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Adrenal Anatomy

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141. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

, and the optimal treatment of each stage of the disease.[ - ] Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from prostate cancer in the United States in 2019:[ ][ ] New cases: 174,650. Deaths: 31,620. Anatomy Figure 1. Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems. Screening The issue of prostate cancer screening is controversial. In the United States, most prostate cancers are diagnosed because of screening, either with a PSA blood test or, less frequently, with a digital rectal examination

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

142. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

. (Refer to the , , and sections of this summary for more information.) PGLs and PHEOs are rare tumors arising from chromaffin cells, which have the ability to synthesize, store, and secrete catecholamines and neuropeptides. In 2004, the World Health Organization characterized PHEOs as adrenal gland tumors and PGLs as extra-adrenal tumors.[ ] Either tumor may occur sporadically, as a manifestation of a hereditary syndrome, or as the sole tumor in familial PGL and PHEO syndrome. (Refer to the section (...) -Associated Tumors Other manifestations of MEN1 include carcinoids of the foregut (5%–10% of MEN1 patients). These are typically bronchial or thymic and are sometimes gastric. Skin lesions are also common and can include facial angiofibromas (up to 80% of MEN1 patients) and collagenomas (~75% of MEN1 patients).[ ] Lipomas (~30% of MEN1 patients) and adrenal cortical lesions (up to 50% of MEN1 patients), including cortical adenomas, diffuse or nodular hyperplasia, or rarely, carcinoma are also common

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

143. Amenorrhoea

(for example, due to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or autoimmune disease). In those with features of androgen excess (such as hirsutism, acne, and virilization) — polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), Cushing's syndrome, late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and androgen-secreting tumours of the ovary or adrenal gland. A thorough history and examination should be done to help identify the cause of amenorrhoea. The following preliminary investigations may be considered in primary care to aid diagnosis (...) 40 years of age). Recent history of uterine or cervical surgery, or severe pelvic infection. Infertility. Suspected PCOS (if diagnosis is not feasible in primary care). Referral to an endocrinologist should be arranged for women with secondary amenorrhoea and any of the following: Hyperprolactinaemia. Low FSH and LH. An increased testosterone level not explained by PCOS. Features of Cushing's syndrome or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Women with secondary amenorrhoea due to PCOS

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

144. Jeffrey Aronson: When I Use a Word . . . Adrenaline and epinephrine

; they are related to risk, usage, etymology, and the history of the discovery of adrenaline. That the adrenal glands contained a substance with dramatic pharmacological effects was first shown in 1893 by George Oliver, a Harrogate physician, and Edward Schäfer, professor of physiology at University College London. However, a name for the substance was not coined until John Jacob Abel in the USA prepared crude adrenal extracts in 1897 and called them epinephrin [ sic ]. Abel’s paper, presented to the American (...) the name “epinephrine” Josef Hyrtl (1810–1894), born in Hungary, studied medicine in Vienna from 1831, became prosector in anatomy in 1833, graduated with a thesis titled Antiquitates anatomicæ rariores , and became professor of anatomy at the University of Prague in 1837, at the age of 26. He was appointed to the chair of anatomy at Vienna in 1845, and in 1850 published his Handbook of Topographic Anatomy , the first textbook of applied anatomy. He was famed as a teacher, and in 1865, the 500th

2018 The BMJ Blog

145. The Foot Bone’s Connected to the Leg Bone

navigation in Uncategorized How well do you know your body, inside and out? Appendix to adrenal glands, brain to biceps, cornea to cruciate ligaments–these are all pieces of our anatomy and we all have them. But do you know where to find them? This week we feature some really exciting citizen science from Dr. Adam Taylor of the Lancaster Medical School in the UK. He and his colleagues have partnered with the to find out what the members of the general public know about their own body and why (...) that is important. For more information about research and education in the anatomical sciences, please visit the and . Happy reading! –JMO By Adam Taylor, PhD, Clinical Anatomy Learning Centre, Lancaster University, UK For many of us, our anatomy—the structure of our body and the parts that comprise it—just is . We use our anatomy every single day for countless purposes (breathing, eating, seeing, etc.). Yet, the average person doesn’t know much about where various parts reside or how they work. Take

2018 PLOS Blogs Network

146. Impact of Three-dimensional Printing in Urology: State of the Art and Future Perspectives. A Systematic Review by ESUT-YAUWP Group. (PubMed)

and education, patient counseling, and costs in urology.A systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement.After screening, 4026 publications were identified for detailed review, of which 52 were included in the present systematic review: two papers reported the use of 3D-printing modeling for adrenal cancer, two papers for urethrovesical anastomosis, 24 papers for kidney transplantation and renal cancer, 13 papers (...) of technology may represent a step forward to meet patients' and surgeons' expectations.Three-dimensional printing has been used for several purposes to help the surgeon better understand anatomy, sharpen his/her skills, and guide the identification of lesions and their relationship with surrounding structures. It can be used for surgical planning, education, and patient counseling to improve the decision-making process.Copyright © 2019 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

2019 European Urology

147. Itching for an Answer: A Review of Potential Mechanisms of Scalp Itch in Psoriasis. (PubMed)

Itching for an Answer: A Review of Potential Mechanisms of Scalp Itch in Psoriasis. Scalp psoriatic itch is a common complaint and often poses a therapeutic challenge. The pathophysiology of this phenomenon is unclear. The unique anatomy of the scalp contains richly innervated hair follicles, abundant vasculature and perifollicular inflammatory cytokines which may all contribute to this common sensory complaint. The mast cell, in particular, is portrayed as one of the main itch conductors (...) for its ability to trigger neurogenic inflammation, activate the peripheral hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis, process and integrate itch signaling through its interactions with the scalp hair follicles. Herein we explain and speculate upon potential mechanisms underlying itchy scalp psoriasis, involving interconnections between the neuroimmune, neurovascular, and neuroendocrine systems. Many factors may play roles in itchy scalp psoriasis including the scalp hair structure, immune system

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2019 Experimental Dermatology

148. Evaluation of ambiguous genitalia. (PubMed)

Evaluation of ambiguous genitalia. To provide a framework for the evaluation of ambiguous genitalia.The most pressing evaluation of ambiguous genitalia is assessment for life-threatening causes such as salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) or syndromes with underlying anomalies such as neurologic or cardiac malformations. A multidisciplinary team, including specialists in Gynecology, Endocrinology, Urology, Genetics, Clinical Psychology/Psychiatry, Radiology, Nursing, Neonatology (...) , and Pediatric Surgery, should be involved. Each patient should be approached in an individualized manner to assign sex of rearing in the most expeditious yet thoughtful means possible.As knowledge on the natural history of sex preference and fertility of individuals with ambiguous genitalia increases, controversy regarding the indication for and timing of genital surgery continues. Considerations include gender identity, future fertility, malignancy risk, infection prevention, and functional anatomy

2019 Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology

149. Breastfeeding problems

and facial features. Oral anatomy (ankyloglossia, palate, jaw, and lips) or oral Candida infection that may affect sucking and swallowing. Any nasal congestion. Muscle tone, neurological maturity, behaviour. Consider use of the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative which may indicate when there is a breastfeeding problem requiring further assessment and observation of a full breastfeed. Ensure that a person with appropriate training and expertise (such as a health visitor or breastfeeding specialist

2017 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

150. Is Transgender Identity Inherited?

anatomy or not. David Reimer’s sad story entered my textbook with the third edition. The next leap in my coverage of gender happened after I met , who was born James. Jenny Boylan (James Bowdoin) My daughter Heather and I met Jennifer at a bookstore in 2003, just before publication of Jennifer’s book . Today she’s an outspoken transgender author who predicted in a New York Times op-ed just after the election that the new president would throw out of the right of transgender students to use school (...) life begins as a girl, based on appearance. The enzyme to convert testosterone into the form needed to sculpt a penis isn’t there, and so external male structures don’t develop early on, although interior structures are male. At puberty, the adrenal glands release testosterone, as they normally do, and then the voice deepens, facial hair grows, muscles become leaner, and instead of developing breasts and menstruating, the clitoris swells into a penis and sperm are produced. In the Dominican

2017 PLOS Blogs Network

153. Task Force 5: Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Training in Critical Care Cardiology

basic patient assessment and stabilization skills, command a clear understanding of complex cardiovascular anatomy and physi- ology, know the effects of pharmacological agents on cardiac physiology, and function as an effective communicator within a multidisciplinary team (MDT). The experience garnered by a pediatric cardiology trainee in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) concentrates the educational opportunity to refine these skill sets and is an important part of cardiology (...) ventricles stressed by abnormal preload or afterload • Cavopulmonary connection physiology 3.3.3. Pharmacology and Relationship to Cardiovascular Physiology The trainee should show competency in understanding the actions, mechanisms of action, side effects, and clinical use of these pharmacological agents: • Inotropic agents (eg, digoxin, adrenergic agonists, phos- phodiesterase inhibitors) • Vasodilators/antihypertensive agents (eg, alpha-adren- ergic antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme

2015 American Heart Association

156. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications

. Moreover, patients after various spine surgeries may develop fibrous adhesions and scar tissue, thus further compromising the capacity of the epidural space and distorting the anatomy of the epidural vessels. The risk of bleeding is further increased in pain patients taking several concomitant medications with antiplatelet effects including NSAIDs, ASA, and SSRIs. | Anatomic Considerations for Hematoma Development in Spinal and Nonspinal Areas Although most cases of a spinal hematoma have (...) a multifactorial etiology, certain anatomic features may pose higher risks secondary to the anatomy and vascular supply of that specific spinal location. It is important for interventional pain physicians to apply knowledge of spinal and epidural anatomy during preprocedural planning. Contents of the epidural space include the epidural fat, dural sac, spinal nerves, extensive venous plexuses, lymphatics, and connective tissue (eg, plica mediana dorsalis and scar tissue after previous surgical intervention

2015 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

157. Renal Cell Carcinoma Staging

/renal sinus fat or renal vein is staged as T3a; extension of tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava (IVC) is staged T3b or T3c. Adjacent organ involvement, including extension beyond the Gerota fascia or involvement of the ipsilateral adrenal gland, is T4 disease. Perinephric tumor extension (T3a) is difficult to discriminate from nonspecific perinephric stranding due to edema, vascular engorgement, or fibrosis. High-resolution CT using thin sections appears to improve detection of perinephric (...) these structures. Some urologists rely on intraoperative frozen sections, when available, to make these determinations. [47]. Direct contiguous spread to the adrenal gland is classified as T4. CT has a high sensitivity and nearly a 100% negative predictive value in detecting direct contiguous spread to the ipsilateral adrenal gland [22,48]. However, the positive predictive value of CT is lower, as it may be difficult to distinguish abutment from direct invasion. The extent of venous invasion of tumor

2015 American College of Radiology

158. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

thyroid uptake (60–62). Focal thyroid uptake most often corresponds to a clinically relevant thyroid nodule, and US examination is thus rec- ommended to de?ne thyroid anatomy. Importantly, focal 18 FDG-PET uptake increases malignancy risk in an affected nodule, and therefore clinical evaluation and FNA of nodules ‡1 cm is recommended. 18 FDG-PET positive thyroid nodules 25%–50% cystic component) (64) or sampling error (dif?cult to palpate or posteriorly located nodules), US-guided FNA is preferred

2015 Pediatric Endocrine Society

159. Paediatric Urology

]. This treatment has no side effects and the mean bloodspot cortisol levels are not significantly different from an untreated group of patients [10] (LE: 1b). The hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis was not influenced by local corticoid treatment [11]. Agglutination of the foreskin does not respond to steroid treatment [7] (LE: 2). PAEDIATRIC UROLOGY - LIMITED UPDATE MARCH 2015 9 Operative treatment of phimosis in children is dependent on the parents’ preferences and can be plastic or radical circumcision

2015 European Association of Urology

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