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Alpha-Hydroxy acid

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181. Effective over-the-counter acne treatments. (Abstract)

antibacterial agent, and salicylic acid, a mild comedolytic and antiinflammatory medication. Other, less-common OTC ingredients include sulfur, sodium sulfacetamide, and alpha hydroxy acids. Zinc, vitamin A, tea tree oil, and ayurvedic therapies also are available OTC for acne. Additional and better studies are needed to clarify the benefit of these latter medications.

2008 Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

182. Cloning and characterization of an ovine intracellular seven transmembrane receptor for progesterone that mediates calcium mobilization. Full Text available with Trip Pro

protein fusion protein, the ovine mPR was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and not the plasma membrane. Specific binding of 3H-progesterone to membrane fractions was demonstrated in CHO cells that expressed the ovine mPR but not in nontransfected cells. Furthermore, progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in CHO cells that expressed ovine mPR in Ca2+-free medium (P < 0.05) but not in CHO cells transfected with empty vector. This rise (...) ) is causing these events. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize an ovine mPR distinct from the nPR. A cDNA clone was isolated from ovine genomic DNA by PCR. The ovine mPR is a 350-amino acid protein that, based on computer hydrophobicity analysis, possesses seven transmembrane domains and is distinct from the nPR. Message for the ovine mPR was detected in hypothalamus, pituitary, uterus, ovary, and corpus luteum by RT-PCR. In CHO cells that overexpressed a mPR-green fluorescent

2006 Endocrinology

183. Review of photorejuvenation: devices, cosmeceuticals, or both? (Abstract)

, recommendations for potential enhancement of benefits by combining cosmeceuticals and laser treatments will be explored.Pulsed dye lasers targeting microvessels, intense pulsed light targeting both melanin and microvessels, and midinfrared lasers targeting dermal water and collagen all appear to have some ability to improve skin texture, color, and wrinkling. Retinoids, vitamin C, alpha-hydroxy acids, and topical growth factors may also stimulate repair mechanisms that result in similar improvements

2005 Dermatologic Surgery

184. Characterization of NADP-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from Peptostreptococcus productus and Eubacterium aerofaciens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in unconjugated and conjugated bile acids, a lower Km value being demonstrated with free bile acid than with glycine and taurine conjugates. No measureable activity against 3 alpha-, 7 alpha-, or 12 alpha-hydroxy groups was detected in either enzyme preparation. When tested with strain ATCC 25986, little 7 beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase activity was detected in cells grown in the presence of glucose in excess. The enzyme from strain b-52 was found to be heat labile (90% inactivation at 50 degrees C for 3 (...) Characterization of NADP-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from Peptostreptococcus productus and Eubacterium aerofaciens. Peptostreptococcus productus strain b-52 (a human fecal isolate) and Eubacterium aerofaciens ATCC 25986 were found to contain NADP-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase activity. The enzyme was synthesized constitutively by both organisms, and the enzyme yields were suppressed by the addition of 0.5 mM 7 beta-hydroxy bile acid to the growth medium

1982 Applied and environmental microbiology

185. The effects of inhibitors of GABAergic transmission and stress on brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effects of inhibitors of GABAergic transmission and stress on brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between a reduction in brain GABAA receptor function and the cerebro-cortical content of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20 one (allopregnanolone, AP), a potent endogenous positive modulator of 7-aminobutyric acid (GABA) action at GABAA receptors, with anticonflict and anticonvulsant effects in rodents. 2. An acute

1997 British journal of pharmacology

186. Purification and Characterization of a Nylon-Degrading Enzyme Full Text available with Trip Pro

. These features are identical to those of the peroxidase-oxidase reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. In addition, alpha-hydroxy acids which are known to accelerate the manganese peroxidase reaction inhibited the nylon-degrading activity strongly. Degradation of nylon-6 fiber was also investigated. Drastic and regular erosion in the nylon surface was observed, suggesting that nylon is degraded to soluble oligomers and that nylon is degraded selectively.

1998 Applied and environmental microbiology

187. On the rate of proton exchange with solvent of the catalytic histidine in flavocytochrome b2 (yeast L-lactate dehydrogenase). Full Text available with Trip Pro

On the rate of proton exchange with solvent of the catalytic histidine in flavocytochrome b2 (yeast L-lactate dehydrogenase). The family of FMN-dependent, alpha-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes catalyzes substrate dehydrogenation by a mechanism the first step of which is abstraction of the substrate alpha-proton (so-called carbanion mechanism). For flavocytochrome b2 and lactate oxidase, it was shown that once on the enzyme this proton is lost only slowly to the solvent (Lederer F, 1984, In: Bray (...) enzyme, whereas it is about 3-fold faster in the Y254F mutant. It thus appears that specific hydrogen bonds to the solvent do not play a major role in stabilizing the acid form of His 373 in reduced flavocytochrome b2. Removal of the Y254 phenol group induces a pKa drop of about half a pH unit for His 373 in the reduced enzyme. Even then, the rate of exchange of the imidazolium proton with solvent is still lower by several orders of magnitude than that of a normally ionizing histidine. Other factors

1994 Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society

188. Effect of dexamethasone on in vivo prostanoid production in the rabbit. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) were determined by radioimmunoassay after organic solvent extraction and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography; 7 alpha-hydroxy-5,11-di-keto-tetranorprostane-1,16-dioic acid (PGE-M) and 5 alpha,7 alpha-dihydroxy-11-keto-tetranorprostane-1,16-dioic-acid (PGF-M), the major urinary metabolites of prostaglandins E and F, were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by radioimmunoassay, respectively

1984 Journal of Clinical Investigation

189. Purification and characterization of two forms of microsomal carbonyl reductase in guinea pig liver. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of 7.8. The enzymes were immunologically distinct. Although the enzymes showed similar substrate specificity for exogenous aldehydes and ketones and apparently absolute cofactor specificity for NADPH, their specificity for natural carbonyl compounds differed. The major form irreversibly reduced 5 alpha- and 5 beta-dihydrotestosterones, menadione and lauryl aldehyde with low Km values of 10-70 microM, whereas the minor form not only reduced 17-oxosteroids, of which 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17 (...) -one was the best substrate, but also oxidized 17-hydroxysteroids in the presence of NADP+. The two forms of carbonyl reductase also exhibited different sensitivity to heavy metal ions, dicoumarol, tetramethyleneglutaric acid, phenobarbitone and corticosteroids.

1984 Biochemical Journal

190. Oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of aconitase, modulates the RNA-binding activity of iron-regulatory proteins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of aconitase, modulates the RNA-binding activity of iron-regulatory proteins. We investigated the effect of oxalomalate (OMA, alpha-hydroxy-beta-oxalosuccinic acid), a competitive inhibitor of aconitase, on the RNA-binding activity of the iron-regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) that control the post-transcriptional expression of various proteins involved in iron metabolism. The RNA-binding activity of IRP was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility-shift (...) . In addition, the recovery of IRP1 by 2-ME in the presence of OMA was constantly lower versus control values. These findings suggest that the severe decrease in IRP1 RNA-binding activity depends on: (i) linking of OMA to the active site of aconitase, which prevents the switch to IRP1 and explains resistance to the reducing agents, and (ii) possible interaction of OMA with some functional amino acid residues in IRP that are responsible for binding to the specific mRNA sequences involved in the regulation

2000 Biochemical Journal

191. Randomized Study of the Effect of Decreased Hyperinsulinemia on the Ovulatory Response to Clomiphene Citrate in Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

renal disease Creatinine less than 1.4 mg/dL No proteinuria Cardiovascular: No clinically significant cardiac disease Pulmonary: No clinically significant pulmonary disease Hormonal: Thyroid function normal Prolactin normal Fasting 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone less than 200 mg/dL OR No late onset adrenal hyperplasia 21 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency Other: Not pregnant Negative pregnancy test Fertile patients must use effective contraception No diabetes mellitus No clinically significant neurologic (...) hyperinsulinism polycystic ovarian syndrome rare disease Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Syndrome Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Hyperinsulinism Disease Pathologic Processes Ovarian Cysts Cysts Neoplasms Ovarian Diseases Adnexal Diseases Genital Diseases, Female Gonadal Disorders Endocrine System Diseases Glucose Metabolism Disorders Metabolic Diseases Citric Acid Sodium Citrate Clomiphene Enclomiphene Zuclomiphene Anticoagulants Calcium Chelating Agents Chelating Agents Sequestering

2000 Clinical Trials

192. Celecoxib in Preventing Basal Cell Carcinoma in Patients With Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

: At least 2 weeks since prior topical retinoids or alpha-hydroxy acids (e.g., glycolic acid or lactic acid) At least 2 weeks since prior topical medications At least 30 days since prior investigational agents At least 2 months since prior NSAIDs given more than 3 times/week At least 2 months since prior aspirin dose of more than 100 mg/day given more than 3 times/week At least 6 months since prior oral retinoids No concurrent chronic NSAIDs (more than 3 times per week for at least 2 weeks) No concurrent (...) aspirin dose of more than 100 mg/day No concurrent topical medications No concurrent fluconazole No concurrent lithium No concurrent retinoids (including topical administration) or alpha-hydroxy acids No other concurrent investigational agents Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor. Please refer to this study by its

2001 Clinical Trials

193. Celecoxib in Preventing Skin Cancer

times per week At least 2 weeks since prior topical alpha hydroxy acids (e.g., glycolic acid or lactic acid) At least 6 months since prior oral retinoids (3 months for topical retinoids to the face) At least 30 days since prior treatment for esophageal, gastric, pyloric channel, or duodenal ulceration At least 30 days since prior investigational medication No other concurrent investigational medication No concurrent topical vitamin A derivatives and/or alpha hydroxy acids No concurrent

2001 Clinical Trials

194. A controlled two-center study of lactate 12 percent lotion and a petrolatum-based creme in patients with xerosis. (Abstract)

A controlled two-center study of lactate 12 percent lotion and a petrolatum-based creme in patients with xerosis. Lactic acid, one of the most widely distributed acids in nature, is present in biological fluids and tissues of humans as an intermediary in carbohydrate metabolism. Alpha-hydroxy acids, including lactic acid, and their salts have been recommended for the treatment of keratinization disorders. This controlled double-blind study compares the efficacy of lactate 12 percent lotion

1986 Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner Controlled trial quality: uncertain

195. [Experiences with L-carnitine in the post-stress phase]. (Abstract)

of fatty acids: triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFA), alpha-hydroxy-butyrate for the metabolism of carbohydrates: glucose, insulin and lactate in plasma. Finally for amino acid metabolism: urea, creatinine, cholinesterase and kolloid osmotic pressure in plasma as well as ureanitrogen and alpha-aminonitrogen excretion in urine. In the patients receiving carnitine especially acetyl-carnitine in plasma and acetyl-carnitine excretion in urine increased, proving that the administered carnitine can pass (...) through the mitochondrial membrane. In these patients the plasma level of FFA was markedly lower than in the group without carnitine. Simultaneously the level of the alpha-hydroxybutyrate was elevated, equivalent to an increased oxydation of fatty acids. There was no difference between the two groups in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Administration of carnitine caused a slight increase of the production of urea (PU), catabolism could not be reduced. The excretion of alpha-aminonitrogen in urine

1986 Infusionstherapie und klinische Ernährung Controlled trial quality: uncertain

196. Effect of calcium carbonate and aluminum hydroxide on human intestinal function. (Abstract)

of three weeks during which time dietary intake was controlled (20 g fiber daily), and the order of treatment (control, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide) was randomized. Neither calcium carbonate nor aluminum hydroxide altered the mean intestinal transit time of eight subjects. Calcium carbonate increased daily output of feces from 106 +/- 30 (SD) to 131 +/- 41 g, of fecal fatty acids from 7.9 +/- 1.4 to 16.8 +/- 5.4 mmol, and of fecal 3 alpha-hydroxy-bile acids from 411 +/- 223 to 769 +/- 505 (...) Effect of calcium carbonate and aluminum hydroxide on human intestinal function. The effect of calcium carbonate (6 g daily) and of aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel, 7.2 g daily) on human gastrointestinal function was examined because these popular antacids have a documented effect on fecal fat, an undocumented association with constipation, and a putative ability to ameliorate cocarcinogenic effects of bile acids and fatty acids on colonic mucosa. Intake-output studies were conducted over periods

1988 Digestive diseases and sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

197. A comparative study of gluconolactone versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne. (Abstract)

A comparative study of gluconolactone versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne. Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA's) or "fruit acids" are a special group of organic acids found in many natural foods. They have been described in the literature for the treatment of a number of conditions in which abnormal keratinization consistently contributes to pathogenesis. These include the icthyoses, warts, psoriasis, eczema and acne. We have performed a double-blind clinical trial on 150 patients (...) to evaluate the efficacy and skin tolerance of the alpha hydroxy acid gluconolactone 14% in solution (Nuvoderm lotion) in the treatment of mild to moderate acne when compared with its vehicle (placebo) and 5% benzoyl peroxide lotion. The results of this study showed that both gluconolactone and benzoyl peroxide had a significant effect in improving patients' acne by reducing the number of lesions (inflamed and non-inflamed). Furthermore, fewer side-effects were experienced by patients treated

1992 The Australasian journal of dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

198. Randomized Study of Decreased Hyperinsulinemia on the Ovulatory Response to Clomiphene Citrate in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Creatinine less than 1.4 mg/dL No proteinuria Cardiovascular: No clinically significant cardiac disease Pulmonary: No clinically significant pulmonary disease Hormonal: Thyroid function normal Prolactin normal Estradiol normal Fasting 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone less than 200 ng/dL OR No late onset adrenal hyperplasia 21 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency Other: Not pregnant Negative pregnancy test Male partner must have a normal semen analysis by WHO criteria Must be in acceptable health by interview (...) Adnexal Diseases Genital Diseases, Female Gonadal Disorders Endocrine System Diseases Glucose Metabolism Disorders Metabolic Diseases Citric Acid Sodium Citrate Clomiphene Enclomiphene Zuclomiphene Anticoagulants Calcium Chelating Agents Chelating Agents Sequestering Agents Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Estrogen Antagonists Hormone Antagonists Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Physiological Effects of Drugs Fertility Agents, Female

2000 Clinical Trials

199. Orally administered progesterone enhances sensitivity to triazolam in postmenopausal women. (Abstract)

Orally administered progesterone enhances sensitivity to triazolam in postmenopausal women. An endogenously formed metabolite of progesterone, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3 alpha-OH-5 alpha-DHP) modulates the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor complex and plays a physiologic role in brain excitability regulation. On the basis of in vitro observations of 3 alpha-OH-5 alpha-DHP-enhanced [3H]flunitrazepam binding, we investigated the potential clinical effect of coadministering oral

1995 Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

200. Neither raw nor retrograded resistant starch lowers fasting serum cholesterol concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

supplements. The mean composition of the background diet was similar when the three supplements were taken. Body weight remained constant throughout the study. There were no significant differences in the fasting concentrations of serum total, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; triacylglycerols, or 3 alpha-hydroxy bile acids after consumption of glucose, RS2, or RS3. Evidence is presented that the lack of effect of RS2 and RS3 on serum lipid concentrations

1996 The American journal of clinical nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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