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Alcohol Intoxication

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2. The effect of alcohol cue exposure and acute intoxication on inhibitory control processes and ad libitum alcohol consumption. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of alcohol cue exposure and acute intoxication on inhibitory control processes and ad libitum alcohol consumption. Alcohol intoxication and alcohol cue exposure impair 'reactive' inhibitory control and increase motivation to drink. However, inhibitory control is a multi-component process that also comprises signal detection and proactive control. It is unknown whether intoxication and cue exposure selectively influence these subprocesses in heavy drinkers.In two pre-registered (...) following the alcohol and control primes, relative to the placebo, but there was no effect on proactive slowing or signal detection. As expected, intoxication increased motivation to drink and ad libitum consumption (compared to placebo and control).Alcohol intoxication and cue exposure increase motivation to drink in the absence of impairments in subcomponents of inhibitory control.

2019 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3. Diagnosis and treatment of acute alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome: position paper of the Italian Society on Alcohol. (Abstract)

Diagnosis and treatment of acute alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome: position paper of the Italian Society on Alcohol. The chronic use of alcohol can lead to the onset of an alcohol use disorder (AUD). About 50% of subjects with an AUD may develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) when they reduce or discontinue their alcohol consumption and, in 3-5% of them, convulsions and delirium tremens (DTs), representing life-threatening complications, may occur. Unfortunately, few (...) physicians are adequately trained in identifying and treating AWS. The Italian Society on Alcohol has, therefore, implemented a task force of specialists to draw up recommendations for the treatment of AWS with the following main results: (1) while mild AWS may not require treatment, moderate and severe AWS need to be pharmacologically treated; (2) out-patient treatment is appropriate in patients with mild or moderate AWS, while patients with severe AWS need to be treated as in-patients; (3

2018 Internal and emergency medicine

4. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems (...) at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered

2017 PLoS ONE

5. Acute and mixed alcohol intoxications in asylum seekers presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute and mixed alcohol intoxications in asylum seekers presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland. Previous studies have reported an increase in alcohol-and-mixed intoxication (AAMI)-related emergency department (ED) admissions, but less is known about the incidence and characteristics of AAMI admissions to EDs among asylum-seeking patients. Asylum seeking patients may be at higher risk for AAMI due stressors associated with forced migration. The aim of this study (...) in this study. The proportional incidence of AAMI among asylum seekers was 3.7% (n = 92) compared to 1.6% (n = 1841) among the Swiss-national patients. AAMI in asylum seekers was associated with higher levels of trauma (37.0% vs. 23.5%, p = 0.003), and hospital admission (35.4% vs. 14.1%, p < 0.001), but a smaller proportion of chronic alcohol consumption (13.0% vs. 43.5%, p < 0.001), and psychiatric referrals (26.1% vs. 49.0%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis controlling for age, sex, triage category

2019 BMC Public Health

6. Ipsilateral radial nerve, median nerve, and ulnar nerve injury caused by crush syndrome due to alcohol intoxication: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ipsilateral radial nerve, median nerve, and ulnar nerve injury caused by crush syndrome due to alcohol intoxication: A case report. Autologous peripheral nerve injury caused by crush syndrome due to alcohol intoxication is relatively rare, and to our knowledge, the compression of 3 upper limb nerves at the same time has not been reported previously. If a compressive peripheral nerve injury is not treated in a timely manner, it is difficult to recover neurological function, and the prognosis

2019 Medicine

7. Gaze Entropy Measures Reveal Alcohol-Induced Visual Scanning Impairment During Ascending and Descending Phases of Intoxication. (Abstract)

Gaze Entropy Measures Reveal Alcohol-Induced Visual Scanning Impairment During Ascending and Descending Phases of Intoxication. Visuospatial awareness is critical for everyday activities like driving. Higher order processes, such as visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and top-down modulation of gaze control, enable goal-driven visual scanning. Although available evidence suggests that alcohol differentially affects VSWM during the ascending and descending phases of the blood alcohol (...) visual scanning efficiency. These findings reflect the detrimental effects of alcohol on top-down control of gaze behavior, which may limit visual scanning efficiency. Deficits in visual scanning efficiency across the blood alcohol concentration curve may reduce visuospatial awareness and contribute to unintentional injuries during periods of intoxication.

2019 Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs Controlled trial quality: uncertain

8. Soy Isoflavone Extract Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion in Human Volunteers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Soy Isoflavone Extract Does Not Increase the Intoxicating Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion in Human Volunteers. Soy beans contain isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, with biological activities related to therapeutic effects in reducing osteoporosis, decreasing adverse menopausal manifestations, providing protection from cardiovascular diseases, and reducing hormone-dependent cancers and age-related cognitive-decline. Daidzein has been described as inhibiting the aldehyde (...) -dehydrogenase-2 enzyme (ALDH2), and reducing alcohol use in clinical pilot studies. Our aim was to evaluate the possible interactions between a soy extract product and alcohol in a crossover, single blind, randomized study. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in two experimental sessions: one with a single dose of alcohol (0.5 g/kg, Vodka Absolut, Sweden), and the other with four capsules of a soy extract product (Super-Absorbable Soy Isoflavones, Life-Extension, United States) and, 2 h later, the same

2019 Frontiers in pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9. DUI offenders display reduced perception of intoxication and heightened impulsive choice in response to alcohol. (Abstract)

DUI offenders display reduced perception of intoxication and heightened impulsive choice in response to alcohol. Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol continues to be a major contributor in traffic fatalities. There is growing evidence for heightened trait impulsivity in DUI offenders, but little is known about how impulsivity could interact with alcohol intoxication in a manner that would increase the likelihood of driving while intoxicated. This placebo-controlled study examined (...) the acute effects of 0.65g/kg alcohol on 2 facets of impulsivity (impulsive choice and response inhibition), simulated risky driving behavior, and subjective intoxication in a group of 20 DUI offenders and 20 control drivers with no history of DUI. It was predicted that compared with controls, DUI offenders would self-report greater impulsivity, and display greater impulsive choice and driver risk taking, particularly in response to alcohol. Results showed that alcohol impaired drivers' inhibitory

2019 Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10. Effect of Alcohol Intoxication on Bystander Intervention in a Vignette Depiction of Sexual Assault. (Abstract)

Effect of Alcohol Intoxication on Bystander Intervention in a Vignette Depiction of Sexual Assault. Alcohol-related sexual violence remains a public health problem. Despite the popularity of sexual assault bystander intervention programs, these may be limited in addressing bystander intoxication because the effects of intoxication on intervening in a sexual assault are unknown. Therefore, we tested the effects of alcohol intoxication on the five steps of bystander intervention in a sexual (...) recalled the story more accurately (Step 1: notice the event) and reported greater risk/need for intervention (Step 2), but they did not differ on the latter three steps of bystander intervention compared with alcohol-condition participants. Intoxication effects were similar for men and women. Furthermore, risk/need for intervention (Step 2) partially mediated the effect of alcohol condition on personal responsibility (Step 3) and relative benefits versus costs from intervening (Step 4).Prevention

2019 Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs Controlled trial quality: uncertain

11. Inhibiting automatic negative social responses in alcohol intoxication: interactions with theory of mind ability and level of task guidance. (Abstract)

Inhibiting automatic negative social responses in alcohol intoxication: interactions with theory of mind ability and level of task guidance. Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit (...) automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond.Sixty-four participants aged between 18 and 34 (balanced for gender) consumed a beverage containing either placebo or alcohol calculated to achieve a target BrAC of 0.080%, before completing a Flanker task, a go/no-go task and a novel measure

2019 Psychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Causal Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk Intentions and Condom Negotiation Skills Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Causal Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk Intentions and Condom Negotiation Skills Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM). Alcohol use is a key risk factor for HIV infection among MSM, in part because intoxication may interfere with the use of prevention methods like condoms. However, few studies have examined whether this is due to alcohol's pharmacological or expectancy effects or explored the specific aspects of sexual decision-making that may be affected. In this study (...) , high-risk, heavy drinking MSM (N = 121) were randomly assigned to receive either (1) alcohol beverages, (2) placebo beverages, or (3) control beverages, before navigating a video-based sexual risk scenario that assessed several aspects of sexual decision-making. Results showed that condom use intentions and negotiation behaviors were lower among alcohol and placebo participants compared with controls, but that few significant differences emerged between the alcohol and placebo groups

2019 AIDS and behavior Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Inhibits Bystander Intervention Behavior for Sexual Aggression Among Men with High Intent to Help. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute Alcohol Intoxication Inhibits Bystander Intervention Behavior for Sexual Aggression Among Men with High Intent to Help. Bystander training programs aim to encourage third-party witnesses to intervene in high-risk sexual situations; however, these programs rarely focus on training bystanders to effectively intervene when intoxicated. This is not surprising due to the limited evidence on the proximal effects of alcohol on bystander intervention for sexual aggression. To this end, the aim (...) of the present study was to test the effects of men's self-reported intent to help strangers and acute alcohol intoxication on the likelihood and speed of sexual aggression intervention.Participants were 74 men who completed a measure of intent to help (Session 1) and were randomly assigned to consume alcohol or a no-alcohol control beverage (Session 2). Next, they engaged in a novel laboratory paradigm in which they and 4 other confederates (2 men, 2 women) watched a female confederate, who reported

2019 Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. Acute alcohol intoxication may cause delay in stroke treatment - case reports. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute alcohol intoxication may cause delay in stroke treatment - case reports. The signs and symptoms of acute alcohol intoxication resemble those of vertebrobasilar stroke. Due to their shared symptoms including double vision, nystagmus, dysarthria, and ataxia, the differential diagnosis of alcohol intoxication and vertebrobasilar stroke may pose a challenge. Moreover, if alcohol intoxication and stroke occur simultaneously, the signs and symptoms of stroke may be attributed to the effects (...) of alcohol, leading to delayed stroke diagnosis and failure to perform reperfusion therapy.Three cases of alcohol intoxication and stroke are presented. The first patient (female, 50 years old) had dysarthria, nystagmus and trunk ataxia on admission. Her blood alcohol level was 2.3‰. The symptoms improved after forced diuresis, but 5.5 h later progression was observed, and the patient developed diplopia and dysphagia in addition to her initial symptoms. Angiography showed occlusion of the basilar artery

2019 BMC Neurology

15. Testing Alcohol Myopia Theory: Examining the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Simultaneous Central and Peripheral Attention. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Testing Alcohol Myopia Theory: Examining the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Simultaneous Central and Peripheral Attention. The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task (...) type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simultaneously counting the flashes of a centrally presented fixation cross. Participants were instructed to prioritize flash counting accuracy. The subsequently presented colored probe matched the cued peripheral stimulus on 50% of trials. Flash counting and probe identification accuracy were recorded. There was a significant main effect of alcohol treatment on accuracy scores

2017 Perception Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. Using alcohol intoxication goggles (Fatal Vision® goggles) to detect alcohol related impairment in simulated driving. (Abstract)

Using alcohol intoxication goggles (Fatal Vision® goggles) to detect alcohol related impairment in simulated driving. Fatal vision goggles (FVGs) are image-distorting equipment used within driver education programs to simulate alcohol-related impairment. However, there is no empirical evidence comparing the behavioral effects associated with wearing FVGs to alcohol intoxication. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of FVGs in producing alcohol-related impairment in simulated (...) of alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance among populations where the provision of alcohol would otherwise be unethical (e.g., prelicensed drivers).

2017 Traffic injury prevention Controlled trial quality: uncertain

17. Effect of Varenicline Combined with High-Dose Alcohol on Craving, Subjective Intoxication, Perceptual Motor Response, and Executive Cognitive Function in Adults with Alcohol Use Disorders: Preliminary Findings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Varenicline Combined with High-Dose Alcohol on Craving, Subjective Intoxication, Perceptual Motor Response, and Executive Cognitive Function in Adults with Alcohol Use Disorders: Preliminary Findings. Varenicline has been found to decrease alcohol-motivated behaviors. Recent warnings regarding aversive events associated with varenicline used in conjunction with alcohol warrant further investigation into the safety of the drug when combined with alcohol. The purpose of this preliminary (...) and nonsmokers meeting criteria for AUDs (n = 44). All participants had completed a parent varenicline study evaluating alcohol self-administration. Each subject completed 2 fixed-dose laboratory sessions assessing reactivity to a high-dose alcohol (0.08 g/dl) or a nonalcoholic control beverage, order counterbalanced.Varenicline attenuated alcohol-related increases in subjective intoxication and alcohol-related decreases in executive cognitive function. At baseline, varenicline reduced alcohol craving

2017 Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. The effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual interest on men's sexual persistence and hostility in a dating simulation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual interest on men's sexual persistence and hostility in a dating simulation. Perpetrators of sexual assault are often intoxicated; however, few experimental studies evaluate alcohol's "in the moment" effects on sexual aggression. This study extends past theory and research by examining the acute effects of alcohol on men's decisions about how to respond to sexual refusals in a dating simulation. Men (N = 62) ages 21-29 were randomly assigned (...) desire to have sex was positively associated with choosing more consensual sexual activities during the simulation (i.e., activities in which the woman willingly engaged). Consensual sexual activities were positively associated with the number of times participants persisted after the woman refused. Alcohol moderated this relationship such that it was stronger for intoxicated men than sober men. The more sexual refusals participants received, the more hostile verbal comments they made to the woman

2018 Aggressive behavior Controlled trial quality: uncertain

19. Effects of alcohol intoxication on self-reported drinking patterns, expectancies, motives and personality: a randomized controlled experimental study. (Abstract)

Effects of alcohol intoxication on self-reported drinking patterns, expectancies, motives and personality: a randomized controlled experimental study. Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. through disinhibition, may be relevant for the assessment of intoxicated individuals both in clinical routine and research. We (...) use-related temperament traits. We found that alcohol significantly increased self-reported expectancies (tension reduction) and motives (conformity; η2  = .16-.23), but we observed no effect of sequence, i.e. alcohol first versus placebo first (Pcorr  ≥ .118). High baseline alcohol expectancies did not moderate alcohol effects (Pcorr  ≥ .462). We conclude that moderate alcohol intoxication might not generally affect the reliability of self-reported alcohol use, alcohol use problems

2018 Addiction biology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20. Sexual Attitudes Moderate the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Women's Risk Judgments. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sexual Attitudes Moderate the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Women's Risk Judgments. This study evaluated the effects of alcohol intoxication, sexual attitudes, and sexual victimization history on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's risk judgments. Participants were 116 unmarried, undergraduate women between the ages of 21 and 29. The sample was diverse ethnically and composed primarily of heterosexual women. Stimuli were written vignettes describing social situations (...) impactwhen judging risk. This study emphasizes the importance of identifying specific cognitive processes affected by alcohol that may explain why women have difficulty processing contextual cues signaling risk in social situations. It demonstrates also the relevance of examining individual difference factors that may exacerbate the relationship between intoxication and cognitive processing of risk-relevant information.

2018 Journal of interpersonal violence

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