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Adrenal Anatomy

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121. Renal Cell Carcinoma

in the diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma: role of multidetector ct and three-dimensional CT. Radiographics, 2001. 21 Spec No: S237. 96. Wittekind Ch., et al. TNM supplement, A Commentary on Uniform Use. Wittekind Ch., Greene F., Henson D.E., Hutter R.V., Sobin L.H., Editors. 2012, Wiley-Blackwell. 97. Klatte, T., et al. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 980. 98. Spaliviero, M., et al. An Arterial Based Complexity (...) (>/=7cm) clear cell renal cell carcinomas treated with nephron-sparing surgery versus radical nephrectomy: Results of a multicenter cohort with long-term follow-up. PLoS One, 2018. 13: e0196427. 227. Mir, M.C., et al. Partial Nephrectomy Versus Radical Nephrectomy for Clinical T1b and T2 Renal Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Comparative Studies. Eur Urol, 2017. 71: 606. 228. Lane, B.R., et al. Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol, 2009. 181: 2430. 229. Xu

2019 European Association of Urology

122. Canadian Urological Association guideline on the care of the normal foreskin and neonatal circumcision in Canadian infants (Full Version)

rates using clobetasone (moderate- ly potent steroid, success rate 77%) compared to betametha- sone (highly potent steroid, success rate 81%). 16 Side effects are rare and there was no suppression of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis provided treatment is not prolonged beyond eight weeks for each course. 17 Level 2–4 evidence Zavras et al conducted a prospective study using a mildly potent steroid, fluticasone propionate (0.05%), to achieve a 91% success rate in 1185 boys referred (...) version of the Self- assessment of Genital Anatomy, and Sexual Function, Male questionnaire (SAGASF-M) to measure four dimensions of sexual function. 149 Overall, for the penis as a whole, the two groups differed in sexual pleasure (p=0.044) and discomfort/ pain (p=0.018), both favouring the uncircumcised group. The study concluded that circumcision led to a decrease in glans sensitivity and overall penile sensitivity. In another detailed study of fine-touch pressure thresholds in circum - cised

2018 Canadian Urological Association

123. Diagnosis & Assessment of Hypertension - Endocrine Hypertension

. Even so, use of AVS might be limited because of technical challenges and reportedly high procedural failure rates, because of difficulties in localizing the adrenal veins (especially on the right side) because of small vessel size and variations in anatomy . In a retrospective study of 5 centres using the German Conn’s registry, successful bilateral catheterization was only achieved in 30.5% of cases . Performance appeared to be related to technical proficiency. Accordingly, when strictly performed (...) with the following (Grade D): Unexplained spontaneous hypokalemia (K + < 3.5 mmol/L) or marked diuretic- induced hypokalemia (K + < 3.0 mmol/L); Resistance to treatment with ≥ 3 drugs; An incidental adrenal adenoma. Screening for hyperaldosteronism should include assessment of plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity or plasma renin (Supplemental ). For patients with suspected hyperaldosteronism (on the basis of the screening test; Supplemental , Item iii.), a diagnosis of primary aldosteronism should

2018 Hypertension Canada

124. Paediatric Urology

of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis significant during clinical treatment of phimosis? J Urol, 2010. 183: 2327. 22. Wu, X., et al. A report of 918 cases of circumcision with the Shang Ring: comparison between children and adults. Urology, 2013. 81: 1058. 23. Pedersini, P., et al. “Trident” preputial plasty for phimosis in childhood. J Pediatr Urol, 2017. 13: 278.e1. 24. Miernik, A., et al. Complete removal of the foreskin--why? Urol Int, 2011. 86: 383. 25. Wiswell, T.E. The prepuce, urinary tract (...) or 3 years. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1589. 75. Novaes, H.F., et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy - a systematic review. Int Braz J Urol, 2013. 39: 305. 76. Docimo, S.G. The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. J Urol, 1995. 154: 1148. 77. Ziylan, O., et al. Failed orchiopexy. Urol Int, 2004. 73: 313. 78. Prentiss, R.J., et al. Undescended testis: surgical anatomy of spermatic vessels, spermatic surgical triangles and lateral spermatic ligament. J Urol

2018 European Association of Urology

125. Male Sexual Dysfunction

of recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 924. 23. Phillips, B. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Updated by Jeremy Howick March 2009. 1998. 24. Guyatt, G.H., et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 1049. 25. Van den Broeck T, et al. What are the benefits and harms of testosterone treatment for male sexual dysfunction? PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews, 2015. 26. Gratzke, C., et al. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of erectile

2018 European Association of Urology

126. Renal Cell Carcinoma

in the diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma: role of multidetector ct and three-dimensional CT. Radiographics, 2001. 21 Spec No: S237. 96. Wittekind Ch., et al. TNM supplement, A Commentary on Uniform Use. Wittekind Ch., Greene F., Henson D.E., Hutter R.V., Sobin L.H., Editors. 2012, Wiley-Blackwell. 97. Klatte, T., et al. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 980. 98. Spaliviero, M., et al. An Arterial Based Complexity (...) (>/=7cm) clear cell renal cell carcinomas treated with nephron-sparing surgery versus radical nephrectomy: Results of a multicenter cohort with long-term follow-up. PLoS One, 2018. 13: e0196427. 227. Mir, M.C., et al. Partial Nephrectomy Versus Radical Nephrectomy for Clinical T1b and T2 Renal Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Comparative Studies. Eur Urol, 2017. 71: 606. 228. Lane, B.R., et al. Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol, 2009. 181: 2430. 229. Xu

2018 European Association of Urology

127. ACR/SIR/SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Image-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsy (PNB)

be clinically informed and understand the specific clinical questions to be answered and goals to be accomplished by PNB prior to the procedure in order to plan and perform the procedure safely and effectively. The physician performing PNB must have knowledge of the benefits, alternatives, and risks of the procedure. The physician must have an understanding of imaging anatomy, imaging equipment, radiation safety considerations, physiologic monitoring equipment, and have access to adequate supplies (...) , pharmacology of contrast agents and recognition and treatment of potential adverse reactions. g. Percutaneous needle introduction techniques. h. Technical aspects of performing the procedure, including the use of various biopsy devices. i. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the structures being considered for PNB. The written substantiation should come from the chief of interventional radiology, the director or chief of body PRACTICE PARAMETER 4 PNB imaging or ultrasound, or the chair

2018 Society of Interventional Radiology

128. Chronic Pelvic Pain

colpopexy: management of postoperative pudendal nerve entrapment. Obstet Gynecol, 1996. 88: 713. 218. Fisher, H.W., et al. Nerve injury locations during retropubic sling procedures. Int Urogynecol J, 2011. 22: 439. 219. Moszkowicz, D., et al. Where does pelvic nerve injury occur during rectal surgery for cancer? Colorectal Dis, 2011. 13: 1326. 220. Ashton-Miller, J.A., et al. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2007. 1101: 266. 221. Amarenco, G., et al. [Perineal neuropathy

2018 European Association of Urology

129. CRACKCast E192 – Airway

seen Grade 4: neither glottis nor epiglottis seen. Bag valve mask ventilation (MOANS) – Box 1.2 Mask seal (beard!) Obesity/OSA/obstructe Age >55y No Teeth Stiffness (resistance to ventilation) Extraglottic device (RODS) – Box 1.3 Restricted mouth opening Obstructed/obesity Distorted anatomy Stiffness (resistance to ventilation) Cricothyroidotomy (SMART) – Box 1.4 Surgery Mass (abscess/hematoma) Access/anatomy problems (obesity, edema) Radiation Tumor [4] What are the physiologic predictors (...) - and no backup devices (VL, EGD) available Can’t Intubate, Can’t ventilate? Time for a cric! If you are in a can’t intubate, can oxygenate situation, you have time. Call for backup and consider rescue devices. See figure 1.10. [10] How do you perform a surgical cricothyroidotomy? First—The Anatomy! Landmarks: Cricothyroid membrane is below the thyroid cartilage and above the cricoid cartilage. These 2 landmarks are palpable on most patients. Equipment : Scalpel Artery forceps Bougie Size 6 ETT Technique

2018 CandiEM

130. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications

, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, spondylolisthesis, or spondylosis, which may compress the epidural venous plexus within tight epidural spaces. Moreover, patients, after various spine surgeries, may develop fibrous adhesions and scar tissue, thus further compromising the capacity of the epidural space and distorting the anatomy of the epidural vessels. The risk of bleeding is further increased in pain patients taking several concomitant medications with antiplatelet effects including NSAIDs, ASA (...) the risk of bleeding and neurological injury secondary to impairment of coagulation in the setting of implantable neurostimulation devices in the spine, brain, and periphery. These recommendations are aligned with the recommendations published here. | Anatomical Considerations for Hematoma Development in Spinal and Nonspinal Areas Although most cases of a spinal hematoma have a multifactorial etiology, certain anatomical features may pose higher risks secondary to the anatomy and vascular supply

2018 American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

131. Complex endovascular aneurysm repair for juxta-renal or thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm: Advice Statement

- diaphragmatic) and the cohorts were not comparable in terms of risk and other characteristics. There was no statistically significant difference in 30-day mortality between the F/B-EVAR cohort and OSR cohort. After stratification by aneurysm anatomy, mortality was significantly higher with F/B-EVAR only for infra- diaphragmatic TAAA. In the extension study, 2-year mortality did not significantly differ between the cohorts and F/B-EVAR was associated with a higher rate of readmissions (2.2 vs.1.7, p<0.01 (...) ). Table 1 presents the clinical effectiveness information from this study. Table 1: 30-day and 2-year mortality between complex EVAR and OSR for various aneurysm anatomies F/B-EVAR n=268 OSR n=1678 p-value 30-day mortality Pooled PRAA/JRAA and TAAA 6.7% 5.4% 0.40 PRAA/JRAA 4.3% 5.8% 0.26 Supra-diaphragmatic TAAA 11.9% 19.7% 0.70 Infra-diaphragmatic TAAA 11.9% 4.0% 0.01 File name: 20171208 Complex EVAR AS v3.0.docx0 Version: 3.0 Date: 26 April 2018 Produced by: Page: 3 Review date: 2-year mortality

2018 SHTG Advice Statements

132. Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Clinical Practice Guidelines: Joint Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutritio

)/factitious disorder by proxy (FDP) Hereditary fructose intolerance Child neglect or abuse Urea cycle defects Self-induced vomiting Amino and organic acidemias Cyclic vomiting syndrome Fatty acid oxidation disorders Rumination syndrome Metabolic acidosis Congenital adrenal hyperplasia/adrenal crisis Toxic Renal Lead poisoning Obstructive uropathy Other toxins Renal insuf?ciency Cardiac Heart failure Vascular ring Autonomic dysfunction ESPGHAN ¼ European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology

2018 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

133. The Society for Vascular Surgery practice guidelines on the care of patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (Full text)

for imaging the symptomatic patient 27 TREATMENT OF THE PATIENT WITH AN AAA 27 The decision to treat 27 Medical management during the period of aneurysm surveillance 29 Timing for intervention 29 Assessment of operative risk and life expectancy 30 EVAR 31 Considerations for percutaneous repair 31 Infrarenal fixation 31 Suprarenal fixation 31 Management of the internal iliac artery 32 Management of associated vascular disease 33 Perioperative outcomes of elective EVAR 33 Incidence of 30-day and in-hospital

2018 Society for Vascular Surgery PubMed abstract

134. Müllerian Agenesis: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment

to hypogonadism. Another etiology of pubertal delay with typical external female genitalia and absent cervix is CYP17A1 deficiency. This is a rare autosomal recessive heterogenous form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with an incidence of 1:50,000 to 1:100,000 that may be confused with müllerian agenesis. Individuals will have impaired sex steroid and cortisol synthesis and overproduction of aldosterone with resultant hypertension and hypokalemia. An individual with a 46,XX karyotype will have a uterus (...) and vagina, but an individual with a 46,XY karyotype may have phenotypically female external genitalia, a shortened vagina, no uterus, and intraabdominal testes. The diagnosis can be confirmed by testing of the CYP17A1 gene and careful interpretation of adrenal steroids, including elevated serum deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone levels and low cortisol, androgens, and estrogen levels ( , ). Evaluation of the Patient With Müllerian Agenesis Initial evaluation of the patient without a uterus may

2018 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

135. Appropriate Use Criteria: Imaging of the Abdomen & Pelvis

; OR ? Absence of response after 72 hours of therapy Adrenal lesion ? Following a non-diagnostic ultrasound in neonate patients ? For characterization of an indeterminate adrenal mass identified on prior imaging – such as a benign adenoma versus a metastatic deposit; OR ? When there is biochemical evidence of an adrenal endocrine abnormalityCT Abdomen | Copyright © 2018. AIM Specialty Health. All Rights Reserved. 11 Common Diagnostic Indications Hematuria Hydronephrosis ? Evaluation for possible obstructing (...) . 2013;19(1):3-26. 36. Mandeville JA, Gnessin E, Lingeman JE. Imaging evaluation in the patient with renal stone disease. Semin Nephrol. 2011 May;31(3):254-258. 37. Marrero JA, Ahn J, Rajender Reddy K. American College of Gastroenterology clinical guideline: the diagnosis and management of focal liver lesions. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(9):1328-1347. 38. Matsuki M, Kani H, Tatsugami F, et al. Preoperative assessment of vascular anatomy around the stomach by 3D imaging using MDCT before laparoscopy

2018 AIM Specialty Health

139. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Infants and Children With Cardiac Disease (Full text)

with the critical components of the 2015 American Heart Association pediatric basic life support and pediatric advanced life support guidelines and are meant to serve as a resuscitation supplement. This statement is meant for caregivers of children with heart disease in the prehospital and in- hospital settings. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the high-risk pediatric cardiac population will promote early recognition and treatment of decompensation to prevent cardiac arrest, increase survival from (...) , with compres- sions providing only ˜10% to 30% of normal blood flow to the heart and 30% to 40% of normal blood flow to the brain. 6 The inherent inefficiency associated with CPR can be further exacerbated in the patient with CHD, in which the underlying anatomy limits effective PBF, systemic blood flow (SBF), and cerebral perfusion. Given these issues, survival after cardiac arrest can be low in infants and children with cardiac disease. To im- prove resuscitation outcomes, a strong emphasis must

2018 American Heart Association PubMed abstract

140. Physiologic Predictors of Severe Injury: Systematic Review

of risk and match patient risk to hospital transport decisions. The first step is to assess variables such as level of consciousness, circulation, and respiration. This assessment is combined with the results of the second step, an assessment of the anatomy of the injury. The combined results of steps 1 and 2 are used to identify the most seriously injured patients who “should be transported preferentially to the highest level of care within the defined trauma system.” 5 The initial triage criteria (...) in the current guidelines are physiologic status and level of consciousness. Measures, monitors, and tools are needed to facilitate assessment of physiologic status because, unlike the anatomy of the injury, physiologic status cannot be directly observed. Thresholds indicating need for major level trauma care have been operationalized in the triage guidelines as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) =13, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 29 breaths per minute (>20 in infants aged less than 1 year) or need for ventilatory

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

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