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Alpha-Hydroxy acid

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41. The Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate-Free Acid Supplementation and Resistance Training on Oxidative Stress Markers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study (PubMed)

The Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate-Free Acid Supplementation and Resistance Training on Oxidative Stress Markers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week beta-hydroxy-beta methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on oxidative stress and biochemical variables in responses to resistance training. Sixteen healthy young males participated in this study and were randomly assigned to a HMB-FA (...) supplementation group (n = 8) or a placebo supplementation group (n = 8). The resistance training program was applied for 6 weeks with two sessions per week. Blood samples were collected before and after training, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), and biochemical variables, such as alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the numbers of total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes

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2018 Antioxidants

42. A Phospholipase C-Like Protein From Ricinus communis Increases Hydroxy Fatty Acids Accumulation in Transgenic Seeds of Camelina sativa (PubMed)

A Phospholipase C-Like Protein From Ricinus communis Increases Hydroxy Fatty Acids Accumulation in Transgenic Seeds of Camelina sativa There have been strong interests in producing unusual fatty acids in oilseed crops to provide renewable industrial feedstock. Results are so far largely disappointing since much lower amounts of such fatty acids accumulate in genetically engineered seeds than in their original natural sources. It has been suggested that the flux of unusual fatty acids through (...) phosphatidylcholine (PC) represents a major bottleneck for high accumulation of such fatty acids in triacylglycerol (TAG). We show here that a phospholipase C-like protein (RcPLCL1) from castor bean, which accumulates nearly 90% of the hydroxylated ricinoleic acid in its seed TAG, increases the amount of hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) when co-expresses with the fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH12) in transgenic seed of Camelina sativa. RcPLCL1 shows hydrolyzing activities on both PC and phosphatidylinositol substrates

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2018 Frontiers in plant science

43. Anti-Hyperuricemic Effect of 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone-5-sulfonic Acid in Hyperuricemic Mice through XOD (PubMed)

Anti-Hyperuricemic Effect of 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone-5-sulfonic Acid in Hyperuricemic Mice through XOD Conventionally, benzophenone-type molecules are beneficial for alleviating the UV exposure of humans. More importantly, various compounds with this skeleton have demonstrated various biological activities. In this paper, we report the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the benzophenone compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid (HMS). Preliminarily, its molecular docking score

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2018 Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

44. Mechanisms of status epilepticus: α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor hypothesis. (PubMed)

Mechanisms of status epilepticus: α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor hypothesis. Prolonged seizures of status epilepticus (SE) result from failure of mechanisms of seizure termination or activation of mechanisms that sustain seizures. Reduced γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated synaptic transmission contributes to impairment of seizure termination. However, mechanisms that sustain prolonged seizures are not known. We propose that insertion of GluA1 subunits (...) at the glutamatergic synapses causes potentiation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR)-mediated neurotransmission, which helps to spread and sustain seizures. The AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission of CA1 pyramidal neurons was increased in animals in SE induced by pilocarpine. The surface membrane expression of GluA1 subunit-containing AMPARs on CA1 pyramidal neurons was also increased. Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors 10 minutes after the onset of continuous electrographic

2018 Epilepsia

45. Dietary 23-hydroxy ursolic acid protects against atherosclerosis and obesity by preventing dyslipidemia-induced monocyte priming and dysfunction. (PubMed)

Dietary 23-hydroxy ursolic acid protects against atherosclerosis and obesity by preventing dyslipidemia-induced monocyte priming and dysfunction. We demonstrated that dietary ursolic acid (UA) reduces atherosclerotic lesion size and improves kidney function in diabetic mice. Based on structure-function analyses of naturally occurring UA analogs, we synthesized 23-hydroxy ursolic acid (23-OHUA), a compound with structural features predicted to enhance its bioavailability and anti-atherogenic

2018 Atherosclerosis

46. Serum Concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one are Associated with Bile Acid Diarrhea in Patients with Crohn's Disease. (PubMed)

Serum Concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one are Associated with Bile Acid Diarrhea in Patients with Crohn's Disease. Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often have bile acid diarrhea (BAD), due to bile acid malabsorption following ileal resection (IR). Bile acid malabsorption increases production of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), a bile acid precursor. We investigated relationships between serum concentrations of C4 and BAD in patients with CD.We collected demographic data, serum (...) of diarrhea attributable to bile acid malabsorption (BAD), defined as diarrhea and a serum concentration of FGF19 <60 pg/mL.Patients with UC had a median serum C4 concentration of 11.8 ng/mL, whereas patients with CD and IR with ileitis (documented endoscopically) had a median concentration of 100.0 ng/mL (P compared to UC < .0001) and patients with CD and IR without ileitis had a median concentration of 51.6 ng/mL (P compared to UC < .001). Patients with CD without IR did not have a significantly higher

2018 Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

47. Docosahexaenoic acid-derived fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) with anti-inflammatory properties. (PubMed)

Docosahexaenoic acid-derived fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) with anti-inflammatory properties. White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution (...) of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13

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2016 Diabetes

48. Chronic treatment with the modified Longdan Xiegan Tang attenuates olanzapine-induced fatty liver in rats by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid beta-oxidation-associated gene expression mediated by SREBP-1c, PPAR-alpha and AMPK-alpha. (PubMed)

Chronic treatment with the modified Longdan Xiegan Tang attenuates olanzapine-induced fatty liver in rats by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid beta-oxidation-associated gene expression mediated by SREBP-1c, PPAR-alpha and AMPK-alpha. The modified Longdan Xiegan Tang (mLXT) has been used clinically for various neuropsychiatric disorders and liver diseases. The use of antipsychotics is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.To investigate the effect and underlying (...) increases in hepatic triglyceride content, cell vacuolar degeneration and Oil Red O-stained area, accompanied by suppression of olanzapine-stimulated hepatic mRNA and/or protein overexpression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and its downstream lipogenic enzymes for de novo lipogenesis. Besides, mLXT also activated hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and its target genes associated with fatty acid beta-oxidation, phosphorylated Thr172 in AMP

2018 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

49. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation may improve recovery and muscle adaptations after resistance training: a systematic review. (PubMed)

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation may improve recovery and muscle adaptations after resistance training: a systematic review. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance (...) , and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans. The search was conducted using Medline and Google Scholar databases for the terms beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, HMB free acid, exercise, resistance exercise, strength training

2017 Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)

50. Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor Actions in Metabolism. (PubMed)

Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor Actions in Metabolism. Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA

2017 Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism

51. 3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid modulates dietary restriction mediated longevity and ameliorates toxic protein aggregation in C. elegans. (PubMed)

3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid modulates dietary restriction mediated longevity and ameliorates toxic protein aggregation in C. elegans. Species from lower invertebrates to a spectrum of mammals show antiaging health benefits of phytochemical(s). Here, we explored the pro-longevity effects of a natural triterpenoid, ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid; UA) in Caenorhabditis elegans with maximal life span being evident at 25 µM UA. Similar to eat-2 mutants, UA uptake by worm results

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2017 Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

52. The functional property of royal jelly 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid as a melanogenesis inhibitor. (PubMed)

The functional property of royal jelly 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid as a melanogenesis inhibitor. It has been reported that royal jelly would reduce melanin synthesis and inhibit the expression of melanogensis related proteins and genes. In this study, we evaluate the anti-melanogenic and depigmenting activity of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly of Apis mellifera.In this study, we assesses the 10-HDA whitening activity in comparison with the changes in the intracellular

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2017 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

53. 7-Phenoxy-substituted 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides as Positive Allosteric Modulators of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors with Nanomolar Potency (PubMed)

7-Phenoxy-substituted 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides as Positive Allosteric Modulators of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors with Nanomolar Potency We report here the synthesis of 7-phenoxy-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides and their evaluation as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators (AMPApams). The impact of substitution on the phenoxy ring and on the nitrogen atom at the 4-position was examined

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2017 Journal of medicinal chemistry

54. Effects of -Hydroxy- -methylbutyrate-free Acid Supplementation on Strength, Power and Hormonal Adaptations Following Resistance Training (PubMed)

Effects of -Hydroxy- -methylbutyrate-free Acid Supplementation on Strength, Power and Hormonal Adaptations Following Resistance Training β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear.Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA

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2017 Nutrients

55. 68Ga-Chelation and comparative evaluation of N,N′-bis-[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) conjugated NGR and RGD peptides as tumor targeted molecular imaging probes †The authors declare no competing interes (PubMed)

68Ga-Chelation and comparative evaluation of N,N′-bis-[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) conjugated NGR and RGD peptides as tumor targeted molecular imaging probes †The authors declare no competing interes Peptides containing RGD and NGR motifs display high affinity towards tumor vasculature molecular markers, integrin αvβ3 and CD13 receptors, respectively. In the present study, RGD and NGR peptides were conjugated with the novel acyclic (...) chelator N,N'-bis-[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED-CC) for radiolabeling with 68Ga. The radiotracers [68Ga-HBED-CC-c(NGR)] and [68Ga-HBED-CC-c(RGD)] were quite hydrophilic with respective log P values being -2.8 ± 0.14 and -2.1 ± 0.17. 68Ga-HBED-CC-c(RGD) displayed a significantly higher (p < 0.05) uptake in murine melanoma B16F10 tumors as compared to 68Ga-HBED-CC-c(NGR) indicating its higher specificity towards integrin αvβ3-positive tumors. The two

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2017 Medchemcomm

56. Quantitative Profiling of Hydroxy Lipid Metabolites in Mouse Organs Reveals Distinct Lipidomic Profiles and Modifications Due to Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels (PubMed)

Quantitative Profiling of Hydroxy Lipid Metabolites in Mouse Organs Reveals Distinct Lipidomic Profiles and Modifications Due to Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of bioactive metabolites and mediators. In this study, the profile of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE), hydroxyeicosapentaenoic (HEPE) and hydroxydocosahexaenoic (HDHA) acids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colon, liver, lung

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2017 Biology

57. Role of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor regulation in stress-induced pain chronification (PubMed)

Role of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor regulation in stress-induced pain chronification Persistent postsurgical pain is a serious issue in public health, which has received increased interest in recent years. Previous studies have reported that psychological factors promote the development of chronic postsurgical pain. However, it is unclear how chronification of postsurgical pain occurs. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPA

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2017 World journal of biological chemistry

58. Erratum: 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic reaction in mice via modulation of the FcεRI signaling pathway (PubMed)

Erratum: 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic reaction in mice via modulation of the FcεRI signaling pathway 28248927 2018 02 03 1745-7254 38 3 2017 03 Acta pharmacologica Sinica Acta Pharmacol. Sin. Erratum: 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic reaction in mice via modulation of the FcεRI signaling pathway. 444 10.1038/aps.2017.4 eng Journal Article Published Erratum United States Acta Pharmacol Sin 100956087 1671-4083 Acta

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2017 Acta pharmacologica Sinica

59. GluA1 subunit ubiquitination mediates amyloid-β-induced loss of surface α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors (PubMed)

GluA1 subunit ubiquitination mediates amyloid-β-induced loss of surface α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors The accumulation of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides produces profound neuronal changes in the brain during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Excessive levels of Aβ disrupt excitatory synaptic transmission by promoting the removal of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs), dendritic spine loss, and synaptic depression. Recently, activity-dependent

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2017 The Journal of biological chemistry

60. Elucidation of the Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cryptococcus-amoeba Interactions (PubMed)

Elucidation of the Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cryptococcus-amoeba Interactions We previously reported that 3-hydroxy fatty acids promoted the survival of cryptococcal cells when acted upon by amoebae. To expand on this, the current study sought to explain how these molecules may protect cells. Our data suggest that 3-hydroxy fatty acids may subvert the internalization of cryptococcal cells via suppression of the levels of a fetuin A-like amoebal protein, which may be important (...) for enhancing phagocytosis. Additionally, we show that an acapsular strain (that is devoid of 3-hydroxy fatty acids) was protected against the effects of hydrogen peroxide when exogenous 3-hydroxy fatty acids were present, but not in the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids. A similar response profile was noted when a strain with a capsule was challenged with hydrogen peroxide. We also show that cryptococcal cells that naturally produce 3-hydroxy fatty acids were more resistant to the effects of amoebapore

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

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