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Adrenal Anatomy

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161. Chronic Pelvic Pain

A in pelvic pain 41 5.4.3 Sacral neuromodulation and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in pelvic pain 41 5.4.4 Intermittent chronic anal pain syndrome 41 5.5 Summary 41 5.5.1 Conclusions and recommendations: anorectal pain syndrome 42 6. PERIPHERAL NERVE PAIN SYNDROMES 43 6.1 Neuropathic pain 43 6.2 Anatomy 44 6.2.1 The posterior subgluteal triangle nerves 44 6.2.2 Branches of the pudendal nerve 44 6.2.3 Anatomical relations of the pudendal nerve 44 6.2.4 Afferent nerves and the genitalia 45 6.2.5 (...) significant end-organ dysfunction. These functional abnormalities can have a significant effect on quality of life (QoL) and must be managed as appropriate. 2.2.8 Endocrine system The endocrine system is involved in visceral function. Significant life events, and in particular, early life events may alter the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the chemicals released. Increased vulnerability to stress may occur following such events and is thought to be partly due to increased

2015 European Association of Urology

162. The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Guidelines for the management of pediatric heart failure

-mode High temporal resolution Only works if global remodeling/dysfunction Serial measurement of LV dimensions, wall thickness, and fractional shortening Normal pediatric values available Not valid if paradoxical septal motion 2-D echocardiography Assessment of 2-D anatomy, identification of structural disease Dependent on acoustic windows Identification of structural disease as cause for HF 2-D EF Good parameter for global performance Geometrical assumptions Recommended technique for assessment

2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation

165. Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism

. Providers should assess the possibility of a disorder of sex development (DSD) when there is increasing severity of hypospadias with cryptorchidism. (Recommendation; Evidence Strength: Grade C) 8. In boys with bilateral, nonpalpable testes who do not have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), providers should measure Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS or Anti- Müllerian Hormone [AMH]) level), and consider additional hormone testing, to evaluate for anorchia. (Option; Evidence Strength: Grade C) 9 (...) submitted comments and revised the draft as needed. Once finalized, the Guideline was submitted for approval to the Practice Guidelines Committee (PGC). It was then submitted to the AUA Board of Directors for final approval. List of Abbreviations AAP American Academy of Pediatrics Ad Adult dark spermatogonia AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AR Androgen receptor AUA American Urological Association BMI Body mass index CAH Congenital adrenal hyperplasia CT Computed tomography DES

2014 American Urological Association

169. The Impact of Body Weight on Reproductive Outcomes in Poor Ovarian Responders in ICSI Cycles

with a conventional protocol)An abnormal ovarian reserve test (ORT); antral follicle count (AFC) < 5-7 follicles or anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) ≤0.5- 1.1 ng/ml In the absence of advanced maternal age or abnormal ORT, two previous episodes of poor ovarian response after maximal stimulation patients are also considered poor responders according to ESHRE consensus. Presence and Adequate visualization of both ovaries Uterine cavity within normal anatomy assessed with HSG, hysteroscopy and TVUS Exclusion Criteria (...) : Any factor which may affect reproductive outcome other than that the patient is a poor responder will be excluded from the study, like: Severe male factor . Uterine factor (eg: fibroid, polyp, Ashermann, .. etc) Immunological disorder (eg: SLE, APS, … etc) Thyroid or adrenal dysfunction Neoplasia (especially: hypothalamic, pit, ovarian) Women diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria Hydrosalpinx that hasn't been surgically removed or ligated. Untreated hyperprolactinemia Abnormal

2018 Clinical Trials

170. Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health. (PubMed)

Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health. Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities (...) , including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other

2018 Gynecologic Oncology

171. Prediction of Metaphase II Oocytes According to Different Levels of Serum AMH in Poor Responders Using the Antagonist Protocol

reserve test (ORT); antral follicle count (AFC) < 5-7 follicles or anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) ≤0.5- 1.1 ng/ml NB: In the absence of advanced maternal age or abnormal ORT, two previous episodes of poor ovarian response after maximal stimulation patients are also considered poor responders according to ESHRE consensus. Presence and Adequate visualization of both ovaries Uterine cavity within normal anatomy Exclusion Criteria: Any factor which may affect reproductive outcome other than that the patient (...) is a poor responder will be excluded from the study, like: Severe male factor . Uterine factor (eg: fibroid, polyp, Ashermann, .. etc) Immunological disorder (eg: SLE, APS, … etc) Thyroid or adrenal dysfunction Neoplasia (especially: hypothalamic, pit, ovarian) Women diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria Hydrosalpinx that hasn't been surgically removed or ligated. 8 . Untreated hyperprolactinemia 9 . Abnormal bleeding disorder 10.Hepatic or renal dysfunction 11.Hypersenstivity to study

2018 Clinical Trials

172. Point of Care Ultrasound Screening for Abnormal Fetal Growth During Routine Antenatal Visits

aneuploidy screening (1st trimester screening, 2nd trimester screening, integrated screening, NIPT) Fetal chromosomal or genetic abnormalities Fetal malformations or soft markers identified on fetal anatomy survey Current pregnancy is a result of in vitro fertilization Documented uterine bleeding after 24 weeks gestation. Unobserved self-reported bleeding with confirmed intact pregnancy on ultrasound after the bleeding episode is not an exclusion criteria. Uterine/placental abnormalities including (...) diagnosed or whose medication dose is not stable), adrenal disease, diabetes mellitus (pregestational and gestational). Renal disease with altered renal function (creatinine > 0.9 or proteinuria) Epilepsy or other seizure disorder Any collagen disease (lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, etc.) Active liver disease (acute hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, persistently abnormal liver enzymes) Hematological disorder including alloimmune and isoimmune thrombocytopenia but excluding mild iron deficiency

2018 Clinical Trials

173. Mechanisms of disease: The endocrinology of obstructive sleep apnoea. (PubMed)

conditions. On the other hand, many endocrine conditions that can affect obesity and/or upper airways anatomy and stability have been implicated in the development or worsening of OSA. This bi-directional relationship between OSA and the endocrine system has been increasingly recognised in experimental and epidemiological studies and there are an increasing number of studies examining the effects of OSA treatment on endocrine conditions and vice-versa. In this review article, we will critically appraise (...) and describe the impact of OSA on the endocrine system including obesity, dysglycaemia, the pituitary, the thyroid, the adrenals, the reproductive system and the bones. In each section, we will assess whether a bi-directional relationship exists, and we will describe the potential underlying mechanisms. We have focused more on recent studies and randomised controlled trials where available and attempted to provide the information within clinical context and relevance.

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2018 European Journal of Endocrinology

175. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

at diagnosis.[ ] Anatomy NSCLC arises from the epithelial cells of the lung of the central bronchi to terminal alveoli. The histological type of NSCLC correlates with site of origin, reflecting the variation in respiratory tract epithelium of the bronchi to alveoli. Squamous cell carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus. Adenocarcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma usually originate in peripheral lung tissue. Anatomy of the respiratory system. Pathogenesis Smoking-related lung carcinogenesis (...) number of lymph nodes sampled, it suggests that an evaluation of nodal status should include 11 to 16 lymph nodes. CT imaging CT scanning is primarily used for determining the size of the tumor. The CT scan should extend inferiorly to include the liver and adrenal glands. MRI scans of the thorax and upper abdomen do not appear to yield advantages over CT scans.[ ] Evidence (CT scan): A systematic review of the medical literature relating to the accuracy of CT scanning for noninvasive staging

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

176. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

. Deaths: 19,970. Anatomy NHL usually originates in lymphoid tissues. Anatomy of the lymph system. Prognosis and Survival NHL can be divided into two prognostic groups: the indolent lymphomas and the aggressive lymphomas. Indolent NHL types have a relatively good prognosis with a median survival as long as 20 years, but they usually are not curable in advanced clinical stages.[ ] Early-stage (stage I and stage II) indolent NHL can be effectively treated with radiation therapy alone. Most

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

177. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

adrenal glands. Sometimes there is more than one tumor in one adrenal gland. The adrenal glands make important called . ( ) and ( ) are two types of catecholamines that help control heart rate, , , and the way the body reacts to . Sometimes a pheochromocytoma will release extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the and cause or of disease. Anatomy of the adrenal gland. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The outer part of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part (...) Treatment Editorial Board. General Information About Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Key Points for This Section Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of tissue. form in in the and near certain and nerves. Paragangliomas that form in the adrenal glands are called . Paragangliomas that form outside the adrenal glands are called extra-adrenal paragangliomas. In this summary, extra-adrenal paragangliomas are called paragangliomas. Pheochromocytomas

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

178. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

, and the optimal treatment of each stage of the disease.[ - ] Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from prostate cancer in the United States in 2019:[ ][ ] New cases: 174,650. Deaths: 31,620. Anatomy Figure 1. Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems. Screening The issue of prostate cancer screening is controversial. In the United States, most prostate cancers are diagnosed because of screening, either with a PSA blood test or, less frequently, with a digital rectal examination

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

179. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of neuroblastoma without clinical detection in the first year of life is at least as prevalent as clinically detected neuroblastoma.[ - ] Epidemiologic studies have shown that environmental or other exposures have not been unequivocally associated with increased or decreased incidences of neuroblastoma.[ ] Anatomy Neuroblastoma originates in the adrenal medulla and paraspinal or periaortic regions where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present (refer to ). Figure 1. Neuroblastoma may be found (...) in the adrenal glands and paraspinal nerve tissue from the neck to the pelvis. Genetic Predisposition and Familial Neuroblastoma Studies analyzing constitutional DNA in rare cohorts of familial neuroblastoma patients have provided insight into the complex genetic basis for tumor initiation. About 1% to 2% of patients with neuroblastoma have a family history of neuroblastoma. These children are, on average, younger (9 months at diagnosis) and about 20% have multifocal primary neuroblastoma. Several germline

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

180. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Adrenocortical Carcinoma Key Points for This Section Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal gland. There are two . The adrenal glands are small and shaped like a triangle. One adrenal gland sits on top of each . Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the . The center of the adrenal gland is the . Anatomy of the adrenal gland. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The outer part (...) of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex makes important that: Balance the water and salt in the body. Help keep normal. Help control the body's use of , fat, and . Cause the body to have masculine or feminine characteristics. is also called of the adrenal cortex. A of the adrenal cortex may be (makes more hormones than normal) or (does not make more hormones than normal). Most adrenocortical tumors are functioning. The hormones made by functioning

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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