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Adrenal Mass

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3561. Cloning and molecular expression analysis of large and small lecithin:retinol acyltransferase mRNAs in the liver and other tissues of adult rats. (PubMed)

of approximately 5 kb as well as several smaller transcripts. To elucidate the nature of the large LRAT transcript, a high-molecular-mass adrenal gland cDNA library was screened. Two similar clones of 3962 and 3187 nt were identified which appeared to be part of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of a 5358 nt LRAT mRNA. The 5.3 kb cDNA was then amplified from liver by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and demonstrated to encode functional LRAT activity. The 3'-UTR of the 5.3 kb cDNA contains several AAUAAA

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2002 Biochemical Journal

3562. Immunological studies on the rat peripheral-type benzodiazepine acceptor. (PubMed)

Immunological studies on the rat peripheral-type benzodiazepine acceptor. Photoaffinity labelling of rat adrenal mitochondrial preparations with [3H]PK 14105 resulted in a single 3H-labelled band on SDS/PAGE gels with an apparent-molecular-mass peak of 18 kDa. This represents a polypeptide associated with the peripheral-type benzodiazepine-binding site. Solubilization of photoaffinity-labelled membranes with 6 M-guanidine hydrochloride, followed by gel filtration and reversed-phase h.p.l.c (...) . of the solubilized material, resulted in the purification to homogeneity of the [3H]PK 14105-labelled polypeptide. This purified polypeptide was used to raise a rabbit polyclonal antiserum which recognized the immunogen in pure form and exclusively recognized it in a crude preparation of rat adrenal mitochondria as judged by immunoblotting. By the same analysis the antiserum identified the corresponding polypeptide from rat kidney and salivary gland, demonstrating its cross-reactivity. Subsequent

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1991 Biochemical Journal

3563. Obscure anaemia and hepatic dysfunction in Castleman's disease. (PubMed)

Obscure anaemia and hepatic dysfunction in Castleman's disease. A case is reported illustrating a rare and puzzling cause of long standing anaemia and abnormal liver function tests. The diagnosis of Castleman's disease came to light only after an adrenal mass was noted during ultrasound examination. Removal of the mass led to a rapid reversal of all the abnormalities.

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1990 Gut

3564. Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid effects on 31,000- and 29,000-dalton proopiomelanocortin in rat anterior pituitary and neurointermediate lobe. (PubMed)

Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid effects on 31,000- and 29,000-dalton proopiomelanocortin in rat anterior pituitary and neurointermediate lobe. The effects of adrenal steroids on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) levels in rat pituitary have been studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In intact rats the relative abundance of POMC was much higher in the neurointermediate lobe (N-IL) than in anterior pituitary (AP); in both tissues the predominant species appeared to be of 29,000-dalton (...) (29K) molecular mass, with lesser amounts of a 31K form. In both tissues, the 31K and 29K forms showed multiple spots, consistent with different degrees of sialoglycosylation. Adrenalectomy was followed by a marked increase in AP levels of POMC, and a marked decrease in N-IL levels. In adrenalectomized rats, dexamethasone administration did not affect N-IL levels of POMC, but suppressed 35S incorporation into POMC in AP in a dose-related manner; deoxycorticosterone showed minimal effects on AP

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1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation

3565. Regulation of bile-acid synthesis. Role of sterol carrier protein 2 in the biosynthesis of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol. (PubMed)

; and enhances mitochondrial utilization of cholesterol for pregnenolone formation in the adrenals. The conversion of cholesterol into 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol is the rate-limiting step in bile-acid synthesis. We therefore investigated the effect of SCP2 on this physiologically critical reaction by using a gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry procedure that measures the mass of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol formed. The results show that SCP2 enhances 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol formation by rat liver

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1985 Biochemical Journal

3566. Nursing sickness in lactating mink (Mustela vison). I. Epidemiological and pathological observations. (PubMed)

of either sex did not differ between healthy and sick dams. In Standard Black, the total biomass of the offspring raised by sick dams was significantly larger than that of the healthy controls (p less than 0.01). During the final two weeks of lactation, apparently healthy dams lost on average 14% of their body mass, whereas those affected by nursing sickness had a mean weight loss of about 31% (p less than 0.001). Postmortem examination of 25 dams with severe nursing sickness verified the clinical (...) findings of progressive dehydration and emaciation. The gastrointestinal tract was empty and gastric ulcers and melaena were frequently present. Other common findings included small livers,enlarged adrenals and pitted kidneys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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1992 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

3567. Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65. (PubMed)

Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65. The bovine homologue of p65, a calmodulin-binding protein located in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and endocrine secretory granules, has been studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against this antigen and against dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase. The protein (apparent molecular mass 67 kDa; pI = 5.5-6.2) is partially degraded by treatment with neuraminidase or endoglycosidase F. Trypsin treatment (...) of intact adrenal chromaffin granules or of granule membranes releases a soluble 39 kDa fragment of p65 which corresponds to the whole of its cytoplasmic domain. This domain contains both the epitope for the monoclonal antibody cgm67 and the calmodulin-binding site. The 20 amino acids at the N-terminus of this fragment are identical to part of the rat p65 sequence.

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1991 Biochemical Journal

3568. Tissue-specific distribution of cross-linked somatostatin receptor proteins in the rat. (PubMed)

ranging from 27 kDa to 200 kDa. In order to resolve this discrepancy, as well as to determine whether SS-14 and SS-28 interact with specific receptor proteins, we have cross-linked radioiodinated derivatives of [125I-Tyr11]SS-14 (T*-SS-14) and [Leu8,D-Trp22,125I-Tyr25]SS-28 (LTT*-SS-28) to membrane SS receptors in rat brain, pituitary, exocrine pancreas and adrenal cortex using a number of chemical and photoaffinity cross-linking agents. The labelled cross-linked receptor proteins were analysed by SDS (...) /PAGE under reducing conditions followed by autoradiography. Our findings indicate that the pattern of specifically labelled cross-linked SS receptor proteins is sensitive to the concentration of chemical cross-linking agents such as disuccinimidyl suberate and dithiobis-(succinimidyl propionate). Labelled high-molecular-mass complexes of cross-linked receptor-ligand proteins were observed only when high concentrations of these cross-linkers were employed. Using optimized low concentrations of cross

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1992 Biochemical Journal

3569. Cloning and expression of human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase. (PubMed)

Cloning and expression of human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase (DHEA-ST) catalyses the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate-dependent sulphation of a wide variety of steroids in human liver and adrenal tissue and is responsible for most, if not all, of the sulphation of bile acids in human liver. This report describes the isolation, characterization and expression of a cDNA which encodes human liver DHEA-ST. The DHEA-ST cDNA (...) , designated DHEA-ST8, was isolated from a Uni-Zap XR human liver cDNA library and is composed of 1060 bp and contains an open reading frame encoding a 285-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of approx. 33765 Da. Translation of DHEA-ST8 in vitro generated a protein identical in molecular size with that of DHEA-ST. Expression of DHEA-ST8 in COS-7 cells produces an active DHEA-ST protein which is capable of sulphating DHEA, has the same molecular mass as human liver DHEA-ST and is recognized by rabbit

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1993 Biochemical Journal

3570. Purification and characterization of the blue-green rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) tyrosine hydroxylase with a dopamine-Fe(III) complex. Reversal of the endogenous feedback inhibition by phosphorylation of serine-40. (PubMed)

Purification and characterization of the blue-green rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) tyrosine hydroxylase with a dopamine-Fe(III) complex. Reversal of the endogenous feedback inhibition by phosphorylation of serine-40. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was purified from tumours of rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells by a three-step purification procedure giving 30 mg of pure enzyme in 3 days. The enzyme sedimented with an S(eo),w value of 9.2 S and revealed an apparent subunit molecular mass of 62 kDa (...) to that observed in the bovine adrenal enzyme [Andersson, Cox, Que, Flatmark & Haavik (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 18621-18626]. In the rat PC12 enzyme, all of the iron present (0.53 +/- 0.03 atom per subunit) seems to be chelated by the feedback inhibitors (0.49 +/- 0.05 mol of dopamine and 0.10 +/- 0.03 mol of noradrenaline per mol of subunit). The e.p.r. spectra at 3.6 K show g-values at 7.0, 5.2 and 1.9 as observed for other catecholate-complexed enzymes. After phosphorylation of serine-40 and addition of L

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1992 Biochemical Journal

3571. The phosphatidylinositide-Ca2+ hypothesis does not apply to the steroidogenic action of corticotropin. (PubMed)

The phosphatidylinositide-Ca2+ hypothesis does not apply to the steroidogenic action of corticotropin. The hypothesis that ACTH (corticotropin) stimulates steroidogenesis by a mechanism that involves breakdown of polyphosphoinositides and increase in intracellular Ca2+ (called here the 'phosphatidylinositide-Ca2+ mechanism') was tested in Y-1 adrenal-tumour cells and in bovine fasciculata cells, by using incorporation of 32P and myo-[3H]inositol to study phospholipid metabolism, and quin-2 (...) and fura 2 to measure intracellular Ca2+. As a positive control, we repeated experiments showing that angiotensin II stimulates glomerulosa cells by way of the phosphatidylinositide-Ca2+ mechanism, by using the same methods. With Y-1 and fasciculata cells, no change was observed in the incorporation of either of the labelled precursors into any phosphatidylinositide or into any of three major phosphoinositols, i.e. inositol phosphate, bisphosphate and trisphosphate. Moreover, no change in mass of any

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1986 Biochemical Journal

3572. Biochemical and neurohormonal responses to the introduction of a lacto-ovovegetarian diet. (PubMed)

Biochemical and neurohormonal responses to the introduction of a lacto-ovovegetarian diet. To assess the mechanisms of the blood pressure-lowering effect of a vegetarian diet in the early and later stages of dietary intervention.After 2 weeks without intervention (baseline), 20 normotensive men were matched for age and body mass index and randomly allocated to an omnivorous (control) or a lacto-ovovegetarian diet for 6 weeks in a parallel trial.Ambulatory blood pressures were recorded between (...) was shown. Using factors derived from the biochemical variables, results were in keeping with the hypothesis that these effects may be mediated by reduced sympatho-adrenal activity consequent to altered glucose and insulin handling. An early increase in plasma ANP may contribute to the blood pressure reduction.

1993 Journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3573. Inhibition of cortisol secretion by dexamethasone in relation to body fat distribution: a dose-response study. (PubMed)

Inhibition of cortisol secretion by dexamethasone in relation to body fat distribution: a dose-response study. There is now evidence of a hypersensitive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in subjects with an elevated waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR), an indicator of the centralization of body fat stores. The activity of the HPA axis is regulated by central glucocorticoid receptors, whose activity can be tested by the administration of exogenous glucocorticoids, which normally inhibit (...) cortisol secretion. In this study, dexamethasone (dex) was administered in random order in doses of 0.05, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg at 10 p.m. with measurements of serum cortisol in the morning (8 a.m.) of this and the following day. The test was performed on 22 apparently healthy men, 40 to 60 years of age, recruited from laboratory personnel, outpatient clinics or advertisements in a newspaper. Eight had a body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) of < 25 and 14 of > 25. Twelve men had a waist hip ratio (WHR

1996 Obesity research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3574. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on basal metabolic rate in adults with pituitary deficiency. (PubMed)

Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on basal metabolic rate in adults with pituitary deficiency. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on basal metabolic rate (BMR) was studied in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial. Ten patients with a history of complete pituitary insufficiency were randomized for 26 weeks in each period. Three patients were excluded due to withdrawal, fever, and claustrophobia, respectively. All patients had received adrenal, thyroid (...) -free mass (FFM) increased and body fat (BF) decreased during the first 6 weeks of rhGH treatment, but no further changes in body composition occurred between 6 and 26 weeks. Baseline BMRs in GH-deficient (GHD) patients were in the lower part of the reference range, but BMR and the ratio between BMR and FFM (BMR/FFM) were not significantly lower than in a carefully selected control group. BMR increased between 0 and 6 weeks (mean +/- SD: from 6.68 +/- 1.55 to 7.75 +/- 1.35 MJ/24 h, P < .001

1995 Metabolism: clinical and experimental Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3575. Beta-cell function in hypopituitary adults before and during growth hormone treatment. (PubMed)

proinsulin were measured by two-site immunoradiometric assays. 2. Hypopituitary patients were aged 19-67 years and had a body mass index of 27.7 (18.0-41.1) kg/m2. They were receiving replacement thyroxine, adrenal steroids and sex hormones and they were growth hormone deficient. Control subjects were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Hypopituitary patients with normal glucose tolerance and with impaired glucose tolerance were compared separately with subgroups of control subjects matched for age (...) and body mass index. 3. Twenty-six hypopituitary patients had normal glucose tolerance and 14 had impaired glucose tolerance. All control subjects had normal glucose tolerance by World Health Organization criteria. Patients with impaired glucose tolerance were significantly older than those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.03). Hypopituitary patients with normal glucose tolerance compared with normal control subjects had a significantly lower fasting plasma glucose concentration (P < 0.01), a lower

1995 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3576. Oral budesonide and ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a prospective double-blind trial. (PubMed)

, after 12 months, and at the end of study. Glucose tolerance tests, serum cortisol levels, and adrenocorticotropin-stimulated cortisol secretion were assessed at regular intervals. Bone mass density was measured by dual-energy photon absorptiometry.Compared with pretreatment values, liver enzyme and immunoglobulin M and G levels decreased significantly in both groups. Improvement in group A was significantly more pronounced (P < 0.05) than in group B. Titers of antimitochondrial antibodies did (...) not change. In group A, the point score of liver histology improved by 30.3%; in group B, it deteriorated by 3.5% (P < 0.001). Changes in bone mineral density after 2 years were -1.747% in group A and -0.983% in group B (P = 0.43). Budesonide had little influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. One patient in group A had budesonide-related side effects; in 3 patients in group B, complications of liver disease developed.Combination therapy with UDCA and budesonide is superior to UDCA

1999 Gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3577. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. (PubMed)

The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. The biological role of the adrenal sex steroid precursors--DHEA and DHEA sulphate (DS) and their decline with ageing remains undefined. We observed previously that administration of a 50 daily dose of DHEA for 3 months to age-advanced men and women resulted in an elevation (10%) of serum levels of insulin (...) on oestrogen replacement therapy. While on DHEA, serum SHBG levels declined with a greater (P < 0.02) response in women (-40 +/- 8%; P = 0.002) than in men (-5 +/- 4%; P = 0.02). Relative to baseline, DHEA administration resulted in an elevation of serum IGF-I levels in men (16 +/- 6%, P = 0.04) and in women (31 +/- 12%, P = 0.02). Serum levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 were unaltered but GHBP levels declined in women (28 +/- 6%; P = 0.02) not in men. In men, but not in women, fat body mass decreased 1.0

1998 Clinical endocrinology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3578. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: a potent androgen secretagogue in girls with hyperandrogenism after precocious pubarche. (PubMed)

Corticotropin-releasing hormone: a potent androgen secretagogue in girls with hyperandrogenism after precocious pubarche. CRH is an adrenal androgen secretagogue in men and has been proposed as a candidate regulator of adrenarche. CRH also affects androgen production by theca cells and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian hyperandrogenism (OH). Precocious pubarche (PP) in girls can precede adolescent OH, a condition characterized by a high ovarian 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP (...) ) response 24 h after GnRH agonist challenge. In adolescent girls with a history of PP, we assessed the early androgen response to CRH, as well as the CRH effect on the late ovarian response to GnRH agonist. Within a randomized cross-over design, saline or CRH (human CRH 1 microg/kg x h in saline) was infused over 3-h (1100-1400 h) into 12 adolescent girls (age 17+/-2 yr; body mass index 21.4+/-0.9 Kg/m2) who had been pretreated with dexamethasone (1 mg at 0 h) and GnRH agonist (leuprolide acetate 500

1999 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3579. Spironolactone, but not flutamide, administration prevents bone loss in hyperandrogenic women treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. (PubMed)

Spironolactone, but not flutamide, administration prevents bone loss in hyperandrogenic women treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. GnRH agonists (GnRHa) have recently been proposed for the treatment of hirsutism in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). As most of these subjects have increased androgen secretion from both ovaries and adrenal glands, the association of GnRHa with antiandrogen drugs might enhance the clinical response to treatment. On the other hand (...) similar for age and body mass index. At baseline, the 3 groups of PCOS women were also similar for endocrine and bone parameters. After 6 months, all treatments determined similar striking suppressions of serum gonadotropins and sex steroids. Concurrently, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at all examined sites in subjects receiving either GnRHa alone or GnRHa plus flutamide. Conversely, women given GnRHa plus spironolactone did not show any change in skeletal mass from baseline values (P

1999 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3580. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of megestrol acetate in malnourished children with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

and +0.06 in the placebo group. Lean body mass and body fat increased by 1507 g and 1192 g respectively in the MA group. Pulmonary function tests improved in the MA group; serum cortisol levels decreased. Side effects included glucosuria, insomnia, hyperactivity, and irritability.Weight, body fat, and lean body mass increased and pulmonary function improved in the children with CF given MA. Adrenal suppression, glucose intolerance, and diabetes are side effects.

2000 Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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