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Adrenal Mass

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3681. Increased adrenal androgen secretion with inhibition of 11beta-hydroxylase in HIV-infected women. (PubMed)

Increased adrenal androgen secretion with inhibition of 11beta-hydroxylase in HIV-infected women. Adrenal androgen production is reduced in association with disease severity in HIV-infected women. This response may be maladaptive in terms of maintenance of lean body mass, functional status, and immune function. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of an adrenal enzyme inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxylase might increase androgen production in this population. We conducted a randomized (...) did not change, and signs of adrenal insufficiency were not apparent. These data demonstrate that inhibition of 11beta-hydroxylase with metyrapone increases adrenal androgen secretion in HIV-infected women. Further studies are needed to assess the physiological effects of this strategy to increase anabolic hormone levels in severe stress, including detailed testing to rule out the potential risk of concomitant adrenal insufficiency.

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2006 American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: predicted high

3682. Renal and adrenal tumours in children (PubMed)

Renal and adrenal tumours in children The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child. Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2-4 years). Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma (...) has similar or increased frequency as children get older. Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise. The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented. Topics covered include a proposed revision to the staging of NBL, the problems inherent

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2007 Cancer Imaging

3683. Proteomic changes in rat hippocampus and adrenals following short-term sleep deprivation (PubMed)

Proteomic changes in rat hippocampus and adrenals following short-term sleep deprivation To identify the biochemical changes induced by sleep deprivation at a proteomic level, we compared the hippocampal proteome of rats either after 4 hours of sleep or sleep deprivation obtained by gentle handling. Because sleep deprivation might induce some stress, we also analyzed proteomic changes in rat adrenals in the same conditions. After sleep deprivation, proteins from both tissues were extracted (...) and subjected to 2D-DIGE analysis followed by protein identification through mass spectrometry and database search.In the hippocampus, 87 spots showed significant variation between sleep and sleep deprivation, with more proteins showing higher abundance in the latter case. Of these, 16 proteins were present in sufficient amount for a sequencing attempt and among the 12 identified proteins, inferred affected cellular functions include cell metabolism, energy pathways, transport and vesicle trafficking

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2008 Proteome science

3684. Regulation of interleukin-6, osteoclastogenesis, and bone mass by androgens. The role of the androgen receptor. (PubMed)

Regulation of interleukin-6, osteoclastogenesis, and bone mass by androgens. The role of the androgen receptor. Interleukin-6 is an essential mediator of the bone loss caused by loss of estrogens. Because loss of androgens also causes bone loss, we have examined whether the IL-6 gene is regulated by androgens, and whether IL-6 plays a role in the bone loss caused by androgen deficiency. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone inhibited IL-6 production by murine bone marrow-derived stromal (...) cells. In addition, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and adrenal androgens inhibited the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter plasmid driven by the human IL-6 promoter in HeLa cells cotransfected with an androgen receptor expression plasmid; however, these steroids were ineffective when the cells were cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression plasmid. In accordance with the in vitro findings, orchidectomy in mice caused an increase in the replication of osteoclast

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1995 Journal of Clinical Investigation

3685. 34-year-old woman with hypotension, respiratory failure, fever, and an abdominal mass. (PubMed)

34-year-old woman with hypotension, respiratory failure, fever, and an abdominal mass. 8342266 1993 08 31 2018 11 13 0093-0415 158 5 1993 May The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. 34-year-old woman with hypotension, respiratory failure, fever, and an abdominal mass. 499-505 Lee P C PC Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, CA 94305. Gocke C D CD Harris E D ED Jr Pillsbury H E HE Bergin C J CJ Vosti K L KL Melmon K L KL Clinkingbeard C C eng Case Reports Clinical (...) Conference Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 AIM IM Adrenal Gland Neoplasms diagnosis Adult Diagnosis, Differential Female Humans Pheochromocytoma diagnosis 1993 5 1 2001 3 28 10 1 1993 5 1 0 0 ppublish 8342266 PMC1022132 N Engl J Med. 1979 Sep 27;301(13):682-6 481462 Am J Surg Pathol. 1980 Apr;4(2):121-6 6103678 N Engl J Med. 1984 Nov 15;311(20):1298-303 6149463 Hum Pathol. 1985 Jun;16(6):580-9 3997135 Radiology. 1987 Oct;165(1):89-93 3628794 N Engl J Med. 1988 Jul 21;319(3):136

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1993 Western Journal of Medicine

3686. A 36-year-old woman with a pulsatile mass of the left tympanic membrane. (PubMed)

A 36-year-old woman with a pulsatile mass of the left tympanic membrane. 2161587 1990 07 11 2018 11 13 0093-0415 152 4 1990 Apr The Western journal of medicine West. J. Med. A 36-year-old woman with a pulsatile mass of the left tympanic membrane. 439-40 Reiser J J University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson. Danielson K S KS Levy J M JM Zonis R D RD Christensen F K FK eng Case Reports Journal Article United States West J Med 0410504 0093-0415 AIM IM Adult Female Glomus Jugulare Tumor (...) diagnostic imaging therapy Humans Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal diagnostic imaging Prognosis Tomography, X-Ray Computed 1990 4 1 1990 4 1 0 1 1990 4 1 0 0 ppublish 2161587 PMC1002389 Postgrad Med. 1982 Aug;72(2):213-4 6285322 Head Neck Surg. 1987 May-Jun;9(5):306-11 3040625 Radiology. 1987 Jun;163(3):801-6 3033738 Clin Radiol. 1986 Jul;37(4):359-64 3015479

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1990 Western Journal of Medicine

3687. Diagnosis of abdominal masses with percutaneous biopsy guided by ultrasound. (PubMed)

in a spring loaded firing device (Biopty gun) that was advanced under simultaneous ultrasound scanning, permitting precise localisation of the target organ.Results of histological examination of tissue specimens.Biopsy failed in four patients. Adequate histological specimens were obtained in 104 patients with masses in the liver (31), pancreas (37), kidney (10), and adrenal glands (six) and in 20 undiagnosed abdominal and retroperitoneal masses. Follow up was until death or confirmation of the diagnosis (...) Diagnosis of abdominal masses with percutaneous biopsy guided by ultrasound. To assess the accuracy and safety of percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses guided by ultrasound.Prospective study.Combined gastroenterology service, Scarborough Hospital.108 Consecutive patients identified as having a discrete mass on diagnostic ultrasound examination of the abdomen.A sample of tissue was obtained with an aseptic technique under local anaesthesia: an 18 steel wire gauge needle (Tru-Cut) was mounted

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1990 BMJ : British Medical Journal

3688. Adrenal mass evaluation in patients with lung carcinoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis

Adrenal mass evaluation in patients with lung carcinoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis Adrenal mass evaluation in patients with lung carcinoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis Adrenal mass evaluation in patients with lung carcinoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis Remer E M, Obuchowski N, Ellis J D, Rice T W, Adelstein D J, Baker M E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Strategies for adrenal mass evaluation in patients with lung carcinoma. The following strategies were evaluated: (1) CT (0 H) followed by MR imaging followed by CT biopsy; (2) CT (10 H) followed by MR imaging followed by CT biopsy; (3) CT (0 H) followed by CT biopsy; (4) CT (10 H) followed by CT biopsy; (5) MR imaging followed by CT (0 H) followed

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

3689. Management of clinically inapparent adrenal mass

Management of clinically inapparent adrenal mass Management of clinically inapparent adrenal mass Management of clinically inapparent adrenal mass Lau J, Balk E, Rothberg M, Ioannidis J P A, DeVine D, Chew P, Kupelnik B, Miller K Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Lau J, Balk E, Rothberg M, Ioannidis J P A, DeVine D, Chew P (...) , Kupelnik B, Miller K. Management of clinically inapparent adrenal mass. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 56. 2002 Authors' objectives This report aims to assess the available evidence on the management of clinically inapparent adrenal mass. The widespread use of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound imaging (US) has resulted in the incidental discovery of asymptomatic adrenal masses (also

2002 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

3690. Gap junction-mediated cell-to-cell communication in bovine and human adrenal cells. A process whereby cells increase their responsiveness to physiological corticotropin concentrations. (PubMed)

Gap junction-mediated cell-to-cell communication in bovine and human adrenal cells. A process whereby cells increase their responsiveness to physiological corticotropin concentrations. We have studied the role of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication on the steroidogenic response of bovine (BAC) and human (HAC) adrenal fasciculo-reticularis cells in culture to corticotropin (ACTH). Indirect immunofluorescence analyses showed that intact human and bovine adreno-cortical tissue (...) as well as HAC and BAC in culture expressed the gap junction protein connexin43 (also termed alpha 1 connexin). Both HAC and BAC were functionally coupled through gap junctions as demonstrated by microinjection of a low molecular mass fluorescent probe, Lucifer yellow. The cell-to-cell transfer of the probe was blocked by 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), an inhibitor of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication. GA markedly decreased the steroidogenic response (cortisol production) of both

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1995 Journal of Clinical Investigation

3691. Three Drug Combination Therapy Versus Conventional Treatment of Children With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

the patient's adult height, body mass index, and bone density. ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Drug: Flutamide Drug: Letrozole Drug: Hydrocortisone Phase 2 Detailed Description: To test the hypothesis that the regimen of flutamide (an antiandrogen), testolactone or letrozole (an inhibitor of androgen-to-estrogen conversion), and reduced hydrocortisone dose can normalize the growth and adult stature of children with congenital adrenal (...) Three Drug Combination Therapy Versus Conventional Treatment of Children With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Three Drug Combination Therapy Versus Conventional Treatment of Children With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies

1999 Clinical Trials

3692. Androgen-secreting adrenal adenomas. (PubMed)

Androgen-secreting adrenal adenomas. The androgen source in women with hirsutism and signs of virilism may be the ovary or adrenal gland.Three patients with androgen excess are reported. Two had hyperandrogenemia and Cushing syndrome with an adrenal mass greater than 5.5 cm; the third had a small adrenal adenoma secreting only testosterone and responsive to human chorionic gonadotropin. In all cases, the pathologic report from surgery and the long-term resolution of symptoms confirmed (...) the benign nature of the tumors.Basal and dynamic hormonal tests cannot precisely differentiate ovarian from adrenal tumors. Adrenal adenomas must be considered as a cause of hyperandrogenic syndrome.

2002 Obstetrics and Gynecology

3693. Patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenoma have increased cardiovascular risk. (PubMed)

Patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenoma have increased cardiovascular risk. Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) is increasingly being reported in incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas; its hallmark is mild autonomous cortisol hyperproduction without specific clinical signs of cortisol excess. Increased prevalence of hypertension, obesity, and impaired glucose tolerance have been described in SCS, but there is no specific study of the risk factors (...) for cardiovascular diseases. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the cardiovascular profile in 28 consecutive SCS patients (19 women and 9 men; aged 56 +/- 10.6 yr) compared with 100 controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Systolic (P < 0.001) and diastolic (P < 0.005) blood pressures were higher in patients, as were fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides (all P < 0.001), and fibrinogen (P < 0.05). Moreover, the insulin resistance index was increased in patients

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2002 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3694. Bone involvement in eugonadal male patients with adrenal incidentaloma and subclinical hypercortisolism. (PubMed)

Bone involvement in eugonadal male patients with adrenal incidentaloma and subclinical hypercortisolism. Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) are not associated, by definition, with clinically evident syndromes; however, some AI patients may show biochemical indexes of subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). Previous data on female AI patients indicated that SH may lead to bone loss, at least at spine. No data are available on bone involvement in samples of only AI male patients. We measured bone metabolism (...) , in order for the most appropriate management to be individually tailored, bone mass evaluation is strongly indicated in AI male patients with SH, irrespective of their gonadal status.

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2002 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3695. Adrenal cortical carcinoma. Epidemiology and treatment with mitotane and a review of the literature. (PubMed)

Adrenal cortical carcinoma. Epidemiology and treatment with mitotane and a review of the literature. Adrenal cortical carcinoma is rare; the authors have treated only eight patients with the disease at Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center since 1974. No exhaustive collection of cases of this cancer has been done since 1952.The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of their eight patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. They also searched the English literature from 1952 (...) to 1992 for reports of patients with the disease. They treated each report as a series if two or more previously unreported patients were reported. They paid special attention to patients for whom stage of disease was noted at diagnosis, treatment with mitotane (o,p'-DDD) was used, and the outcome was reported.Five were male and three were female patients. Five had nonfunctional tumors. None were pediatric. The authors found 1891 cases in the English literature. Adrenal cortical carcinomas are more

1993 Cancer

3696. Short-term estradiol treatment enhances pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic responses to psychosocial stress in healthy young men. (PubMed)

Short-term estradiol treatment enhances pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic responses to psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Evidence from animal studies and clinical observations suggest that the activity of the pituitary-adrenal axis is under significant influence of sex steroids. The present study investigated how a short term elevation of estradiol levels affects ACTH, cortisol, norepinephrine, and heart rate responses to mental stress in healthy men. In a double blind study, 16 (...) men received a patch delivering 0.1 mg estradiol/day transdermally, and age- and body mass index-matched control subjects received a placebo patch. Twenty-four to 48 h later, they were exposed to a brief psychosocial stressor (free speech and mental arithmetic in front of an audience). In response to the psychosocial stressor, ACTH, cortisol, norepinephrine, and heart rate were increased in both experimental groups (all P < 0.0001). However, the estradiol-treated subjects showed exaggerated peak

1996 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3697. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone for adrenal androgen replacement: pharmacokinetics and peripheral conversion to androgens and estrogens in young healthy females after dexamethasone suppression. (PubMed)

mass index 22.5 +/- 1.8 kg/m2) with transient suppression of adrenal androgen secretion because of dexamethasone (dex) administration (4 x 0.5 mg/day for 4 days). Diurnal blood sampling was performed during the early follicular phase of four subsequent menstrual cycles (study period 1: baseline; study periods 2-4: dex + placebo, dex + 50 mg DHEA or dex + 100 mg DHEA in a randomized cross-over design). Dex induced not only a significant suppression of serum cortisol (to 8% of baseline) but also (...) Oral dehydroepiandrosterone for adrenal androgen replacement: pharmacokinetics and peripheral conversion to androgens and estrogens in young healthy females after dexamethasone suppression. Women with adrenal insufficiency suffer from chronic dehydroepiandrosterone (sulfate) [DHEA(S)] deficiency. To define a suitable dose for DHEA replacement, we studied the pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of orally administered DHEA in nine healthy female volunteers (mean age 23.3 +/- 4.1 yr, mean body

1998 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3698. Interactions between the stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and leptin in humans. (PubMed)

Interactions between the stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and leptin in humans. Leptin, produced by adipocytes, has homeostatic effects on body fat mass through inhibition of appetite and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Several studies have reported that high-dose exogenous glucocorticoids increase circulating leptin concentrations in humans. Conversely, leptin has inhibitory effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both at the hypothalamic (...) and adrenal levels. We hypothesized that acute hypercortisolism, in the physiological range, may not alter leptin secretion. Four stimuli of the HPA axis were administered to eight healthy male volunteers in a placebo-controlled study. On separate afternoons, in a randomised order, fasting subjects received i.v. injections of saline, naloxone (125 microg/kg); vasopressin (0.0143 IU/kg); naloxone and vasopressin in combination; or insulin (0.15 U/kg; a dose sufficient to induce hypoglycaemia). Plasma

2000 Journal of neuroendocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3699. Growth hormone (GH) responses to GH-releasing hormone alone or combined with arginine in patients with adrenal incidentaloma: evidence for enhanced somatostatinergic tone. (PubMed)

, as a slight degree of cortisol excess may frequently be observed in such patients who do not present with any clear Cushingoid sign. In the present study, 10 patients (3 men and 7 women, aged 48-63 yr) with an adrenal mass discovered serendipitously underwent, on separate occasions, a GHRH injection alone or combined with an infusion of the functional somatostatin antagonist, arginine. Thirteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Briefly, arginine (30 g) was infused from -30 to 0 min (...) a unilateral uptake of the tracer on the side of the mass with suppression of the contralateral normal adrenal gland. As a group, the patients displayed greater UFC excretion and lower ACTH concentrations than the controls. GH release after GHRH treatment was blunted in patients bearing adrenal incidentaloma compared with controls (GH peak, 5.7 +/- 5.2 vs. 18.0 +/- 7.0 microg/L; P < 0.0001), whereas GHRH plus arginine was able to elicit a comparable response in the 2 groups (GH peak, 33.5 +/- 20.3 vs. 33.7

2000 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3700. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade by canrenoate increases both spontaneous and stimulated adrenal function in humans. (PubMed)

Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade by canrenoate increases both spontaneous and stimulated adrenal function in humans. Animal studies indicate that mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the hippocampus play a major role in the glucocorticoid feedback control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Specifically, MR mediate the proactive feedback of glucocorticoids in the maintenance of basal HPA activity. The stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular and intrahippocampal MR blockade (...) on the HPA axis in animals has been clearly shown, whereas the effect of systemic administration of mineralocorticoid antagonists in humans is still contradictory. To clarify this point, in seven normal young women (aged 25-32 yr; body mass index, 19.0-23.0 kg/m(2)) we studied the effects of canrenoate (CAN; 200 mg as iv bolus at 2000 h, followed by 200 mg infused in 500 mL saline over 4 h up to 2400 h) or placebo (saline, 1.0 mL as iv bolus at 2000 h, followed by 500 mL over 4 h up to 2400 h

2001 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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