84 (PubMed)

The Phenazine 2-Hydroxy-Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid Promotes Extracellular DNA Release and Has Broad Transcriptomic Consequences in Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30–84 Enhanced production of 2-hydroxy-phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2-OH-PCA) by the biological control strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84 derivative 30-84O* was shown previously to promote cell adhesion and alter the three-dimensional structure of surface-attached biofilms compared to the wild type. The current study demonstrates

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2016 PloS one

95. Effects of Supplemental Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analog Free Acid in Diet on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Functions of Piglets (PubMed)

Effects of Supplemental Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analog Free Acid in Diet on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Functions of Piglets This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid (DL-MHA) on growth performance and gastrointestinal conditions of piglets. One hundred and eighty crossbred barrow piglets (Large White×Landrace, body weight: 12.48±0.33 kg) were divided into three groups with ten replications (...) of six piglets each. Piglets received DL-MHA in diet at a concentration of 0 (control group), 0.15%, or 0.24%. The results indicated that increasing the standardized ileal digestible (SID) of sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (SID SAA:Lys) ratio by supplementation of DL-MHA tended to increase (quadratic; p<0.10) weight gain and ADG, and showed slightly greater (linear; p<0.10) gain:feed ratio. The pH in the diet and cecum linearly decreased (p<0.01), whereas pH in colon had a quadratic response (p

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2016 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences

96. D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors based on the 5-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazin-6(1H)-one scaffold (PubMed)

D-Amino acid oxidase inhibitors based on the 5-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazin-6(1H)-one scaffold A series of 3-substituted 5-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazin-6(1H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized as a new class of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitors. Some of the newly synthesized derivatives showed potent inhibitory activity against human DAAO with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Among them, 6-hydroxy-3-phenethyl-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one 6b and 3-((6-fluoronaphthalen-2-yl)methylthio)-6-hydroxy

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2016 Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters

97. 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid (HOHA) Lactone Induces Angiogenesis through Several Different Molecular Pathways (PubMed)

4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid (HOHA) Lactone Induces Angiogenesis through Several Different Molecular Pathways Oxidative stress and angiogenesis have been implicated not only in normal phenomena such as tissue healing and remodeling but also in many pathological processes. However, the relationships between oxidative stress and angiogenesis still remain unclear, although oxidative stress has been convincingly demonstrated to influence the progression of angiogenesis under physiological (...) and pathological conditions. The retina is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress because of its intensive oxygenation and high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acyls. In particular, it has high levels of docosahexanoates, whose oxidative fragmentation produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic acid lactone (HOHA-lactone). Previously, we found that HOHA-lactone is a major precursor of 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives, which are tightly linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CEPs promote

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2016 Chemical research in toxicology

98. Metabolic Engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the Production of para-Hydroxy Benzoic Acid (PubMed)

Metabolic Engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the Production of para-Hydroxy Benzoic Acid para-Hydroxy benzoic acid (PHBA) is the key component for preparing parabens, a common preservatives in food, drugs, and personal care products, as well as high-performance bioplastics such as liquid crystal polymers. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was engineered to produce PHBA from glucose via the shikimate pathway intermediate chorismate. To obtain the PHBA production strain, chorismate lyase UbiC

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2016 Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology

99. Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of ω-Hydroxy Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PubMed)

Chemical Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of ω-Hydroxy Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids ω-Hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), natural metabolites from arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were prepared via convergent synthesis approach using two key steps: Cu-mediated CC bond formation to construct methylene skipped poly-ynes and a partial alkyne hydrogenation where the presence of excess 2-methyl-2-butene as an additive that is proven (...) to be critical for the success of partial reduction of the poly-ynes to the corresponding cis-alkenes without over-hydrogenation. The potential biological function of ω-hydroxy PUFAs in pain was evaluated in naive rats. Following intraplantar injection, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE, ω-hydroxy ARA) generated an acute decrease in paw withdrawal thresholds in a mechanical nociceptive assay indicating pain, but no change was observed from rats which received either 20-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (20

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2016 Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters

100. 3-Hydroxi-Anthranilic Acid is Early Expressed in Stroke (PubMed)

3-Hydroxi-Anthranilic Acid is Early Expressed in Stroke Using an immunohistochemical technique, we have studied the distribution of 3-OH-anthranilic acid (3-HAA) in the rat brain. Our study was carried out in control animals and in rats in which a stroke model (single transient middle cerebral artery occlusion) was performed. A monoclonal antibody directed against 3-HAA was also developed. 3-HAA was exclusively observed in the infarcted regions (ipsilateral striatum/cerebral cortex), 2, 5

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2016 European journal of histochemistry : EJH

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