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Alpha-Hydroxy acid

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23881. Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid): a two year multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (ALADIN II). Alpha Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. (PubMed)

Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid): a two year multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (ALADIN II). Alpha Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. Short-term trials with the antioxidant thioctic acid (TA) appear to improve neuropathic symptoms in diabetic patients, but the long-term response remains to be established. Therefore, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy were randomly assigned

1999 Free radical research

23882. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus (PubMed)

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained (...) for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadienoic acid. Preceding the production of CLA, hydroxy fatty acids identified as 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecaenoic acid and 10-hydroxy-trans-12-octadecaenoic acid had accumulated. The isolated 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecaenoic acid was transformed into CLA during incubation with washed cells of L. acidophilus, suggesting that this hydroxy fatty acid is one

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2001 Applied and environmental microbiology

23883. Altered responses of human macrophages to lipopolysaccharide by hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid, hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor production. (PubMed)

)-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 15(s)-hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE) regulate agonist-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) production, a cytokine that plays a role in inflammatory diseases. Although 20:4n-6 and 15-HETE caused a reduction in production of TNF in mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A, and Staphylococcus aureus, 15-HPETE was far more active. 15-HPETE was also found to dramatically (...) Altered responses of human macrophages to lipopolysaccharide by hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid, hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor production. The regulation of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory reactions by polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolic products (eicosanoids) continues to be of major interest. Our data demonstrate that arachidonic acid 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-6) and its hydroxylated derivatives 15(s

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1997 Journal of Clinical Investigation

23884. Lack of 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase in fibroblasts from a child with urinary excretion of 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-bile acids. A new inborn error of metabolism. (PubMed)

Lack of 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase in fibroblasts from a child with urinary excretion of 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-bile acids. A new inborn error of metabolism. Cultured fibroblasts were shown to be capable of catalyzing the conversion of 7 alpha-hydroxy-cholesterol to 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, an important reaction in bile acid synthesis. The apparent Km was approximately 7 mumol/liter and Vmax varied between 3 and 9 nmol/mg protein per h under the assay (...) conditions used. The assay was used to investigate fibroblasts from a patient who presented with a familial giant cell hepatitis and who was found to excrete the monosulfates of 3 beta, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholenoic acid and 3 beta, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5-cholenoic acid in urine (Clayton, P. T., J. V. Leonard, A. M. Lawson, K. D. R. Setchell, S. Andersson, B. Egestad, and J. Sjövall. 1987. J. Clin. Invest. 79:1031-1038). In addition 7 alpha-hydroxy-cholesterol was found to accumulate

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1990 Journal of Clinical Investigation

23885. Extreme pKa displacements at the active sites of FMN-dependent alpha-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes. (PubMed)

Extreme pKa displacements at the active sites of FMN-dependent alpha-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes. Flavocytochrome b2 (or L-lactate dehydrogenase) from baker's yeast is thought to operate by the initial formation of a carbanion, as do the evolutionarily related alpha-hydroxy acid-oxidizing FMN-dependent oxidases. Previous work has shown that, in the active site of the unligated reduced flavocytochrome b2, the group that has captured the substrate alpha-proton has a high pKapp, calculated (...) compared to its pKa of 20 or more when free. The features of the three-dimensional structure possibly responsible for these pK shifts are analyzed; they are proposed to consist of a network of hydrogen bonds with the solvent and of a mutual electrostatic stabilization of anionic reduced flavin and the imidazolium ion. Finally, it is suggested that similar pK shifts affect the active sites of the alpha-hydroxy acid-oxidizing flavooxidases, which are homologous to flavocytochrome b2. The functional

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1992 Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

23886. Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: a pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. (PubMed)

Effects of alpha-hydroxy acids on photoaged skin: a pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. alpha-Hydroxy acids (AHAs) have been reported to improve aging skin. The mechanisms of action of AHAs on epidermal and dermal compartments need clarification.Our purpose was to determine the effects of AHAs on photoaged human skin by clinical and microanalytic means.Patients applied a lotion containing 25% glycolic, lactic, or citric acid to one forearm and a placebo lotion to the opposite (...) forearm for an average of 6 months. Thickness of forearm skin was measured throughout the study. Biopsy specimens from both forearms were processed for analysis at the end of the study.Treatment with AHAs caused an approximate 25% increase in skin thickness. The epidermis was thicker and papillary dermal changes included increased thickness, increased acid mucopolysaccharides, improved quality of elastic fibers, and increased density of collagen. No inflammation was evident.Treatment with AHAs

1996 Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

23887. Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes with retinoic acid and 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in combination with low-dose ara-C is not superior to ara-C alone. Results from a randomized study. The Scandinavian Myelodysplasia Group (SMG). (PubMed)

Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes with retinoic acid and 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in combination with low-dose ara-C is not superior to ara-C alone. Results from a randomized study. The Scandinavian Myelodysplasia Group (SMG). 63 evaluable patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and 15 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were randomized between low-dose ara-C (arm A) and low dose ara-C in combination with 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-CRA) and 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (1 alpha D3 (...) ) (arm B). 69 patients were evaluable and 18 (26.1%) responded to therapy. The addition of 13-CRA and 1 alpha D3 had no positive influence on survival of the patients, remission rates or duration of remissions. 12/27 patients in arm A and 6/29 patients in arm B progressed from MDS to AML during the course of the study (p = 0.0527). Arm B gave significantly more side-effects than arm A (p = 0.005). Therapeutic effects of 13-CRA and 1 alpha D3 on MDS is not supported by this study. However

1990 European journal of haematology

23888. An evaluation of the effect of an alpha hydroxy acid-blend skin cream in the cosmetic improvement of symptoms of moderate to severe xerosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and ichthyosis. (PubMed)

An evaluation of the effect of an alpha hydroxy acid-blend skin cream in the cosmetic improvement of symptoms of moderate to severe xerosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and ichthyosis. A number of genetic, intrinsic, and extrinsic factors can cause conditions of problem dry skin, marked by unusual dryness, rough texture, and extreme flaking and scaling, that are generally not controlled by conventional moisturizers. A study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two novel alpha (...) hydroxy acid (AHA)-containing creams in reducing the appearance and symptoms of problem dry skin on subjects with a range of dry skin conditions, including xerosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and ichthyosis. Twenty subjects completed a course of treatment with either regular or extra strength AHA-blend cream on a test site, compared with a currently marketed, non-AHA moisturizing lotion on a control site. Subjects were treated for 4 weeks, with clinical evaluations performed at weeks 0, 2, and 4

1998 Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner

23889. Alpha-hydroxy acids for skin rejuvenation. (PubMed)

Alpha-hydroxy acids for skin rejuvenation. 8023493 1994 07 29 2018 11 13 0093-0415 160 4 1994 Apr The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. Alpha-hydroxy acids for skin rejuvenation. 366-7 Scheinberg R R eng Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 0 Hydroxy Acids AIM IM Administration, Topical Humans Hydroxy Acids administration & dosage pharmacology Regeneration drug effects Skin Aging drug effects Skin Physiological Phenomena 1994 4 1 1994 4 1 0 1 1994 4 1 0 0 ppublish

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1994 Western Journal of Medicine

23890. Colorimetric enzymatic measurement of serum total 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acid concentrations without extraction. (PubMed)

Colorimetric enzymatic measurement of serum total 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acid concentrations without extraction. A new method for the simpler colorimetric assay of serum total 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acid concentrations without prior extraction has been investigated. The lowest concentration that could be reliably measured was 3 mumol/l and the results obtained were in agreement with those obtained using extraction and the spectrofluorimetric enzymatic assay (y = 1.007x - 1.86, r = 0.99, n = 36

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1984 Journal of Clinical Pathology

23891. Serum 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations in the evaluation of bile acid malabsorption in patients with diarrhoea: correlation to SeHCAT test. (PubMed)

Serum 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations in the evaluation of bile acid malabsorption in patients with diarrhoea: correlation to SeHCAT test. The synthesis of bile acids is regulated by a homeostatic mechanism in which bile acids returning to the liver from the intestine inhibit their own synthesis. Serum concentrations of the bile acid intermediate 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one reflect the rate of bile acid synthesis whereas bile acid malabsorption can be determined (...) by the SeHCAT test. This study was done to evaluate the correlation between the two tests in humans. Twenty eight patients with chronic diarrhoea were included in the study. Fasting serum was collected for the determination of 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, and on the same day the gamma emitting bile acid analogue SeHCAT was given orally and its fractional catabolic rate assessed by repeated external counting over the upper abdomen during the next seven days. There was a highly significant positive

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1993 Gut

23892. Glucuronidation of 6 alpha-hydroxy bile acids by human liver microsomes. (PubMed)

Glucuronidation of 6 alpha-hydroxy bile acids by human liver microsomes. The glucuronidation of 6-hydroxylated bile acids by human liver microsomes has been studied in vitro; for comparison, several major bile acids lacking a 6-hydroxyl group were also investigated. Glucuronidation rates for 6 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were 10-20 times higher than those of substrates lacking a hydroxyl group in position 6. The highest rates measured were for hyodeoxy- and hyocholic acids, and kinetic (...) analyses were carried out using these substrates. Rigorous product identification by high-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance and by electron impact mass spectrometry of methyl ester/peracetate derivatives revealed that 6-O-beta-D-glucuronides were the exclusive products formed in these enzymatic reactions. These results, together with literature data, indicate that 6 alpha-hydroxylation followed by 6-O-glucuronidation constitutes an alternative route of excretion of toxic hydrophobic bile acids.

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1987 Journal of Clinical Investigation

23893. Synergistic activation by collagen and 15-hydroxy-9 alpha,11 alpha-peroxidoprosta-5,13-dienoic acid (PGH2) of phosphatidylinositol metabolism and arachidonic acid release in human platelets. (PubMed)

Synergistic activation by collagen and 15-hydroxy-9 alpha,11 alpha-peroxidoprosta-5,13-dienoic acid (PGH2) of phosphatidylinositol metabolism and arachidonic acid release in human platelets. Collagen stimulates the activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.10) in human platelets, as manifested by the disappearance of PI, the transient formation of diacylglycerol (DG), and release of myoinositol. Platelets exposed to collagen also form lysophosphatidylinositol (...) (LPI). Maximum formation of DG occurs within 60 s of the addition of collagen and is in proportion to the concentration of collagen provided, up to 100 micrograms/2 x 10(9) platelets/ml. Hydrolysis of PI, formation of DG, and release of arachidonic acid are all inhibited approximately 68% by aspirin or indomethacin, both of which inhibit platelet cyclooxygenase. This inhibition is reversed by the product of cyclooxygenase activity, 15-hydroxy - 9 alpha,11 alpha - peroxidoprosta - 5,13 - dienoic

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1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation

23894. Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to convert hydroxy-amino acids into glycolaldehyde, 2-hydroxypropanal, and acrolein. A mechanism for the generation of highly reactive alpha-hydroxy and alpha,beta-unsaturated (PubMed)

Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to convert hydroxy-amino acids into glycolaldehyde, 2-hydroxypropanal, and acrolein. A mechanism for the generation of highly reactive alpha-hydroxy and alpha,beta-unsaturated Reactive aldehydes derived from reducing sugars and lipid peroxidation play a critical role in the formation of advanced glycation end (AGE) products and oxidative tissue damage. We have recently proposed another mechanism for aldehyde (...) generation at sites of inflammation that involves myeloperoxidase, a heme enzyme secreted by activated phagocytes. We now demonstrate that human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-H202-chloride system to produce alpha-hydroxy and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes from hydroxy-amino acids in high yield. Identities of the aldehydes were established using mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Activated neutrophils converted L-serine to glycolaldehyde, an alpha-hydroxyaldehyde

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1997 Journal of Clinical Investigation

23895. Hepatic metabolism of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-etianic acid (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17 beta-carboxylic acid) in the adult rat. (PubMed)

Hepatic metabolism of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-etianic acid (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17 beta-carboxylic acid) in the adult rat. Normal human meconium has been shown to contain short-chain (C20-C22) bile acids and, recently, these compounds have been identified in sera of patients with cholestasis. This suggests that shortchain bile acids may be secreted in bile. We have examined this point by studying the hepatic metabolism and biliary secretion of one naturally occurring C20 bile acid (...) , 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-etianic acid (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17 beta-carboxylic acid). [3-3H]-3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-etianic acid was prepared and administered intravenously to rats prepared with an external biliary fistula. 85.5 +/- 1.2% of the administered dose was recovered in bile over 20 h with 71.5 +/- 1.3% appearing in the first hour. 11.9 +/- 1.6% of the dose was estimated to be distributed in body water and 0.6 +/- 0.2% was recovered as organic matter in urine. Total recovery

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1983 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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