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Adrenal Anatomy

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121. Renal Mass and Localized Renal Cancer

should perform adrenalectomy if imaging and/or intraoperative findings suggest metastasis or direct invasion of the adrenal gland. (Clinical Principle) In patients undergoing surgical excision of a renal mass, a minimally invasive approach should be considered when it would not compromise oncologic, functional and perioperative outcomes. (Expert Opinion) Pathologic evaluation of the adjacent renal parenchyma should be performed after PN or RN to assess for possible intrinsic renal disease (...) and aggressive tumor biology. Contrast-enhanced abdominal imaging (CT or MRI) best characterizes the mass, provides information regarding renal morphology (of the affected and unaffected kidney), assesses extrarenal tumor spread (venous invasion or regional lymphadenopathy) and evaluates the adrenal glands and other abdominal organs for visceral metastases. Patients with CKD and GFR less than 45 ml/min/1.73m 2 should receive contrast with caution as iodinated contrast agents can transiently or permanently

2017 American Urological Association

122. The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society

therapy has been shown in RCTs to effectively restore genitourinary tract anatomy, increase superficial vag- inal cells, reduce vaginal pH, and treat symptoms of vulvo- vaginal atrophy (VVA). 32 Key point HormonetherapyisapprovedbyFDAforfourindications: bothersome VMS; prevention of bone loss; hypoestrogen- ism caused by hypogonadism, castration, or POI; and genitourinary symptoms. NAMS POSITION STATEMENT Menopause, Vol. 24, No. 7, 2017 731Copyright @ 2017 The North American Menopause Society

2017 The North American Menopause Society

123. Diagnosis and management of Silver-Russell syndrome: 1st international consensus statement

)genetic disorders. , , Edith Said is a Consultant Medical Geneticist & Head of Section of Clinical Genetics & Cytogenetics, Mater dei Hospital, Malta, and Resident Academic Senior Lecturer, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Malta. Her special interest is in clinical genetics and dysmorphology, cryptic chromosomal rearrangements and imprinting disorders. She is responsible for paediatric genetic clinics with over 750 consultations a year, at least a third of which are related (...) with particular interest in imprinting disorders, and has over 230 publications across these fields. , Madeleine Harbison is Assistant Professor of Pediatrics in the Genetic Endocrinology, Adrenal and Steroid Disorders Group, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA, and Assistant Attending Physician at the Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, USA. She is a pioneer in clinical diagnosis and care of patients with Silver–Russell syndrome. She has 20 PubMed publications. , , I. Karen

2017 Pediatric Endocrine Society

124. Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

, and personality traits that a society (in a given culture and historical period) designates as masculine or feminine and/or that society associates with or considers typical of the social role of men or women. Sex designated at birth: This refers to sex assigned at birth, usually based on genital anatomy. Sex: This refers to attributes that characterize biological maleness or femaleness. The best known attributes include the sex-determining genes, the sex chromosomes, the H-Y antigen, the gonads, sex hormones (...) /gender-affirming treatment. Gender role: This refers to behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that a society (in a given culture and historical period) designates as masculine or feminine and/or that society associates with or considers typical of the social role of men or women. Sex designated at birth: This refers to sex assigned at birth, usually based on genital anatomy. Sex: This refers to attributes that characterize biological maleness or femaleness. The best known attributes include

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2017 Pediatric Endocrine Society

125. The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland Consensus Guidelines in Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

of its anatomy, drainage of sepsis, nutritional support and determining the underlying cause, whether inflammation or stenosis. For primary enterocutaneous fistula, resectional surgery is generally necessary, although medical treatment may be attempted , . The evidence for medical therapy is minimal and of low quality. Entero‐enteric fistulas are usually asymptomatic and require surgery only if they cause malabsorption or diarrhoea . For entero‐urogenital fistula, surgery is still superior to medical

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2018 Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland

126. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery

provide a complementary treat- ment for depression. Exercise may affect depressive symp- toms through a number of mechanisms. For example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be dysregulated in depression, resulting in elevated cortisol levels. Exercise can improve regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses. 231 Depression also has direct and indirect con- sequences on immune function, 232 and regular exercise may serve as a nonpharmacological stimulus for enhanc- ing immune

2016 American Academy of Neurology

129. Glaucoma

) but with no signs of glaucoma. [ ; ; ] Anatomy and physiology What is the anatomy and physiology of the eye relevant to glaucoma? The descriptions of the anatomy and physiology of the eye may be more easily understood when read with the aid of a diagram of the eye, such as that on the website of the . Anterior chamber The anterior chamber is the fluid-filled space between the iris and the cornea. The anterior chamber angle is the angle between the iris and the cornea where they join the sclera towards

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

130. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

%, but it is higher in people younger than 40 years and in people with calcifications present on preoperative ultrasonography.[ , ] Anatomy Thyroid gland tissue envelops the upper trachea just below the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx. The gland has an isthmus and often asymmetric right and left lobes; usually four parathyroid glands lie posteriorly. When swallowing, the thyroid may be felt to rise with the larynx—most commonly in the presence of a disease process. Anatomy of the thyroid

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

131. Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

until it passes through the and leaves the body. Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra. Cancer that starts in the ureters or the (the part of the kidney that collects (...) spread to nearby lymph nodes. Stage IV Stage IV kidney cancer. Cancer has spread a) beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may have spread into the adrenal gland above the kidney with cancer, or b) to other parts of the body, such as the brain, lung, liver, adrenal gland, bone, or distant lymph nodes. In , one of the following is found: has spread beyond the layer of fatty around the and may have spread into the above the kidney with cancer or to nearby ; or cancer has spread to other

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

132. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Adrenocortical Carcinoma Key Points for This Section Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal gland. There are two . The adrenal glands are small and shaped like a triangle. One adrenal gland sits on top of each . Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the . The center of the adrenal gland is the . Anatomy of the adrenal gland. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The outer part (...) of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex makes important that: Balance the water and salt in the body. Help keep normal. Help control the body's use of , fat, and . Cause the body to have masculine or feminine characteristics. is also called of the adrenal cortex. A of the adrenal cortex may be (makes more hormones than normal) or (does not make more hormones than normal). Most adrenocortical tumors are functioning. The hormones made by functioning

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

133. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of neuroblastoma without clinical detection in the first year of life is at least as prevalent as clinically detected neuroblastoma.[ - ] Epidemiologic studies have shown that environmental or other exposures have not been unequivocally associated with increased or decreased incidences of neuroblastoma.[ ] Anatomy Neuroblastoma originates in the adrenal medulla and paraspinal or periaortic regions where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present (refer to ). Figure 1. Neuroblastoma may be found (...) in the adrenal glands and paraspinal nerve tissue from the neck to the pelvis. Genetic Predisposition and Familial Neuroblastoma Studies analyzing constitutional DNA in rare cohorts of familial neuroblastoma patients have provided insight into the complex genetic basis for tumor initiation. About 1% to 2% of patients with neuroblastoma have a family history of neuroblastoma. These children are, on average, younger (9 months at diagnosis) and about 20% have multifocal primary neuroblastoma. Several germline

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

134. Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

a into the . The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the and leaves the body. Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra. There are many types of childhood kidney tumors. Wilms Tumor In , one or more may be found

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

135. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

at diagnosis.[ ] Anatomy NSCLC arises from the epithelial cells of the lung of the central bronchi to terminal alveoli. The histological type of NSCLC correlates with site of origin, reflecting the variation in respiratory tract epithelium of the bronchi to alveoli. Squamous cell carcinoma usually starts near a central bronchus. Adenocarcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma usually originate in peripheral lung tissue. Anatomy of the respiratory system. Pathogenesis Smoking-related lung carcinogenesis (...) number of lymph nodes sampled, it suggests that an evaluation of nodal status should include 11 to 16 lymph nodes. CT imaging CT scanning is primarily used for determining the size of the tumor. The CT scan should extend inferiorly to include the liver and adrenal glands. MRI scans of the thorax and upper abdomen do not appear to yield advantages over CT scans.[ ] Evidence (CT scan): A systematic review of the medical literature relating to the accuracy of CT scanning for noninvasive staging

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

136. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

The rate of pheochromocytoma formation in the VHL patient population is 25% to 30%.[ , ] Of patients with VHL-associated pheochromocytomas, 44% developed disease in both adrenal glands.[ ] The rate of malignant transformation is very low. Levels of plasma and urine normetanephrine are typically elevated in patients with VHL,[ ] and approximately two-thirds will experience physical manifestations such as hypertension, tachycardia, and palpitations.[ ] Patients with a partial loss of VHL function (Type 2

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

137. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

. Deaths: 19,970. Anatomy NHL usually originates in lymphoid tissues. Anatomy of the lymph system. Prognosis and Survival NHL can be divided into two prognostic groups: the indolent lymphomas and the aggressive lymphomas. Indolent NHL types have a relatively good prognosis with a median survival as long as 20 years, but they usually are not curable in advanced clinical stages.[ ] Early-stage (stage I and stage II) indolent NHL can be effectively treated with radiation therapy alone. Most

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

138. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

are tracheobronchial tumors and . Tracheobronchial Tumors Tracheobronchial begin in the that line the surface of the . Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are and occur in the or large (large airways of the lung). Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes that may spread to other parts of the body. Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their lobes and airways. Lymph nodes and the diaphragm are also shown. Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and passes through (...) of gene change. See the summary on adult for more information. Thymoma is a rare of the that cover the outside surface of the . The thymus is a small in the upper chest under the . It is part of the and makes , called , that help fight . Thymoma usually forms in the front part of the chest and is often found during a that is done for another reason. Anatomy of the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. It makes white blood cells, called

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

140. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Tumors Key Points for This Section A pituitary tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the pituitary gland. form in the , a pea-sized in the center of the brain, just above the back of the nose. The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master " because it makes that affect the way many parts of the body work. It also controls hormones made by many other glands in the body. Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (...) that is collected for three days. This test is done to check if the adrenal gland is making too much cortisol or if the pituitary gland is telling the adrenal glands to make too much cortisol. Low-dose dexamethasone suppression test : A test in which one or more small doses of dexamethasone are given. The level of cortisol is checked from a sample of blood or from urine that is collected for three days. This test is done to check if the adrenal gland is making too much cortisol. for pituitary tumors

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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