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Alcoholic Hepatitis

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101. Parental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease increases risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring. (Abstract)

Parental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease increases risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring. Little is known regarding the risk of hepatic steatosis (HS) among adult children of affected parents. We examined the association between parental and offspring HS in the multigenerational Framingham Heart Study, which characterized HS using computed tomography.We performed multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, alcohol use, and body mass index to generate (...) the odds of HS according to parental HS. We determined the proportion of participants with HS according to parental HS and the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ). After excluding heavy alcohol use (n = 126) and missing covariates (n = 1), 785 offspring with at least one parent were included.Approximately 23% (183/785) had at least one parent with HS and 1.1% had two affected parents (9/785). In adjusted models, participants with at least one parent with HS had

2018 Liver International

102. Alcohol Consumption in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Convenient vs. Inconvenient Truths. (Abstract)

Alcohol Consumption in Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Convenient vs. Inconvenient Truths. Understanding the role of modest alcohol consumption in patients with non-alcohol induced fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains a significant challenge, with no clear guidance on counselling regarding alcohol use. Conventionally, the strong association of alcohol excess and development of complications related to chronic liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma, has led (...) practitioners to advocate complete abstinence to those with NAFLD. New evidence published in this issue of the Red Journal challenges the historic paradigm by showing that modest, non-binge wine consumption (<70 g/week) associates with significantly lower risk of advanced hepatic fibrosis on biopsy compared with complete abstinence across a well-characterised single centre cohort of nearly 200 patients with NAFLD.

2018 American Journal of Gastroenterology

103. Alcohol Biosensor Monitoring for Alcoholic Liver Disease

: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Information provided by (Responsible Party): Andrea DiMartini, University of Pittsburgh Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Successful treatment of alcohol associated liver disease (AALD) depends primarily on abstinence from alcohol. The investigators propose a randomized clinical trial of alcohol biosensor monitoring for patients with alcohol associated liver disease to determine if monitoring with feedback on alcohol use (...) Inclusion Criteria: Patients with AALD followed at our liver disease clinic, 18 years or older, willing to accept randomization, and agree to wear device for 3 months, SOCRATES problem recognition subscale score >26 (scores <26 indicate very low recognition of an alcohol problem). Exclusion Criteria: Non-English speaking, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) scores <21 (moderate cognitive impairment) or neurologic diseases (e.g. Parkinson's), patients with unresponsive acute alcoholic hepatitis, multi

2018 Clinical Trials

104. Diagnosis and treatment of alcohol use disorder in patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease. (Abstract)

Diagnosis and treatment of alcohol use disorder in patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease. Between 14%-30% of the world's population is affected by alcohol use disorder (AUD), and excessive alcohol consumption represents the most common cause of liver disease in the western world. The clinical picture of alcoholic end-stage liver disease is rendered extremely complex, as manifestations such as alcohol withdrawal syndrome, craving and physical dependence, as well as extrahepatic alcohol (...) -related diseases merge with the complications of advanced cirrhosis. This makes AUD recognition and assessment difficult and its management arduous as many drugs commonly used to treat complications such as alcohol withdrawal syndrome are often contraindicated by the presence of hepatic encephalopathy or hepatorenal syndrome. Reaching and maintaining abstinence represents the mainstay of managing patients with AUD and end-stage liver disease. Psychosocial interventions are an essential component

2018 Hepatology

105. Effect of alcohol consumption on survival in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a national prospective cohort study. (Abstract)

of their survival. We diagnosed NAFLD based on a previously validated biochemical model (Hepatic Steatosis Index). We built multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the effect of alcohol consumption on survival of patients with NAFLD. After excluding participants with significant alcohol use, viral hepatitis, or increased transferrin saturation, 4,568 participants with NAFLD were included in the analysis. In a Cox model adjusted for age, sex, and smoking history, drinking 0.5-1.5 drinks per day (...) Effect of alcohol consumption on survival in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a national prospective cohort study. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises more than two thirds of patients with chronic liver disease in the United States. The effect of alcohol consumption on survival in patients with NAFLD is not clear. We gathered data on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants from 1988 to 2010, and linked them to the National Death Index for follow-up

2018 Hepatology

106. Effects of DA-5513 on alcohol metabolism and alcoholic fatty liver in rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of DA-5513 on alcohol metabolism and alcoholic fatty liver in rats Hangover is characterized by a number of unpleasant physical and mental symptoms that occur after heavy alcohol drinking. In addition, consistently excessive alcohol intake is considered as a major reason causes liver disease. The present study investigated the in vivo effects of DA-5513 (Morning care® Kang Hwang) on biological parameters relevant to hangover relief and alcoholic fatty liver. Blood alcohol (...) in the groups treated with DA-5513 or Yeomyung®, as compared with control rats. However, Ukon® did not produce any significant effects on these parameters. Treatment with DA-5513 significantly reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities and markedly reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as compared with control rats. Histological observations using Oil Red O staining found that DA-5513 delayed the development of alcoholic fatty liver by reversing hepatic fat accumulation

2018 Laboratory animal research

107. Non-alcoholic steatofibrosis (NASF) can independently predict mortality in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Full Text available with Trip Pro

causes of chronic liver disease (alcohol consumption <20 gr/day, hepatitis B surface-antigen negative, anti-hepatitis C virus antibody negative, transferrin saturation <50%). Significant hepatic fibrosis was estimated by high NFS (>0.676) and calculated with previously published formula. Subjects with NAFLD and high NFS have significant NASF.NHANES III included 20 050 adult participants. 2515 participants complete data and NAFLD with 5.1% (n=129) meeting criteria for significant SF. Subjects (...) Non-alcoholic steatofibrosis (NASF) can independently predict mortality in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independently predicts mortality. Given liver biopsy's invasive nature, non-invasive method to assess hepatic steatosis and fibrosis provides NAFLD risk stratification algorithm in clinical practice. NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) is simple and non-invasive predictive model recommended

2018 BMJ open gastroenterology

108. FGF21, a liver hormone that inhibits alcohol intake in mice, increases in human circulation after acute alcohol ingestion and sustained binge drinking at Oktoberfest Full Text available with Trip Pro

responses, and problems. Finally, we characterized the effect of recombinant human FGF21 injection on ad libitum alcohol intake in mice.We show that alcohol ingestion (25.3 g or ∼2.5 standard drinks) acutely increases plasma levels of FGF21 (1-181) 3.4-fold in fasting humans. We also find that binge drinking for three days at Oktoberfest is associated with a 2.1-fold increase in baseline FGF21 (1-181) levels, in contrast to minor deteriorations in metabolic and hepatic biomarkers. However, basal FGF21 (...) (1-181) levels were not correlated with differences in alcohol-related behaviors, emotional responses, or problems in our non-alcoholic subjects. Finally, we show that once-daily injection of recombinant human FGF21 reduces ad libitum alcohol intake by 21% in mice.FGF21 (1-181) is markedly increased in circulation by both acute and sub-chronic alcohol intake in humans, and reduces alcohol intake in mice. These observations are consistent with a role for FGF21 as an endocrine inhibitor of alcohol

2018 Molecular metabolism

109. Alcoholic liver disease confers a worse prognosis than HCV infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with cirrhosis: An observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and death were collected during a 21-year period among patients with cirrhosis related to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (n = 529), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n = 145) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 78).At inclusion, ALD patients were younger than HCV and NAFLD patients (56 vs. 67 vs. 63 years; p<0.001) and had worse liver function (percent of patients with Child-Pugh stages B or C: 48% vs. 8% vs. 17%; p<0.001). During follow-up, 85 patients developed HCC and 379 died (...) Alcoholic liver disease confers a worse prognosis than HCV infection and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with cirrhosis: An observational study. Cirrhosis is a heterogeneous clinical condition that includes patients at wide-ranging stages of severity. The role of the underlying liver disease on patient prognosis remains unclear.To assess the impact of the underlying liver disease on the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death.Data related to the occurrence of HCC

2017 PLoS ONE

110. Acute alcoholic hepatitis and cellular Th1 immune responses to alcohol dehydrogenase. (Abstract)

Acute alcoholic hepatitis and cellular Th1 immune responses to alcohol dehydrogenase. Alcoholic hepatitis is characterised by florid hepatic inflammation, liver failure, and death within 28 days in 35% of patients. We recently showed proliferative peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) responses to alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis, associated with T-helper-type 1 (Th1) immunity and disease severity. We aimed to define whether ADH-specific cellular (...) immunity is present in alcoholic hepatitis.PBMCs were collected from 15 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (modified Maddrey's discriminant function >32), nine with alcohol-related cirrhosis (long-term alcohol abstinence), and three healthy controls. 25 overlapping peptides, spanning the human ADH β1 subunit, were constructed. Proliferation to ADH peptides (1 × 10(5) cells per well, cultured with 10 mM peptides for 7 days) was assessed by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. A stimulation index (SI) of 2·5

2015 Lancet

111. Finding Quality Addiction Care in Canada: Drug and Alcohol Treatment Guide

and other harms by providing a safe, supervised environment for drug use. Managed alcohol programs provide shelter and carefully dosed amounts of alcohol to people who are homeless and have chronic alcohol use problems. Through close monitoring in a safe environment, these shelters allow their residents to avoid the withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence. Overdose prevention and response provides training and naloxone kits for people who are at risk of overdosing on opioids and those who (...) and treatment settings. The best fit for you will depend on many things, including how severe your problem is and your physical and mental health. These details are determined through a comprehensive assessment by a qualified addiction or healthcare provider. Outpatient (community): Delivered in a variety of places in the community, such as an addiction or healthcare provider’s office, a mental health clinic or an addiction clinic. Most often used by people whose alcohol or other drug use does not put them

2017 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

112. Pharmacological Treatment of Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder

for indications other than AUD. It also does not address the manage- ment of individuals who are intoxicated with alcohol, who require pharmacotherapy for the acute treatment of alcohol withdrawal, or who are experiencing other acute medical problems related to alcohol use. Evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments for AUD, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), twelve-step facilitation (TSF), and motivational enhancement therapy (MET) (Anton et al. 2006; Martin and Rehm 2012; Project MATCH Research (...) Pharmacological Treatment of Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION PRACTICE GUIDELINE FOR THE Pharmacological Treatment of Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION PRACTICE GUIDELINE FOR THE PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL USE DISORDER WWW.APPI.ORG A lcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major public health problem in the United States. The estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence values for AUD are 13.9% and 29.1

2017 American Psychiatric Association

113. Frequent Emergency Department Visits are More Prevalent in Psychiatric, Alcohol Abuse, and Dual Diagnosis Conditions than in Chronic Viral Illnesses Such as Hepatitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. (Abstract)

Frequent Emergency Department Visits are More Prevalent in Psychiatric, Alcohol Abuse, and Dual Diagnosis Conditions than in Chronic Viral Illnesses Such as Hepatitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Repeat users of Emergency Departments (ED), so-called "frequent visitors," place a substantial burden on limited ED resources. The illness features of frequent visitors have not been well defined, though chronic medical and psychiatric illness and substance abuse are implicated.This study assessed (...) whether chronic conditions such as hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more prevalent in frequent ED users compared to a viral condition with relatively less disability, hepatitis B (HBV). As a comparison, psychiatric complaints and alcohol abuse were also compared in frequent and non-frequent visitors.All visits to a university ED in a particular calendar year were retrospectively reviewed. Frequent visitors were defined as those who made four or more visits. Presenting

2013 Journal of Emergency Medicine

114. The Hepatitis C-Alcohol Reduction Treatment (Hep ART) intervention: Study protocol of a multi-center randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to compare clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated alcohol treatment compared to enhanced treatment as usual (TAU) on alcohol consumption and economic outcomes among patients ever infected with HCV.Patients recruited from three liver centers who had current or prior chronic HCV and qualifying alcohol screener scores were randomly assigned to enhanced TAU or the Hepatitis C-Alcohol Reduction Treatment (Hep ART) intervention. All patients received enhanced TAU, consisting of a patient (...) The Hepatitis C-Alcohol Reduction Treatment (Hep ART) intervention: Study protocol of a multi-center randomized controlled trial. Among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcohol synergistically increases the risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Randomized controlled trials of integrated models of HCV-alcohol treatment have been recommended but only performed in patients with severe alcohol use disorders.This pragmatic randomized controlled trial seeks

2018 Contemporary clinical trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

115. Evidence for a role of genetics in alcoholic hepatitis: Data from the STOPAH randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Evidence for a role of genetics in alcoholic hepatitis: Data from the STOPAH randomized controlled trial. 28412295 2018 12 14 2018 12 14 1600-0641 67 1 2017 07 Journal of hepatology J. Hepatol. Evidence for a role of genetics in alcoholic hepatitis: Data from the STOPAH randomized controlled trial. 12-14 S0168-8278(17)30210-6 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.04.001 Louvet Alexandre A Service des maladies de l'appareil digestif, Hôpital Huriez, Lille, France. Electronic address: alexandre.louvet@chru (...) -lille.fr. Peck-Radosavljevic Markus M Abteilung Gastroenterologie & Hepatologie, Endokrinologie und Nephrologie, Klinikum Klagenfurt am Wörthersee, Klagenfurt, Austria. Electronic address: markus@peck.at. eng Editorial Comment 2017 04 13 Netherlands J Hepatol 8503886 0168-8278 IM J Hepatol. 2017 Jul;67(1):120-127 28161471 Hepatitis, Alcoholic Homozygote Humans 2017 03 14 2017 03 27 2017 04 04 2017 4 17 6 0 2018 12 15 6 0 2017 4 17 6 0 ppublish 28412295 S0168-8278(17)30210-6 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.04.001

2018 Journal of Hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

116. Extracorporeal cellular therapy (ELAD) in severe alcoholic hepatitis: A multinational, prospective, controlled, randomized trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Extracorporeal cellular therapy (ELAD) in severe alcoholic hepatitis: A multinational, prospective, controlled, randomized trial. 29385313 2018 05 01 2018 12 02 1527-6473 24 5 2018 05 Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society Liver Transpl. Extracorporeal cellular therapy (ELAD) in severe alcoholic hepatitis: A multinational, prospective, controlled, randomized trial. 711 10.1002 (...) /lt.25026 Sussman Norman L NL Abdominal Transplant and Liver Disease Clinic, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Kelly James H JH Cell Machines, Inc., Houston, TX. eng Letter Comment 2018 04 06 United States Liver Transpl 100909185 1527-6465 IM Liver Transpl. 2018 Mar;24(3):380-393 29171941 Hepatitis, Alcoholic Humans Liver Transplantation Prospective Studies 2017 12 25 2018 01 29 2018 2 1 6 0 2018 5 2 6 0 2018 2 1 6 0 ppublish 29385313 10.1002/lt.25026

2018 Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

117. Noncholesterol Sterols as Surrogate Markers in Patients with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis. (Abstract)

Noncholesterol Sterols as Surrogate Markers in Patients with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis. Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening condition lacking good serologic markers to tailor treatment and predict recovery. We examined the cholesterol metabolism in severe AH to explore prognostic markers and evaluate the profile of cholesterol precursors, cholestanol and phytosterols, in this context. We assessed serum cholesterol, cholesterol precursors, cholestanol, phytosterols

2018 Lipids Controlled trial quality: uncertain

118. Efficacy of granulocyte colony stimulating factor in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis with partial or null response to steroid (GRACIAH trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy of granulocyte colony stimulating factor in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis with partial or null response to steroid (GRACIAH trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) has the most severe presentation among alcohol-related liver diseases. Corticosteroids are the most widely recommended treatment for severe AH. However, more innovative, refined treatment measures are required because of its high mortality despite corticosteroid treatment

2018 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

119. Transplantation for Alcoholic Hepatitis: Are We Achieving Justice and Utility? (Abstract)

Transplantation for Alcoholic Hepatitis: Are We Achieving Justice and Utility? Early liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis is a potentially life-saving treatment. As this practice becomes increasingly common, however, the liver transplant community is taking a fresh look at a familiar challenge: best stewardship of donor organs. Herein, we examine a few basic, necessary ethical and practical concerns relevant to this indication.© 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

2018 Hepatology

120. Arid1a loss drives non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice via epigenetic dysregulation of hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. (Abstract)

Arid1a loss drives non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice via epigenetic dysregulation of hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a rapidly growing cause of chronic liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). How fatty liver pathogenesis is subject to epigenetic regulation is unknown. We hypothesized that chromatin remodeling is important for the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. ARID1A, a DNA-binding component of the SWI/SNF ATP (...) -dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, contributes to nucleosome repositioning and access by transcriptional regulators. Liver-specific deletion of Arid1a (Arid1a LKO) caused the development of age-dependent fatty liver disease in mice. Transcriptome analysis revealed upregulation of lipogenesis and down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation genes. As evidence of direct regulation, ARID1A demonstrated direct binding to the promoters of many of these differentially regulated genes. Additionally, Arid1a LKO

2018 Hepatology

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