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Alcoholic Hepatitis

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201. Efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis

Efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files

2020 PROSPERO

202. Molecular mechanisms of hepatic lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular mechanisms of hepatic lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the world's most common liver disease, estimated to affect up to one-fourth of the population. Hallmarked by hepatic steatosis, NAFLD is associated with a multitude of detrimental effects and increased mortality. This narrative review investigates the molecular mechanisms of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD, focusing on the four major pathways contributing (...) to lipid homeostasis in the liver. Hepatic steatosis is a consequence of lipid acquisition exceeding lipid disposal, i.e., the uptake of fatty acids and de novo lipogenesis surpassing fatty acid oxidation and export. In NAFLD, hepatic uptake and de novo lipogenesis are increased, while a compensatory enhancement of fatty acid oxidation is insufficient in normalizing lipid levels and may even promote cellular damage and disease progression by inducing oxidative stress, especially with compromised

2018 Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

203. Human neutrophil peptide-1 promotes alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of Bcl2 in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.HNP-1 secreted by neutrophils may exacerbate alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis with a decrease in Bcl2 expression and an increase in miR-34a-5p expression. (...) Human neutrophil peptide-1 promotes alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis. Neutrophil infiltration of the liver is a typical feature of alcoholic liver injury. Human neutrophil peptide (HNP)-1 is an antimicrobial peptide secreted by neutrophils. The aim of this study was to determine if HNP-1 affects ethanol-induced liver injury and to examine the mechanism of liver injury induced by HNP-1.Transgenic (TG) mice expressing HNP-1 under the control of a β-actin-based promoter

2017 PLoS ONE

204. Hepatic microvascular dysfunction and increased advanced glycation end products are components of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatic microvascular dysfunction and increased advanced glycation end products are components of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle (...) arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol, and impairment of glucose and insulin metabolisms. Liver histology confirmed the presence of steatosis and ultrasound analysis revealed increased liver size and parenchymal echogenicity in HFD-fed rats. HFD causes significant increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion on hepatic microcirculation and decrease in liver microvascular blood flow. Liver tissue presented increase in oxidative stress and inflammtion

2017 PLoS ONE

205. Alcohol-dysregulated microRNAs in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alcohol-dysregulated microRNAs in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol consumption and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are two well-established risk factors for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, there remains a limited understanding of the molecular pathway behind the pathogenesis and progression behind HCC, and how alcohol promotes carcinogenesis in the context of HBV+ HCC. Using next-generation sequencing data from 130 HCC patients and 50 normal liver (...) tissues, we identified a panel of microRNAs that are significantly dysregulated by alcohol consumption in HBV+ patients. In particular, two microRNAs, miR-944 and miR-223-3p, showed remarkable correlation with clinical indication and genomic alterations. We confirmed the dysregulation of these two microRNAs in liver cell lines treated by alcohol and acetaldehyde, and showed that manipulation of miR-223-3p and miR-944 expression induces significant changes in cellular proliferation, sensitivity

2017 PLoS ONE

206. Prevalence, severity and mortality associated with alcoholic hepatitis and drinking in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Prevalence, severity and mortality associated with alcoholic hepatitis and drinking in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content

2020 PROSPERO

207. Intracellular hepatitis B virus increases hepatic cholesterol deposition in alcoholic fatty liver via hepatitis B core protein Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intracellular hepatitis B virus increases hepatic cholesterol deposition in alcoholic fatty liver via hepatitis B core protein Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a prevalent infectious disease with serious outcomes like chronic and acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the metabolic alteration by HBV is rarely taken into consideration. With the high prevalence of alcohol consumption and chronic HBV infection, their overlap is assumed to be an increasing latent (...) hazard; although the extent has not been calculated. Moreover, the impact of chronic alcohol consumption combined with HBV on cholesterol metabolism is unknown. Six-week-old male FVB/Ncrl mice were hydrodynamically injected with a pGEM-4Z-1.3HBV vector and then fed an ethanol diet for 6 weeks. Serum biomarkers and liver histology, liver cholesterol levels, and cholesterol metabolism-related molecules were measured. In vitro assays with HBx, hepatitis B surface (HBs), or hepatitis B core (HBc) protein

2017 Journal of lipid research

208. Resmetirom (MGL-3196) for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. (Abstract)

Resmetirom (MGL-3196) for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterised by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and progressive liver fibrosis. Resmetirom (MGL-3196) is a liver-directed, orally active, selective thyroid hormone receptor-β agonist designed to improve NASH by increasing hepatic fat metabolism and reducing lipotoxicity. We aimed (...) to assess the safety and efficacy of resmetirom in patients with NASH.MGL-3196-05 was a 36-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at 25 centres in the USA. Adults with biopsy confirmed NASH (fibrosis stages 1-3) and hepatic fat fraction of at least 10% at baseline when assessed by MRI-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 by a computer-based system to receive resmetirom 80 mg or matching placebo, orally once a day. Serial hepatic fat

2019 Lancet

209. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in alcoholic hepatitis: Hepatic encephalopathy a common theme Full Text available with Trip Pro

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in alcoholic hepatitis: Hepatic encephalopathy a common theme Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neuro-radiologic diagnosis that has become more widely recognized and reported over the past few decades. As such, there are a number of known risk factors that contribute to the development of this syndrome, including volatile blood pressures, renal failure, cytotoxic drugs, autoimmune disorders, pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia (...) . This report documents the first reported case of PRES in a patient with severe alcoholic hepatitis with hepatic encephalopathy and delves into a molecular pathophysiology of the syndrome.

2017 World Journal of Gastroenterology

210. Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Full Text available with Trip Pro

Coffee Intake Is Associated with a Lower Liver Stiffness in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver (...) fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV). Univariate and multivariate regression models were performed taking into account potential confounders. Liver stiffness was higher in males compared to females (p < 0.05). Patients with HBV had lower liver stiffness than those with HCV and NAFLD. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol

2017 Nutrients

211. Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation (Diagnosis)

present intoxicated with very high ethanol levels, or when dependence is suspected. This eliminates the negative connotations and resistance that can occur when the patient is asked to quantify their drinking. [ ] Substances of abuse include alcohol, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, and hallucinogens. This article provides a brief review of the physiologic effects of these substances as well as the signs and physiologic effects of withdrawal with which the caregiver should be familiar. More detailed (...) of abuse may often be easily elicited with simple questioning, but unless there is obvious abuse a simple screening tool should be used. These are further described below. There are also many patients who present to the ED requesting help for their drinking or substance abuse. Response to this request will be very dependent on local resources, which emergency physicians should be familiar with. There are 3 components of ED evaluation for persons seeking treatment for a substance abuse problem or those

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

212. Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation (Overview)

present intoxicated with very high ethanol levels, or when dependence is suspected. This eliminates the negative connotations and resistance that can occur when the patient is asked to quantify their drinking. [ ] Substances of abuse include alcohol, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, and hallucinogens. This article provides a brief review of the physiologic effects of these substances as well as the signs and physiologic effects of withdrawal with which the caregiver should be familiar. More detailed (...) of abuse may often be easily elicited with simple questioning, but unless there is obvious abuse a simple screening tool should be used. These are further described below. There are also many patients who present to the ED requesting help for their drinking or substance abuse. Response to this request will be very dependent on local resources, which emergency physicians should be familiar with. There are 3 components of ED evaluation for persons seeking treatment for a substance abuse problem or those

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

213. Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation (Follow-up)

present intoxicated with very high ethanol levels, or when dependence is suspected. This eliminates the negative connotations and resistance that can occur when the patient is asked to quantify their drinking. [ ] Substances of abuse include alcohol, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, and hallucinogens. This article provides a brief review of the physiologic effects of these substances as well as the signs and physiologic effects of withdrawal with which the caregiver should be familiar. More detailed (...) of abuse may often be easily elicited with simple questioning, but unless there is obvious abuse a simple screening tool should be used. These are further described below. There are also many patients who present to the ED requesting help for their drinking or substance abuse. Response to this request will be very dependent on local resources, which emergency physicians should be familiar with. There are 3 components of ED evaluation for persons seeking treatment for a substance abuse problem or those

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

214. Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation (Treatment)

present intoxicated with very high ethanol levels, or when dependence is suspected. This eliminates the negative connotations and resistance that can occur when the patient is asked to quantify their drinking. [ ] Substances of abuse include alcohol, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, and hallucinogens. This article provides a brief review of the physiologic effects of these substances as well as the signs and physiologic effects of withdrawal with which the caregiver should be familiar. More detailed (...) of abuse may often be easily elicited with simple questioning, but unless there is obvious abuse a simple screening tool should be used. These are further described below. There are also many patients who present to the ED requesting help for their drinking or substance abuse. Response to this request will be very dependent on local resources, which emergency physicians should be familiar with. There are 3 components of ED evaluation for persons seeking treatment for a substance abuse problem or those

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

215. Alcohol: Adult Unhealthy Drinking

alcohol for cardiovascular benefits. Pregnancy Alcohol is a known teratogen. Any alcohol that a pregnant woman drinks passes quickly through the placenta to the fetus, which can result in physical, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive problems for the child. There is no safe amount of alcohol in pregnancy. The risk of fetal alcohol syndrome increases with increasing alcohol consumption (ACOG 2013). Lactation Alcohol consumption by lactating women results in reduced milk consumption, decreased (...) the terms “alcohol abuse” and “alcohol dependence,” but research showed that symptoms of abuse and dependence were all symptoms of a single disorder. Unhealthy drinking is drinking alcohol at levels that are associated with adverse health effects and/or alcohol use disorder. The following behaviors are considered unhealthy drinking, although they are not AUDs according to DSM-5: Risky drinking is exceeding recommended drinking limits (see below). It not only increases the risk of alcohol use disorder

2016 Kaiser Permanente Clinical Guidelines

216. Future Pharmacotherapy for Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Review of Phase 2 and 3 Trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Future Pharmacotherapy for Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Review of Phase 2 and 3 Trials Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) results from inflammation and hepatocyte injury in the setting of hepatic steatosis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis increases the risk of progression to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and is the most rapidly growing etiology for liver failure and indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Weight loss and lifestyle modification remain the standard first-line (...) treatment, as no USA Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy currently exists. The past decade has seen an explosion of interest in drug development targeting pathologic pathways in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, with numerous phase 2 and 3 trials currently in progress. Here, we concisely review the major targets and mechanisms of action by class, summarize results from completed pivotal phase 2 studies, and provide a detailed outline of key active studies with trial data for drugs

2018 Journal of clinical and translational hepatology

217. Multi-scale, whole-system models of liver metabolic adaptation to fat and sugar in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Multi-scale, whole-system models of liver metabolic adaptation to fat and sugar in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious public health issue associated with high fat, high sugar diets. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating NAFLD pathogenesis are only partially understood. Here we adopt an iterative multi-scale, systems biology approach coupled to in vitro experimentation to investigate the roles of sugar and fat metabolism in NAFLD (...) produces a biphasic response, which initially exacerbates steatosis. Our data support the evidence that it is the quantity of sugar rather than the type that is critical in driving the steatotic response. Furthermore, we predict PPARα-mediated adaptations to hepatic lipid overload, shedding light on potential challenges for the use of PPARα agonists to treat NAFLD.

2018 NPJ systems biology and applications

218. FXR and TGR5 Agonists Ameliorate Liver Injury, Steatosis, and Inflammation After Binge or Prolonged Alcohol Feeding in Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

that FXR and/or TGR5 agonists may be therapeutic in early alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in mice, in which hepatic inflammation plays a major role. OCA, INT-777, and INT-767 are BA derivatives with selective agonist properties for FXR, TGR5, or both, respectively. These compounds were tested in two mouse models (3-day binge model and prolonged Lieber DeCarli diet for 12 days) of early ALD. Serum alanine aminotransferase and liver histology were used to assess liver injury, Oil Red O staining of liver (...) receptor agonists in both models of ethanol administration modulated lipogenic gene expression, and decreased liver interleukin-1β mRNA expression associated with increased ubiquitination of NLRP3 inflammasome through cyclic adenosine monophosphate-induced activation of protein kinase A. Conclusion: OCA, INT-767, or INT-777 administration is effective in reducing acute and chronic ethanol-induced steatosis and inflammation in mice, with varying degrees of efficacy depending on the duration of ethanol

2018 Hepatology communications

219. The management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

and of a daily alcohol consumption P30g for men and P20g for women [1]. Alcohol consumption above these limits indicates alcoholic liver disease. The relationship between alcohol and liver injury depends on several cofactors (type of alcoholic beverage, drinking patterns, duration of exposure, individual/genetic susceptibility), rendering simple quantitative thresholds at least partly arbitrary. Speci?cally, patients consuming moderate amounts of alcohol may be still predisposed to NAFLD if they have (...) with IR and/or metabolic risk factors (i.e. obesity or metabolic syndrome [MetS]) should undergo diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of NAFLD, which relies onthe demonstration of excessive liver fat (A1) ? Individuals with steatosis should be screened for secondary causes of NAFLD, including a careful assessment of alcohol intake. The interaction between moderate amounts of alcohol and metabolic factors in fatty liver should always be considered (A1) ? Other chronic liver diseases that may coexist

2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver

220. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With a Cirrhosis Due to an Alcoholic or a Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Identifier: NCT03307408 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : October 11, 2017 Last Update Posted : October 11, 2017 See Sponsor: Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice Information provided by (Responsible Party): Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Global prevalence of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases (NAFLD) ranges from 22% to 28%.The spectrum of these hepatic abnormalities extends from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis (Non (...) Alcoholic Steato-Hepatitis, NASH) and steatofibrosis leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is one of the main causes of cirrhosis and increases the risk of liver-related death and hepatocellular carcinoma (developed in patients with or without cirrhosis). Despite this major public health concern, apart from lifestyle changes, treatment of NAFLD is still elusive as there is lack of efficacious pharmacological treatment. Alcoholic liver diseases are also frequent in Western countries

2017 Clinical Trials

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