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Alcohol Intoxication

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2. Diagnosis and treatment of acute alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome: position paper of the Italian Society on Alcohol. (PubMed)

Diagnosis and treatment of acute alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome: position paper of the Italian Society on Alcohol. The chronic use of alcohol can lead to the onset of an alcohol use disorder (AUD). About 50% of subjects with an AUD may develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) when they reduce or discontinue their alcohol consumption and, in 3-5% of them, convulsions and delirium tremens (DTs), representing life-threatening complications, may occur. Unfortunately, few (...) physicians are adequately trained in identifying and treating AWS. The Italian Society on Alcohol has, therefore, implemented a task force of specialists to draw up recommendations for the treatment of AWS with the following main results: (1) while mild AWS may not require treatment, moderate and severe AWS need to be pharmacologically treated; (2) out-patient treatment is appropriate in patients with mild or moderate AWS, while patients with severe AWS need to be treated as in-patients; (3

2018 Internal and emergency medicine

3. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators. (PubMed)

Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems (...) at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered

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2017 PLoS ONE

4. Acute alcohol intoxication may cause delay in stroke treatment - case reports. (PubMed)

Acute alcohol intoxication may cause delay in stroke treatment - case reports. The signs and symptoms of acute alcohol intoxication resemble those of vertebrobasilar stroke. Due to their shared symptoms including double vision, nystagmus, dysarthria, and ataxia, the differential diagnosis of alcohol intoxication and vertebrobasilar stroke may pose a challenge. Moreover, if alcohol intoxication and stroke occur simultaneously, the signs and symptoms of stroke may be attributed to the effects (...) of alcohol, leading to delayed stroke diagnosis and failure to perform reperfusion therapy.Three cases of alcohol intoxication and stroke are presented. The first patient (female, 50 years old) had dysarthria, nystagmus and trunk ataxia on admission. Her blood alcohol level was 2.3‰. The symptoms improved after forced diuresis, but 5.5 h later progression was observed, and the patient developed diplopia and dysphagia in addition to her initial symptoms. Angiography showed occlusion of the basilar artery

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2019 BMC Neurology

5. Inhibiting automatic negative social responses in alcohol intoxication: interactions with theory of mind ability and level of task guidance. (PubMed)

Inhibiting automatic negative social responses in alcohol intoxication: interactions with theory of mind ability and level of task guidance. Alcohol intoxication is associated with socially disinhibited behaviours that may reflect impaired social cognitive abilities that guide social behaviour. The effects of alcohol on social cognition and how this may contribute to disinhibited behaviour are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether intoxicated individuals could inhibit (...) automatic negative responses to negative social information, whether these difficulties were reliant on theory of mind (ToM) ability and whether intoxicated individuals were able to adjust verbal responses when provided with guidelines about how to respond.Sixty-four participants aged between 18 and 34 (balanced for gender) consumed a beverage containing either placebo or alcohol calculated to achieve a target BrAC of 0.080%, before completing a Flanker task, a go/no-go task and a novel measure

2019 Psychopharmacology

6. Causal Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk Intentions and Condom Negotiation Skills Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM). (PubMed)

Causal Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk Intentions and Condom Negotiation Skills Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM). Alcohol use is a key risk factor for HIV infection among MSM, in part because intoxication may interfere with the use of prevention methods like condoms. However, few studies have examined whether this is due to alcohol's pharmacological or expectancy effects or explored the specific aspects of sexual decision-making that may be affected. In this study (...) , high-risk, heavy drinking MSM (N = 121) were randomly assigned to receive either (1) alcohol beverages, (2) placebo beverages, or (3) control beverages, before navigating a video-based sexual risk scenario that assessed several aspects of sexual decision-making. Results showed that condom use intentions and negotiation behaviors were lower among alcohol and placebo participants compared with controls, but that few significant differences emerged between the alcohol and placebo groups

2019 AIDS and behavior

7. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Inhibits Bystander Intervention Behavior for Sexual Aggression Among Men with High Intent to Help. (PubMed)

Acute Alcohol Intoxication Inhibits Bystander Intervention Behavior for Sexual Aggression Among Men with High Intent to Help. Bystander training programs aim to encourage third-party witnesses to intervene in high-risk sexual situations; however, these programs rarely focus on training bystanders to effectively intervene when intoxicated. This is not surprising due to the limited evidence on the proximal effects of alcohol on bystander intervention for sexual aggression. To this end, the aim (...) of the present study was to test the effects of men's self-reported intent to help strangers and acute alcohol intoxication on the likelihood and speed of sexual aggression intervention.Participants were 74 men who completed a measure of intent to help (Session 1) and were randomly assigned to consume alcohol or a no-alcohol control beverage (Session 2). Next, they engaged in a novel laboratory paradigm in which they and 4 other confederates (2 men, 2 women) watched a female confederate, who reported

2019 Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research

8. Acute and mixed alcohol intoxications in asylum seekers presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland. (PubMed)

Acute and mixed alcohol intoxications in asylum seekers presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland. Previous studies have reported an increase in alcohol-and-mixed intoxication (AAMI)-related emergency department (ED) admissions, but less is known about the incidence and characteristics of AAMI admissions to EDs among asylum-seeking patients. Asylum seeking patients may be at higher risk for AAMI due stressors associated with forced migration. The aim of this study (...) in this study. The proportional incidence of AAMI among asylum seekers was 3.7% (n = 92) compared to 1.6% (n = 1841) among the Swiss-national patients. AAMI in asylum seekers was associated with higher levels of trauma (37.0% vs. 23.5%, p = 0.003), and hospital admission (35.4% vs. 14.1%, p < 0.001), but a smaller proportion of chronic alcohol consumption (13.0% vs. 43.5%, p < 0.001), and psychiatric referrals (26.1% vs. 49.0%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis controlling for age, sex, triage category

2019 BMC Public Health

9. Ipsilateral radial nerve, median nerve, and ulnar nerve injury caused by crush syndrome due to alcohol intoxication: A case report. (PubMed)

Ipsilateral radial nerve, median nerve, and ulnar nerve injury caused by crush syndrome due to alcohol intoxication: A case report. Autologous peripheral nerve injury caused by crush syndrome due to alcohol intoxication is relatively rare, and to our knowledge, the compression of 3 upper limb nerves at the same time has not been reported previously. If a compressive peripheral nerve injury is not treated in a timely manner, it is difficult to recover neurological function, and the prognosis

2019 Medicine

10. Using alcohol intoxication goggles (Fatal Vision® goggles) to detect alcohol related impairment in simulated driving. (PubMed)

Using alcohol intoxication goggles (Fatal Vision® goggles) to detect alcohol related impairment in simulated driving. Fatal vision goggles (FVGs) are image-distorting equipment used within driver education programs to simulate alcohol-related impairment. However, there is no empirical evidence comparing the behavioral effects associated with wearing FVGs to alcohol intoxication. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of FVGs in producing alcohol-related impairment in simulated (...) of alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance among populations where the provision of alcohol would otherwise be unethical (e.g., prelicensed drivers).

2017 Traffic injury prevention

11. Effect of Varenicline Combined with High-Dose Alcohol on Craving, Subjective Intoxication, Perceptual Motor Response, and Executive Cognitive Function in Adults with Alcohol Use Disorders: Preliminary Findings. (PubMed)

Effect of Varenicline Combined with High-Dose Alcohol on Craving, Subjective Intoxication, Perceptual Motor Response, and Executive Cognitive Function in Adults with Alcohol Use Disorders: Preliminary Findings. Varenicline has been found to decrease alcohol-motivated behaviors. Recent warnings regarding aversive events associated with varenicline used in conjunction with alcohol warrant further investigation into the safety of the drug when combined with alcohol. The purpose of this preliminary (...) and nonsmokers meeting criteria for AUDs (n = 44). All participants had completed a parent varenicline study evaluating alcohol self-administration. Each subject completed 2 fixed-dose laboratory sessions assessing reactivity to a high-dose alcohol (0.08 g/dl) or a nonalcoholic control beverage, order counterbalanced.Varenicline attenuated alcohol-related increases in subjective intoxication and alcohol-related decreases in executive cognitive function. At baseline, varenicline reduced alcohol craving

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2017 Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research

12. Testing Alcohol Myopia Theory: Examining the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Simultaneous Central and Peripheral Attention. (PubMed)

Testing Alcohol Myopia Theory: Examining the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Simultaneous Central and Peripheral Attention. The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task (...) type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simultaneously counting the flashes of a centrally presented fixation cross. Participants were instructed to prioritize flash counting accuracy. The subsequently presented colored probe matched the cued peripheral stimulus on 50% of trials. Flash counting and probe identification accuracy were recorded. There was a significant main effect of alcohol treatment on accuracy scores

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2017 Perception

13. Emergency department outpatient treatment of alcohol-intoxicated bicyclists increases the cost of medical care in Japan. (PubMed)

Emergency department outpatient treatment of alcohol-intoxicated bicyclists increases the cost of medical care in Japan. Riding a bicycle under the influence of alcohol is illegal in Japan. Nevertheless, intoxicated bicyclists are frequently treated at hospital emergency departments for bicycle-related injuries. This patient population usually requires more hospital resources, even for relatively minor injuries. Therefore, we hypothesized that bicycle-related crashes involving bicyclists under (...) the influence of alcohol cost more to treat than those that do not involve alcohol intoxication. The aim of the present study was to examine the costs associated with bicycle-related minor injuries and alcohol intoxication of the bicyclist. The study was conducted at the Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center Emergency Department, Japan. All minor bicycle crashes involving 217 individuals aged ≥20 years treated from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013 were included in the analysis of data obtained from

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2017 PLoS ONE

14. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication. (PubMed)

Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication. Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely (...) or partially) a result of alcohol consumption.ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital.All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%).Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician.Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria.1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought

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2016 BMJ open

15. Alcohol intoxication impairs recognition of fear and sadness in others and metacognitive awareness of emotion recognition ability. (PubMed)

Alcohol intoxication impairs recognition of fear and sadness in others and metacognitive awareness of emotion recognition ability. Alcohol intoxication is linked to negative social behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of high-dose alcohol intoxication on the ability to perceive a range of basic emotions (sad, happy, anger, disgust, fear, and surprise) of different intensities, and on self-appraisals of emotion perception (...) ability (i.e., metacognitive judgments). Sixty-four participants consumed either an alcohol or placebo beverage. An emotion recognition task was used to assess emotion perception ability, and participants provided confidence ratings when providing each emotion recognition response. Alcohol-intoxicated individuals demonstrated a reduced ability to detect fear and sadness at moderate-to-high levels of emotion intensity and less overall insight into their ability to recognize emotions. These results

2018 Emotion (Washington, D.C.)

16. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on executive functions controlling self-regulated behavior. (PubMed)

Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on executive functions controlling self-regulated behavior. Alcohol consumption may lead to deficits in the executive functions that govern self-regulation. These deficits could lead to risk-taking behaviors; therefore, it is important to determine the magnitude of these deficits on executive functioning. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on three of the executive functions that are hypothesized to affect self (...) -regulation, which are inhibition, set shifting, and working memory, using a mixed-methods study design. The participants were 75 moderate or heavy drinkers between the ages of 21 and 35 who were randomized into one of three beverage conditions (control, placebo, or 0.65-g alcohol dose/kg body weight). Performance on working memory, set shifting, and inhibition were measured pre- and post-beverage consumption. The results showed only a significant interaction in the working memory data

2018 Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)

17. Effects of alcohol intoxication on self-reported drinking patterns, expectancies, motives and personality: a randomized controlled experimental study. (PubMed)

Effects of alcohol intoxication on self-reported drinking patterns, expectancies, motives and personality: a randomized controlled experimental study. Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. through disinhibition, may be relevant for the assessment of intoxicated individuals both in clinical routine and research. We (...) use-related temperament traits. We found that alcohol significantly increased self-reported expectancies (tension reduction) and motives (conformity; η2  = .16-.23), but we observed no effect of sequence, i.e. alcohol first versus placebo first (Pcorr  ≥ .118). High baseline alcohol expectancies did not moderate alcohol effects (Pcorr  ≥ .462). We conclude that moderate alcohol intoxication might not generally affect the reliability of self-reported alcohol use, alcohol use problems

2018 Addiction biology

18. Sexual Attitudes Moderate the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Women's Risk Judgments. (PubMed)

Sexual Attitudes Moderate the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Women's Risk Judgments. This study evaluated the effects of alcohol intoxication, sexual attitudes, and sexual victimization history on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's risk judgments. Participants were 116 unmarried, undergraduate women between the ages of 21 and 29. The sample was diverse ethnically and composed primarily of heterosexual women. Stimuli were written vignettes describing social situations (...) impactwhen judging risk. This study emphasizes the importance of identifying specific cognitive processes affected by alcohol that may explain why women have difficulty processing contextual cues signaling risk in social situations. It demonstrates also the relevance of examining individual difference factors that may exacerbate the relationship between intoxication and cognitive processing of risk-relevant information.

2018 Journal of interpersonal violence

19. The effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual interest on men's sexual persistence and hostility in a dating simulation. (PubMed)

The effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual interest on men's sexual persistence and hostility in a dating simulation. Perpetrators of sexual assault are often intoxicated; however, few experimental studies evaluate alcohol's "in the moment" effects on sexual aggression. This study extends past theory and research by examining the acute effects of alcohol on men's decisions about how to respond to sexual refusals in a dating simulation. Men (N = 62) ages 21-29 were randomly assigned (...) desire to have sex was positively associated with choosing more consensual sexual activities during the simulation (i.e., activities in which the woman willingly engaged). Consensual sexual activities were positively associated with the number of times participants persisted after the woman refused. Alcohol moderated this relationship such that it was stronger for intoxicated men than sober men. The more sexual refusals participants received, the more hostile verbal comments they made to the woman

2018 Aggressive behavior

20. Changing Pattern of Acute Alcohol Intoxications in Children (PubMed)

Changing Pattern of Acute Alcohol Intoxications in Children BACKGROUND In many countries, the number of children hospitalized for alcohol intoxication is increasing. This study analyzed changes in the number of hospitalizations for alcohol intoxication in children aged 0-18 years at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from 2008 to 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were collected retrospectively from hospital medical records. Risk groups were classified according to sex (...) , age, drinking habits, and possible benefits of early psychological or psychiatric interventions. Children were divided into 4 age groups: 0-5 years, 6-9 years, 10-13 years, and 14-18 years. Statistics 12.00 was used for statistical analyses, with P-value <0.05 considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Out of 24 651 hospitalized children, 488 were treated for acute intoxication: 36.40% were girls and 63.60% were boys. Among them, 272 children (55.74%) were acutely intoxicated with alcohol

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2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

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