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Adrenal Mass

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3441. 17alpha-estradiol: a brain-active estrogen? (Full text)

stroke and oxidative stress, and in transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease; and influences spatial memory and hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity. The present study measured the endogenous content of 17alpha-estradiol in the brain and further clarified its actions and kinetics. Here we report that: 1) endogenous levels of 17alpha-estradiol and its precursor estrone are significantly elevated in the postnatal and adult mouse brain and adrenal gland of both sexes, as determined by liquid (...) chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; 2) 17alpha-estradiol and 17beta-estradiol bind estrogen receptors with similar binding affinities; 3) 17alpha-estradiol transactivates an estrogen-responsive reporter gene; and 4) unlike 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-estradiol does not bind alpha-fetoprotein or SHBG, the estrogen-binding plasma proteins of the developing rodent and primate, respectively. 17alpha-Estradiol was also found in the brains of gonadectomized or gonadectomized/adrenalectomized mice, supporting

2005 Endocrinology

3442. Reversible changes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-induced adrenocortical steroidogenesis and expression of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor during the ACTH-insensitive period in young rats. (Full text)

. Another group of pups received ACTH from pd 2-7, followed by saline from pd 8-14. On the final day, all pups were challenged with a test injection of ACTH or saline. Exposure to ACTH, but not saline, for 1 wk significantly increased adrenal mass, the corticosterone response to ACTH, and the expression of PBR protein and mRNA. Continued ACTH treatment for a second week maintained adrenal mass, steroidogenesis, and PBR mRNA expression. When ACTH was withdrawn after 1 wk and replaced with daily saline (...) injections, however, adrenal mass, ACTH-inducible steroidogenesis, and PBR expression returned to levels comparable to those in age-matched saline controls (i.e. animals that had not received ACTH injections during the first 2 wk). Thus, although ACTH was capable of inducing increased steroidogenic capacity of the juvenile rat adrenal, its effects were only manifest when pups were exposed regularly to high plasma ACTH levels. ACTH, therefore, has significant, but reversible, effects on the development

2004 Endocrinology

3443. Absence of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) neurosecretory dysfunction but increased cortisol concentrations and production rates in ACTH-replete adult cancer survivors after cranial irradiation for nonpituitary brain tumors. (Full text)

neurosecretory dysfunction that might explain the excessive fatigue suffered by some cancer survivors.Cortisol profiling at 20-min intervals over 24 h during the fed state was undertaken in 34 patients (10 females), aged 17-53.7 yr (median, 21.5 yr), 2-29 yr (median, 11.5 yr) after receiving conventional cranial irradiation for nonpituitary brain tumors or leukemia (n = 5) and in 33 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched normal controls, of whom 23 patients and 17 controls were also profiled in the last (...) mass released per burst with no changes in burst frequency (12/24 h) or half-life. No significant differences were observed between males and females, after short-term fasting, or between female patients and normal females. Thus, in the light of total group comparisons, male patients had even higher values than normal males, and more so during fasting (mean cortisol and cortisol secretion increased by 20 and 29% in the fed state and by 41 and 32% in the fasting state, respectively; P < 0.05

2005 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3444. Expression of human hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in postmeiotic germ cells confers normal fertility to HSL-deficient mice. (Full text)

Expression of human hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in postmeiotic germ cells confers normal fertility to HSL-deficient mice. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, Lipe, E.C.3.1.1.3) is a multifunctional fatty acyl esterase that is essential for male fertility and spermatogenesis and that also plays important roles in the function of adipocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, and adrenal cortical cells. Gene-targeted HSL-deficient (HSL-/-) male mice are infertile, have a 2-fold reduction in testicular mass (...) the testicular transgene, activity was 2-fold greater than normal. HSL transgene mRNA became detectable in testes between 19 and 25 days of age, coinciding with the first wave of postmeiotic transcription in round spermatids. In contrast to nontransgenic HSL-/- mice, HSL-/- males expressing the testicular transgene were normal with respect to fertility, testicular mass, testicular esterified/free cholesterol ratio, and testicular histology. Their cauda epididymides contained abundant, normal-appearing

2004 Endocrinology

3445. Stability of adrenocortical steroidogenesis over time in healthy women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (Full text)

-treatment PCOS patients and seven age- and body mass index-matched control women on two separate occasions 3-5 yr apart (45.0 +/- 19.0 months and 47.4 +/- 21.3 months, respectively; P > 0.05). All subjects underwent an acute adrenal stimulation using 0.25 mg ACTH-(1-24), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol (F) were measured 0 and 60 min post ACTH; basal levels of total and free testosterone (T), SHBG, and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) were also assessed. Among PCOS patients (...) Stability of adrenocortical steroidogenesis over time in healthy women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Adrenocortical secretion is up-regulated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and absolute adrenal androgen (AA) excess is evident in approximately 25% of these patients. We hypothesized that AA biosynthesis is an inherited trait and that, as for other inherited traits, AA biosynthesis remains stable over time. To test this hypothesis, we prospectively studied 23 off

2004 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3446. Cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent sphingosine-1-phosphate biosynthesis induces human CYP17 gene transcription by activating cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1. (Full text)

Cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent sphingosine-1-phosphate biosynthesis induces human CYP17 gene transcription by activating cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1. In the human adrenal cortex, ACTH activates steroid hormone biosynthesis by acutely increasing cholesterol delivery to the mitochondrion and chronically increasing the transcription of steroidogenic genes (including CYP17) via a cAMP-dependent pathway. In the present study, we characterized the role (...) of sphingolipids in ACTH-dependent steroidogenesis. H295R human adrenocortical cells were treated with ACTH or dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP) and the content of several sphingolipid species quantified by mass spectrometry. Both ACTH and Bt2cAMP decreased cellular amounts of several sphingolipids, including sphingomyelin, ceramides, and sphingosine and stimulating the activity of sphingosine kinase and increasing the release of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) into the media. S1P increased CYP17 mRNA expression

2006 Endocrinology

3447. Free fatty acids exert an inhibitory effect on adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion in humans. (Full text)

Free fatty acids exert an inhibitory effect on adrenocorticotropin and cortisol secretion in humans. Free fatty acid (FFA) administration stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rats, suggesting that the HPA axis and lipolysis may be linked by a positive-feedback loop. To clarify the influence of FFA on the HPA axis in humans, we studied the effect of lipid load on both basal and stimulated ACTH and cortisol secretion in normal subjects. In six young female volunteers [(mean (...) +/- SEM) age, 24.4 +/- 2.1 yr; body mass index, 23.1 +/- 1.2 kg/m(2)), ACTH, cortisol, FFA, glucose, and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 330 min during the following procedures: 1) i.v. saline infusion (from 0 to 330 min); 2) i.v. FFA infusion (Intralipid 10%, from 0 to 210 min) followed by saline infusion (from 210 to 330 min); 3) human CRH (hCRH) administration (2 microg/kg i.v. at 90 min) during saline infusion (from 0 to 330 min); and 4) hCRH administration during FFA infusion

2004 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3448. The investigation of insulin resistance in patients with idiopathic hirsutism. (Full text)

The investigation of insulin resistance in patients with idiopathic hirsutism. Hirsutism, which is characterized by excessive growth of terminal hair in a male pattern, is a common clinical condition in women. It may result from various causes including polycystic ovary syndrome, nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal or ovarian tumors, or it may be idiopathic. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is considered to be one of the most common forms of hirsutism. Although not universal, insulin resistance (...) and hyperinsulinemia have been demonstrated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Because there are not enough data showing whether patients with IH also have insulin resistance, we intended to investigate the presence/absence of insulin resistance in women with IH. Thirty-two women with IH [mean age, 24.8 +/- 1.2 yr; body mass index (BMI), 24.6 +/- 0.8 kg/m2] and 17 healthy women (mean age, 25.8 +/- 0.6 yr; BMI, 22.5 +/- 0.6 kg/m2) were included in the study. Eight of 32 patients with IH had BMI higher than 30

2004 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3449. A comparison of biochemical tests for pheochromocytoma: measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines compared with the combination of 24-hour urinary metanephrines and catecholamines. (Full text)

interval, 22.1 to 156.9) for urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines. An adrenal pheochromocytoma was missed by urinary testing in two patients with familial syndromes and one asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. An extra-adrenal paraganglioma was missed by plasma testing in one patient. In conclusion, measurements of 24-h urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines yield fewer false-positive results, an attribute preferred for testing low-risk patients

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3450. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is associated with fat distribution in endogenous Cushing's syndrome: a longitudinal study. (Full text)

significantly changes body composition in CS patients by decreasing fat mass, especially in the truncal region, without major effects on lean body mass. We also show that circulating IL-1Ra is strongly associated with these changes, signifying a relationship among the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, IL-1 system, and regional fat distribution in these patients. (...) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is associated with fat distribution in endogenous Cushing's syndrome: a longitudinal study. The weight gain and visceral obesity associated with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has been linked to elevated plasma leptin levels, although the mechanism behind a central leptin resistance in these patients is unknown. Several studies describe interactions among the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leptin, and the IL-1 system. To investigate these interactions, we have

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3451. A case report in favor of a multistep adrenocortical tumorigenesis. (Full text)

in adrenocortical tumors to date are associated with the malignant phenotype. We report a case that suggests that adrenocortical tumorigenesis may be a multistep process. A 43-yr-old patient underwent surgery for an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Pathological analysis showed that this tumor consisted of two parts: a central part with features of malignancy surrounded by another part with a strictly benign appearance. These data were confirmed by molecular analysis and comparative genomic hybridization

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3452. Functional significance of polycystic-size ovaries in healthy adolescents. (Full text)

) in 42% (5 of 12). However, VPSO and VNSO androgen levels were similar, with the exception of one VPSO subject who had hyperandrogenemia and thus met criteria for PCOS. VPSO were similar to VNSO in LH, FSH, estradiol, and adrenal androgenic function. Although the VPSO group resembled the PCOS group in their 17PROG response to the GnRHag test, they differed in having significantly smaller ovaries and lower body mass index and in lacking evidence of peripheral androgen excess and of insulin

2006 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3453. Associations of early growth and adult adiposity with patterns of salivary cortisol in adulthood. (Full text)

Associations of early growth and adult adiposity with patterns of salivary cortisol in adulthood. Early growth and obesity are associated with adult chronic disease. A suspected mediator is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cortisol regulation. Our prior hypothesis was that cortisol levels are affected by anthropometry at several life stages.The objective of the study was to assess whether prenatal and postnatal growth and adiposity are associated with adult cortisol levels (...) , and whether early growth and adiposity are related to later cortisol through adult body size.Weight, head circumference (birth), height, and body mass index (BMI) (7 yr); and height, BMI (33 yr), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (45 yr) were measured in the 1958 British birth cohort.All study subjects were born in England, Scotland, and Wales in 1 wk in March 1958.A total of 6,470 participants with salivary cortisol were gathered from 12,069 invitees (54%) at 45 yr.Two saliva samples on 1 d were collected: 45

2006 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3454. Androgens in women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. (Full text)

Androgens in women with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. Anorexia nervosa and normal-weight hypothalamic amenorrhea are characterized by hypogonadism and hypercortisolemia. However, it is not known whether these endocrine abnormalities result in reductions in adrenal and/ or ovarian androgens or androgen precursors in such women, nor is it known whether relative androgen deficiency contributes to abnormalities in bone density and body composition (...) not receiving oral contraceptives, 32 women with anorexia nervosa receiving oral contraceptives, 21 normal-weight women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 27 healthy eumenorrheic controls.Testosterone, free testosterone, DHEAS, bone density, fat-free mass, and fat mass were assessed.Endogenous total and free testosterone, but not DHEAS, were lower in women with anorexia nervosa than in controls. More marked reductions in both free testosterone and DHEAS were observed in women with anorexia nervosa receiving

2007 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3455. Body fat distribution and cortisol metabolism in healthy men: enhanced 5beta-reductase and lower cortisol/cortisone metabolite ratios in men with fatty liver. (Full text)

cortisone within adipose by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 (11HSD1) has been proposed to cause visceral fat accumulation, whereas decreased hepatic 11HSD1 may protect the liver from glucocorticoid excess. Increased inactivation of cortisol by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases in the liver may drive compensatory activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hence increasing adrenal androgens and 'android' central obesity. This study aimed to examine relationships between (...) these enzymes and detailed measurements of body fat distribution. Twenty-five healthy men (age, 22-57 yr; body mass index, 20.6-35.6 kg/m(2)) were recruited from occupational health services. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measurements, bioimpedance, and cross-sectional abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans. Liver fat content was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was measured in a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Cortisol metabolites were

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3456. The hormonal phenotype of Nonclassic 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) deficiency in hyperandrogenic females is associated with insulin-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome and is not a variant of inherited HSD3B2 deficiency. (Full text)

secretion in HF with compromised ( downward arrow ) adrenal HSD3B phenotype despite normal HSD3B2 genes (n = 6) to those in HF with classic PCOS (n = 9) of similar ages (14-36 yr). The same was examined in premature pubarche (PP) girls with (n = 4) and without the descending HSD3B phenotype (n = 5). The descending HSD3B phenotype was defined by ACTH-stimulated Delta(5)-precursor steroid levels and Delta(5)-precursors to Delta(4)-product steroid ratios higher than those in normal females (n = 30 (...) for adult, n = 12 for pubertal). Classic PCOS HF had elevated testosterone levels and normal ACTH-stimulated hormonal profiles. The insulin sensitivity index determined by the frequently sampled iv glucose-tolbutamide test (FSIVGTT) in all HF with descending HSD3B phenotype and in all HF with classic PCOS, regardless of body mass index (BMI), was lower than in all eight normal BMI and five high BMI normal females. Integrated incremental insulin determined by FSIVGTT, the area under the curve for insulin

2004 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3457. Association of 24-hour cortisol production rates, cortisol-binding globulin, and plasma-free cortisol levels with body composition, leptin levels, and aging in adult men and women. (Full text)

-four healthy men and women volunteers with a wide range of body mass indexes and ages underwent measurement of CPR by isotope dilution measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, cortisol-binding globulin, and free cortisol in pooled 24-h plasma, body composition, and leptin. Cortisol clearance rates were determined from the 10-h disappearance curves of hydrocortisone after steady-state infusion in a separate group of lean and obese subjects with adrenal insufficiency. Although CPR (...) significantly increased with increasing body mass index and percentage body fat, free cortisol levels remained independent of body composition and leptin levels due to increased cortisol clearance rates. CPR and free cortisol levels were, however, significantly higher in men than women. In addition, 24-h plasma free cortisol levels were increased with age in association with increased CPR, independent of body size. This increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may play a role

2004 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3458. Neuroendocrine and metabolic effects of acute ghrelin administration in human obesity. (Full text)

Neuroendocrine and metabolic effects of acute ghrelin administration in human obesity. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and plays a role in the neuroendocrine response to energy balance variations. Ghrelin levels are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), increased by fasting and decreased by food intake, glucose load, insulin, and somatostatin. Ghrelin levels are reduced in obesity, a condition of hyperinsulinism, reduced GH secretion, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

3459. Endothelium-derived steroidogenic factor enhances angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone release by bovine zona glomerulosa cells. (Full text)

Endothelium-derived steroidogenic factor enhances angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone release by bovine zona glomerulosa cells. Endothelium-derived steroidogenic factor (EDSF) is an endothelial peptide that stimulates aldosterone release from bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells. The regulation of aldosterone release by combinations of EDSF and angiotensin II (AII) or EDSF and ACTH was investigated. Endothelial cells (ECs) and EC-conditioned media (ECCM) increased aldosterone release (...) from ZG cells, an activity attributed to EDSF. AII (10(-12) to 10(-8) M) and ACTH (10(-12) to 10(-9) M) also stimulated the release of aldosterone from ZG cells. The stimulation by AII, but not ACTH, was greatly enhanced when ZG cells were coincubated with ECs. AII was metabolized by ECs to peptides identified by mass spectrometry as angiotensin (1-7) and angiotensin IV. There was very little metabolism of AII by ZG cells. Neither of these two AII metabolites altered aldosterone release from ZG

2007 Endocrinology

3460. Early endocrine, metabolic, and sonographic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): comparison between nonobese and obese adolescents. (Full text)

and metabolic alterations in adolescents with PCOS and to determine whether differences between nonobese and obese women with PCOS are present early in its course. We studied an ethnically heterogeneous group of 48 adolescents: 11 nonobese with PCOS [age, 16.1 +/- 1.9 yr; body mass index (BMI), 22.5 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)], 22 obese with PCOS (age, 15.5 +/- 1.4 yr; BMI, 35.9 +/- 6.2 kg/m(2)), and 15 obese controls (age, 14.4 +/- 1.5 yr; BMI, 35.8 +/- 7.1 kg/m(2)). Fasting levels of glucose, insulin, proinsulin (...) . Our findings indicate a more pronounced alteration in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in nonobese adolescents with PCOS and a more marked dysregulation of insulin levels and impairment of insulin sensitivity in their obese counterparts. Our data also suggest differences in the IGF system between nonobese and obese adolescents with PCOS.

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

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