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Adrenal Mass

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3581. Effects of megestrol acetate on weight gain, body composition, and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

for pancreatic insufficiency. Patients (n = 17) were randomly assigned to receive either megestrol acetate or placebo.The treatment group had a significant increase in weight-for-age z scores compared with placebo and reached 100% of their ideal body weight within 3 months of initiating therapy. Weight gain included both fat and fat-free mass. Improved pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) was noted in the treatment group compared with placebo (P <.04 (...) ). Reversible adrenal suppression was observed in the majority of patients who received megestrol acetate.Short-term use of megestrol acetate results in significant weight gain and improved pulmonary function in malnourished subjects with CF. Our study provides a controlled basis for this intervention, identifies important side effects, and provides the foundation for multiyear, longitudinal trials in a larger number of patients with CF.

2002 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3582. Treatment of abdominally obese men with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor: a pilot study. (PubMed)

fat distribution.Anthropometry, three different depression rating scales, serum lipids, testosterone, IGF-I, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pituitary stimulation with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), arithmetic stress test, and excretion of cortisol and metoxycatecholamines in urine, collected during 24 h.Cortisol concentrations in the morning were low before treatment, indicating a perturbed function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. After treatment with citalopram (...) of metoxycatecholamines tended to decrease. Neither body mass index nor waist/hip circumference ratio decreased. Depression scores were within normal limits before treatment and did not change.The results of this pilot study indicate improvements in the regulation of neuroendocrine-autonomic systems as well as metabolism in abdominal obesity during treatment with an SSRI.

2001 Journal of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3583. The combined administration of GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2), TRH and GnRH to men with prolonged critical illness evokes superior endocrine and metabolic effects compared to treatment with GHRP-2 alone. (PubMed)

alone.Thirty-three men with prolonged critical illness participated at baseline compared to 50 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. Patients were randomly assigned to 5 days of placebo (n = 7), GHRP-2 (1 microg/kg/h; n = 9), GHRP-2 + TRH infusion (1 + 1 microg/kg/h; n = 9) or pulsatile GnRH (0.1 microg/kg every 90 min) together with GHRP-2 + TRH infusion (n = 8).GH, TSH and LH secretion were quantified by deconvolution analysis of serum concentration time series obtained by sampling every 20 (...) min from 2100 to 0600 h at baseline and on nights 1 and 5 of treatment. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBPs, thyroid hormones, gonadal and adrenal steroids, proinflammatory cytokines and selected metabolic and inflammation markers were measured daily.Patients revealed suppressed pulsatile GH, TSH and LH secretion in the face of low serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and the acid-labile subunit (ALS) (P < 0.0001 each), thyroid hormones (P < 0.0001) and total and estimated free testosterone (P

2002 Clinical endocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3584. Comment: response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to high-protein/fat and high-carbohydrate meals in women with different obesity phenotypes. (PubMed)

Comment: response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to high-protein/fat and high-carbohydrate meals in women with different obesity phenotypes. Subjects with abdominal obesity are characterized by hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Food intake, particularly at noon, is a well-known inducer of HPA axis activation. Whether obese subjects present an abnormal response to meals containing different macronutrient proportions is at present unknown (...) . Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of a high-lipid/protein meal (HLP-meal) and a high-carbohydrate meal (HCHO-meal) on the HPA axis activity in women with different obesity phenotypes. Nondepressed, noncomplicated obese (body mass index greater than 28 kg/m(2)) women with abdominal (A-BFD) (n = 10) and peripheral body fat distribution (P-BFD) (n = 9) and a group of 11 normal-weight controls were investigated in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. They were randomly

2002 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3585. Mastocytoma in a cow: a case report. (PubMed)

Mastocytoma in a cow: a case report. Mastocytoma was diagnosed in a four year old Holstein cow. The enlarging mass was clinically determined to be metastatic to the right superficial cervical lymph node. Cytological examination of both sites revealed mast cell neoplasia. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of this tumor in these same sites as well as in liver, kidney and adrenal. Ultrastructurally, the mass contained round cells with electron dense granules in the cytoplasm.

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1984 Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine

3586. The Mr 80,000 common forms of neurophysin and vasopressin from bovine neurohypophysis have corticotropin- and β-endorphin-like sequences and liberate by proteolysis biologically active corticotropin (PubMed)

The Mr 80,000 common forms of neurophysin and vasopressin from bovine neurohypophysis have corticotropin- and β-endorphin-like sequences and liberate by proteolysis biologically active corticotropin We have tested the hypothesis that the high M(r) forms common to both neurophysin and vasopressin detected in bovine neurohypophysis extracts (Nicolas, P., Camier, M., Lauber, M., Masse, M.-J. O., Möhring, J. & Cohen, P. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 2587-2591) might also contain (...) the elution volume of standard (125)I-labeled corticotropin-(1-24), was tested for its ability to activate glucocorticoid biogenesis by the amphibian interrenal tissue (adrenal) in perifusion. It was found to exhibit a noticeable activity qualitatively undistinguishable from the one of the reference human corticotropin-(1-39). The name neurohypophyseal "coenophorin" (from the Greek word for common) is proposed for this class of M(r) 80,000 polypeptides that might represent the common precursor store-house

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1981 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

3587. Gordon Wilson lecture. The prevention of immune rejection of islet transplants without the use of immunosuppressive drugs. (PubMed)

to the prevention of rejection of islet allografts in the dog. Thus the problems remaining with respect to human application are two. One is to determine which of the six methods will completely prevent rejection of islet allografts in dogs and could serve as a model for human application. The second is to modify and adapt the Velcro technique and the automated procedure for mass isolation of islets to the human pancreas. When we have been successful in modifying these isolation procedures so that we can obtain (...) at least 100-150,000 islets, then human islets will be transplanted into the omentum of diabetic subjects who have received a kidney transplant and are already being treated with immunosuppressive agents. The purpose of these initial studies in humans will be to determine whether a sufficient mass of endocrine islet tissue has been transplanted to maintain normoglycemia and normal carbohydrate metabolism in these individuals. We hope that by the time these studies are completed we will have finished

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1984 Transactions Of The American Clinical And Climatological Association

3588. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate binding sites in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. Properties, comparisons and potential physiological significance. (PubMed)

and adrenal microsomes were used in a ligand-displacement mass assay (conducted under near-physiological conditions, at pH 7.0) on extracts of cerebral-cortex slices stimulated with agonists, and both preparations faithfully detected the increases in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 that occurred, implying that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is the principal ligand on these binding sites in intact cells. 7. Apparent contradictions in the literature with regard to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding sites in neuronal and peripheral tissues can (...) Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate binding sites in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. Properties, comparisons and potential physiological significance. 1. Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding sites were studied in cerebellar and hepatic microsomes from rat, and in bovine adrenal-cortical microsomes. 2. At pH 7.0, all three tissues showed specific binding, with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 being the most potent competing ligand of those tested [which included Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6] and Scatchard

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1992 Biochemical Journal

3589. The mechanism of calcium channel facilitation in bovine chromaffin cells. (PubMed)

The mechanism of calcium channel facilitation in bovine chromaffin cells. 1. This study was planned to clarify the mechanism of Ca2+ channel facilitation by depolarizing prepulses given to voltage-clamped bovine chromaffin cells. The hypothesis for an autocrine modulation of such channels was tested by studying the effects of a soluble vesicle lysate (SVL) on whole-cell Ba2+ currents (IBa). 2. SVL was prepared from a bovine adrenal medullary homogenate. The ATP content in this concentrated SVL (...) antagonized the effects of SVL. Treatment of SVL with alkaline phosphatase or dialysis against a saline buffer to remove low molecular mass materials (< 10 kDa) considerably reduced the activity of SVL. 6. Stopping the flow of the external solution (10 mM Ba2+) gradually reduced the size, and slowed down the activation phase, of the current. Prepulse facilitation of IBa was absent or weak in a superfused cell, but was massive upon flow-stop conditions in the presence or absence of 3 microM nifedipine. 7

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1996 The Journal of physiology

3590. Decreased cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mRNA and protein and increased high density lipoprotein following lipopolysaccharide administration in human CETP transgenic mice. (PubMed)

, the effects of LPS on CETP and plasma lipoproteins were examined in human CETP transgenic mice. Administration of LPS to mice expressing a CETP transgene linked to its natural flanking sequences (NFR-CETP Tg) resulted in a rapid marked decrease in hepatic CETP mRNA and plasma CETP concentration. Corticosteroid injection produced a similar decrease in hepatic CETP mRNA and adrenalectomy abolished this response to LPS. LPS caused disproportionate reductions in plasma CETP activity compared to mass (...) mRNA, primarily as a result of adrenal corticosteroid release. The decrease in plasma CETP activity after LPS administration may reflect both this effect as well as a direct interaction between CETP and LPS. The decrease of CETP in response to LPS has major effects on HDL levels, and may represent an adaptive response to preserve or increase HDL and thereby modify the response to LPS.

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1995 Journal of Clinical Investigation

3591. Prepubertal Girls with Premature Adrenarche Have Greater Bone Mineral Content and Density Than Controls (PubMed)

Prepubertal Girls with Premature Adrenarche Have Greater Bone Mineral Content and Density Than Controls Body composition in premature adrenarche (PA) has not been described. We hypothesized that the increased adrenal androgens in PA would have a trophic effect on lean body components. We studied 14 PA subjects and 16 controls, all prepubertal Hispanic girls. The body composition parameters tested included height, weight, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), nonbone fat-free (...) mass, total body potassium, total body water, and extracellular water. Bone age was determined in all PA subjects. Compared with controls, PA subjects had significantly higher BMC (P = 0.02) and BMD (P = 0.03) when adjusted for age, weight, height, and fat mass, but were not different in the following lean body components: fat-free mass, total body potassium, total body water, and extracellular water. There was no difference in BMD or BMC between the PA subjects with and without advanced bone age

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2001 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

3592. Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid effects on 31,000- and 29,000-dalton proopiomelanocortin in rat anterior pituitary and neurointermediate lobe. (PubMed)

Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid effects on 31,000- and 29,000-dalton proopiomelanocortin in rat anterior pituitary and neurointermediate lobe. The effects of adrenal steroids on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) levels in rat pituitary have been studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In intact rats the relative abundance of POMC was much higher in the neurointermediate lobe (N-IL) than in anterior pituitary (AP); in both tissues the predominant species appeared to be of 29,000-dalton (...) (29K) molecular mass, with lesser amounts of a 31K form. In both tissues, the 31K and 29K forms showed multiple spots, consistent with different degrees of sialoglycosylation. Adrenalectomy was followed by a marked increase in AP levels of POMC, and a marked decrease in N-IL levels. In adrenalectomized rats, dexamethasone administration did not affect N-IL levels of POMC, but suppressed 35S incorporation into POMC in AP in a dose-related manner; deoxycorticosterone showed minimal effects on AP

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1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation

3593. Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a mouse melanocortin receptor gene. (PubMed)

Molecular cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a mouse melanocortin receptor gene. We describe the cloning of the mouse HGMP01A gene that encodes a melanocortin receptor functionally distinct from the adrenal cortex corticotropin (adrenocorticotrophic hormone; ACTH) receptor and the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) receptor expressed in melanoma. The gene encodes a protein of 323 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 35,800 Da, displaying (...) potential sites for N-linked glycosylation and phosphorylation by protein kinase C. An RNAase protection assay detected weak expression in the brain, but not in adrenal gland, skin, or any of the other tissues tested. Stable CHO cell lines expressing over 100,000 receptors per cell were generated. The recombinant receptor binds iodinated [Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) with an apparent Kd of 700 pM. Displacement of the ligand by a variety of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides revealed

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1994 Biochemical Journal

3594. Upregulation of the low density lipoprotein receptor at the blood-brain barrier: intercommunications between brain capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes (PubMed)

cells to bind LDL is enhanced threefold when cocultured with astrocytes. We next investigated the ability of astrocytes to modulate endothelial cell LDL receptor expression. We have shown that the lipid requirement of astrocytes increases the expression of endothelial cell LDL receptors. Experiments with dialysis membranes of different pore size showed that this effect is mediated by a soluble factor(s) with relative molecular mass somewhere between 3,500 and 14,000. Substituting astrocytes (...) with smooth muscle cells or brain endothelium with endothelium from the aorta or the adrenal cortex did not enhance the luminal LDL receptor expression on endothelial cells, demonstrating the specificity of the interactions. This factor(s) is exclusively secreted by astrocytes cocultured with brain capillary endothelial cells, but it also upregulates the LDL receptor on other cell types. This study confirms the notion that the final fine tuning of cell differentiation is under local control.

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1994 The Journal of cell biology

3595. Characterization of an atypical lipoprotein-binding protein in human aortic media membranes by ligand blotting. (PubMed)

human aortic media (and cultured human smooth-muscle cells) contain a major lipoprotein-binding protein with an apparent molecular mass of 105 kDa. Anionized preparations (carbamoyl- and acetyl-) of LDL, which did not displace 125I-LDL bound to the apo B,E receptor of cultured fibroblasts, were also recognized as ligands for the 105 kDa protein in aortic media membranes. LDL binding to 105 kDa protein was decreased in the presence of high density lipoprotein (HDL), although more than 100-fold molar (...) excess of HDL was required to achieve 50% displacement of bound LDL. The LDL-binding activity of 105 kDa protein was inhibited by EDTA, and was also significantly decreased when samples were reduced by beta-mercaptoethanol before electrophoresis. Monoclonal antibodies against apo B,E receptor reacted with partially purified bovine adrenal apo B,E receptor, but not with 105 kDa protein of human aortic media membranes. The spectrum of properties of this vascular smooth-muscle lipoprotein-binding

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1994 Biochemical Journal

3596. Nursing sickness in lactating mink (Mustela vison). I. Epidemiological and pathological observations. (PubMed)

of either sex did not differ between healthy and sick dams. In Standard Black, the total biomass of the offspring raised by sick dams was significantly larger than that of the healthy controls (p less than 0.01). During the final two weeks of lactation, apparently healthy dams lost on average 14% of their body mass, whereas those affected by nursing sickness had a mean weight loss of about 31% (p less than 0.001). Postmortem examination of 25 dams with severe nursing sickness verified the clinical (...) findings of progressive dehydration and emaciation. The gastrointestinal tract was empty and gastric ulcers and melaena were frequently present. Other common findings included small livers,enlarged adrenals and pitted kidneys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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1992 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

3597. Purification and characterization of the blue-green rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) tyrosine hydroxylase with a dopamine-Fe(III) complex. Reversal of the endogenous feedback inhibition by phosphorylation of serine-40. (PubMed)

Purification and characterization of the blue-green rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) tyrosine hydroxylase with a dopamine-Fe(III) complex. Reversal of the endogenous feedback inhibition by phosphorylation of serine-40. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was purified from tumours of rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells by a three-step purification procedure giving 30 mg of pure enzyme in 3 days. The enzyme sedimented with an S(eo),w value of 9.2 S and revealed an apparent subunit molecular mass of 62 kDa (...) to that observed in the bovine adrenal enzyme [Andersson, Cox, Que, Flatmark & Haavik (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 18621-18626]. In the rat PC12 enzyme, all of the iron present (0.53 +/- 0.03 atom per subunit) seems to be chelated by the feedback inhibitors (0.49 +/- 0.05 mol of dopamine and 0.10 +/- 0.03 mol of noradrenaline per mol of subunit). The e.p.r. spectra at 3.6 K show g-values at 7.0, 5.2 and 1.9 as observed for other catecholate-complexed enzymes. After phosphorylation of serine-40 and addition of L

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1992 Biochemical Journal

3598. Cloning and expression of human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase. (PubMed)

Cloning and expression of human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase (DHEA-ST) catalyses the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate-dependent sulphation of a wide variety of steroids in human liver and adrenal tissue and is responsible for most, if not all, of the sulphation of bile acids in human liver. This report describes the isolation, characterization and expression of a cDNA which encodes human liver DHEA-ST. The DHEA-ST cDNA (...) , designated DHEA-ST8, was isolated from a Uni-Zap XR human liver cDNA library and is composed of 1060 bp and contains an open reading frame encoding a 285-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of approx. 33765 Da. Translation of DHEA-ST8 in vitro generated a protein identical in molecular size with that of DHEA-ST. Expression of DHEA-ST8 in COS-7 cells produces an active DHEA-ST protein which is capable of sulphating DHEA, has the same molecular mass as human liver DHEA-ST and is recognized by rabbit

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1993 Biochemical Journal

3599. Immunological studies on the rat peripheral-type benzodiazepine acceptor. (PubMed)

Immunological studies on the rat peripheral-type benzodiazepine acceptor. Photoaffinity labelling of rat adrenal mitochondrial preparations with [3H]PK 14105 resulted in a single 3H-labelled band on SDS/PAGE gels with an apparent-molecular-mass peak of 18 kDa. This represents a polypeptide associated with the peripheral-type benzodiazepine-binding site. Solubilization of photoaffinity-labelled membranes with 6 M-guanidine hydrochloride, followed by gel filtration and reversed-phase h.p.l.c (...) . of the solubilized material, resulted in the purification to homogeneity of the [3H]PK 14105-labelled polypeptide. This purified polypeptide was used to raise a rabbit polyclonal antiserum which recognized the immunogen in pure form and exclusively recognized it in a crude preparation of rat adrenal mitochondria as judged by immunoblotting. By the same analysis the antiserum identified the corresponding polypeptide from rat kidney and salivary gland, demonstrating its cross-reactivity. Subsequent

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1991 Biochemical Journal

3600. Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65. (PubMed)

Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65. The bovine homologue of p65, a calmodulin-binding protein located in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and endocrine secretory granules, has been studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against this antigen and against dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase. The protein (apparent molecular mass 67 kDa; pI = 5.5-6.2) is partially degraded by treatment with neuraminidase or endoglycosidase F. Trypsin treatment (...) of intact adrenal chromaffin granules or of granule membranes releases a soluble 39 kDa fragment of p65 which corresponds to the whole of its cytoplasmic domain. This domain contains both the epitope for the monoclonal antibody cgm67 and the calmodulin-binding site. The 20 amino acids at the N-terminus of this fragment are identical to part of the rat p65 sequence.

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1991 Biochemical Journal

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