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Adrenal Anatomy

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101. Adrenal gland Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adrenal gland Adrenal gland - Wikipedia Adrenal gland From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article may be written from an excessively perspective . Please so that it appropriately covers non-human species, or discuss this issue on the . ( ) Adrenal gland The adrenal glands lie above the kidneys. Details and , and and Identifiers Glandula suprarenalis [ ] The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands ) are that produce a variety of hormones including and the steroids (...) for their location relative to the kidneys. The term "adrenal" comes from ad- (Latin, "near") and renes (Latin, "kidney"). Similarly, "suprarenal", as termed by in 1629, is derived from the ( : "above" ) and ( : kidney ). The suprarenal nature of the glands was not truly accepted until the 19th century, as anatomists clarified the ductless nature of the glands and their likely secretory role – prior to this, there was some debate as to whether the glands were indeed suprarenal or part of the kidney. One

2012 Wikipedia

102. Hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis

Hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis - Wikipedia Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). Hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal cortex. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis ( HPA axis or HTPA axis ) is a complex set of direct influences and interactions among three components: the , the (a pea-shaped structure located (...) below the thalamus), and the (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys). These organs and their interactions constitute the HPA axis, a major that controls reactions to and regulates many body processes, including , the , mood and emotions, sexuality, and energy storage and expenditure. It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the midbrain that mediate the (GAS). While steroid hormones are produced mainly in vertebrates

2012 Wikipedia

103. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

anatomy is present. See also [ ] , , and References [ ] Simard J, Moisan AM, Morel Y (August 2002). "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4) isomerase deficiency". Semin. Reprod. Med . 20 (3): 255–76. : . . Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia , P Stewart, Chapter 14, Section IV, Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 11th edition, Elsevier, 2008, p. 485-494. External links [ ] Classification - : - : : : : External resources : : Diseases of the system (...) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency - Wikipedia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Other names CAH due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

2012 Wikipedia

104. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency

pressure. Glucocorticoid effects [ ] Although production of cortisol is inefficient enough to normalize ACTH, the 50-100-fold elevations of have enough weak activity to prevent glucocorticoid deficiency and adrenal crisis. Sex steroid effects [ ] Genetic XX females affected by total 17α-hydroxylase deficiency are born with normal female internal and external anatomy. At the expected time of neither the adrenals nor the ovaries can produce sex steroids, so neither breast development nor pubic hair (...) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency - Wikipedia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency , , Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency is an uncommon form of resulting from a defect in the , which encodes for the 17α

2012 Wikipedia

105. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia Full Text available with Trip Pro

of lipoid CAH due to P450scc deficiency are still unclear, but are thought to result in miscarriage when the deficit in the enzyme's activity are severe enough. The results of reduced or absent testosterone output by fetal Leydig cells in the male is detailed below. Female patients [ ] Genetic XX females with lipoid CAH are born with normal external and internal pelvic anatomy. They come to medical attention when they develop a salt-wasting adrenal crisis or other signs of progressive (...) Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Wikipedia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an that is an uncommon and potentially lethal form of (CAH). It arises from defects in the earliest stages of synthesis: the transport of into the and the conversion

2012 Wikipedia

106. Intrapartum care for women with existing medical conditions or obstetric complications and their babies

-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Last updated April 2019 Page 20 of 961.5.2 For women planning a vaginal birth who have adrenal insufficiency or who are taking long-term oral steroids (equivalent to 5 mg or more prednisolone daily for more than 3 weeks): continue their regular oral steroids and and when they are in established first stage of labour, add intravenous or intramuscular hydrocortisone and consider a minimum dose of 50 mg every 6 hours until 6 hours after the baby is born. 1.5.3 For women having (...) a planned or emergency caesarean section who have adrenal insufficiency or who are taking long-term oral steroids (equivalent to 5 mg or more prednisolone daily for more than 3 weeks): continue their regular oral steroids and and give intravenous hydrocortisone when starting anaesthesia; the dose will depend on whether the woman has received hydrocortisone in labour, for example: consider giving 50 mg if she has had hydrocortisone in labour consider giving 100 mg if she has not had hydrocortisone

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

107. Society of Interventional Radiology Quality Improvement Standards on Percutaneous Ablation in Renal Cell Carcinoma Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the greatest dimension and limited to the kidney T1b: Tumor 4.1–7.0 cm in greatest dimension and limited to the kidney T2: Tumor >7 cm and limited to the kidney T2a: Tumor 7.1–10 cm and limited to the kidney T2b: Tumor >10 cm and limited to the kidney T3: Tumor extends into major veins or perinephric tissues but not into the ipsilateral adrenal or beyond Gerota fascia T3a: Tumor extends into the renal vein or its segmental branches OR tumor invades perirenal and/or renal sinus fat but not beyond Gerota (...) -Silver, S. et al. Adult and pediatric antibiotic prophylaxis during vascular and IR procedures: a Society of Interventional Radiology practice parameter update endorsed by the cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe and the Canadian Association for Interventional Radiology. J Vasc Interv Radiol . 2018 ; 29 : 1483–1501 | 67 ). Some patients, especially those with ureteral stents or non-native ureteral anatomy, may warrant prophylactic antibiotics as these patients

2020 Society of Interventional Radiology

109. Abdominal and pelvic imaging

) 24 Osseous tumor 24 Osteoid osteoma 24 Osteomyelitis 24 Pelvic fracture 25 Sacroiliitis, not otherwise specified 25 Septic arthritis 26 Pancreatic Indications 26 Pancreatic mass, indeterminate solid 26 Pancreatic mass, indeterminate cystic (IPMN/IPMT) 26 Pancreatitis 27 Renal, Adrenal, and Urinary Tract Indications 27 Azotemia 27 Adrenal mass, indeterminate 28 Bladder or urethral diverticula 29 Hematuria 29 Hydronephrosis 30 Nephrocalcinosis 30 Polycystic kidney disease 30 Pyelonephritis 30 Renal (...) indications exist, they are specified as Adult or Pediatric. Where not specified, indications and prerequisite information apply to persons of all ages. See the Coding section for a list of modalities included in these guidelines. Technology Considerations Advanced imaging is an umbrella term that refers to anatomy-based (structural), physiology-based (functional), and hybrid imaging methods that offer greater spatial and/or contrast resolution relative to conventional imaging methods in radiology

2020 AIM Specialty Health

110. Management of stable angina

to prevent new vascular events 17 4.4 Medication concordance 18 5 Interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery 19 5.1 Coronary artery anatomy and definitions 19 5.2 Percutaneous coronary intervention 19 5.3 Coronary artery bypass grafting 21 5.4 Choice of revascularisation technique 23 5.5 Postintervention drug therapy 26 5.6 Postintervention rehabilitation 28 5.7 Managing restenosis 28 5.8 Managing refractory angina 28 6 Stable angina and non-cardiac surgery 30 6.1 Assessment prior to surgery 30 6.2 (...) or amputation or thromboembolectomy • Duodeno-pancreatic surgery • Liver resection, bile duct surgery • Oesophagectomy • Repair of perforated bowel • Adrenal resection • Total cystectomy • Pneumonectomy • Pulmonary or liver transplant CAS = carotid artery stenting; CEA = carotid endarterectomy. Surgical risk estimate is a broad approximation of 30-day risk of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction that takes into account only the specific surgical intervention, without considering the patient’s

2018 SIGN

112. Complex endovascular aneurysm repair in patients with juxta-renal or thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm

Complex endovascular aneurysm repair in patients with juxta-renal or thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm 78 1 Health technology description Key points ? A single prospective observational study compared 30-day outcomes of fenestrated/branched endovascular aneurysm repair (F/B-EVAR) with open surgery repair (OSR) for the treatment of complex aortic aneurysm anatomies: para/juxta-renal aortic aneurysm (PRAA/JRAA) and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). There was no statistically significant (...) difference in 30-day mortality between the F/B-EVAR cohort and OSR cohort (6.7% versus 5.4%, p=0.40). ? After stratification by aneurysm anatomy, the F/B-EVAR and OSR mortality rates were not significantly different for PRAA/JRAA (4.3% versus 5.8%, p=0.26) and supra-diaphragmatic TAAA (11.9% versus 19.7%, p=0.70), and significantly higher with F/B-EVAR for infra-diaphragmatic TAAA (11.9% versus 4.0%, p=0.01). ? In an extension study, 2-year mortality did not significantly differ between the groups (14.9

2018 Evidence Notes from Healthcare Improvement Scotland

116. Appropriate Use Criteria: Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis

) 22 Osseous tumor 22 Osteoid osteoma 23 Osteomyelitis 23 Pelvic fracture 23 Sacroiliitis 24 Septic arthritis 24 Pancreatic Indications 24 Pancreatic mass 24 Pancreatic pseudocyst 24 Pancreatitis 24 Renal & Urinary Tract Indications 25 Bladder or urethral diverticula 25 Hematuria 25 Hydronephrosis 26 Nephrocalcinosis 26 Polycystic kidney disease 26 Pyelonephritis 26 Renal mass 26 Urinary tract calculi 27 Miscellaneous Conditions 28 Adrenal hemorrhage 28 Adrenal mass 28 Hemoperitoneum 28 Hernia 29

2019 AIM Specialty Health

117. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Infantile Hemangiomas

with a hemangioma specialist or other appropriate expert (eg, pediatric neurologist, neurosurgeon, or radiologist) can be helpful to determine if imaging is required and which studies should be performed. MRI is the optimal imaging modality to define underlying structural abnormalities, and contrast is needed to assess vascular components. MRA can illustrate the vascular anatomy. Thus, MRI and MRA, with and without contrast of the head and neck, are the best studies to detect PHACE syndrome. MRI does not use

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

118. Chronic Pelvic Pain

colpopexy: management of postoperative pudendal nerve entrapment. Obstet Gynecol, 1996. 88: 713. 218. Fisher, H.W., et al. Nerve injury locations during retropubic sling procedures. Int Urogynecol J, 2011. 22: 439. 219. Moszkowicz, D., et al. Where does pelvic nerve injury occur during rectal surgery for cancer? Colorectal Dis, 2011. 13: 1326. 220. Ashton-Miller, J.A., et al. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2007. 1101: 266. 221. Amarenco, G., et al. [Perineal neuropathy

2019 European Association of Urology

119. Paediatric Urology

. Is suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis significant during clinical treatment of phimosis? J Urol, 2010. 183: 2327. 22. Wu, X., et al. A report of 918 cases of circumcision with the Shang Ring: comparison between children and adults. Urology, 2013. 81: 1058. 23. Pedersini, P., et al. “Trident” preputial plasty for phimosis in childhood. J Pediatr Urol, 2017. 13: 278.e1. 24. Miernik, A., et al. Complete removal of the foreskin--why? Urol Int, 2011. 86: 383. 25. Wiswell, T.E. The prepuce, urinary (...) or 3 years. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1589. 75. Novaes, H.F., et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy - a systematic review. Int Braz J Urol, 2013. 39: 305. 76. Docimo, S.G. The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. J Urol, 1995. 154: 1148. 77. Ziylan, O., et al. Failed orchiopexy. Urol Int, 2004. 73: 313. 78. Prentiss, R.J., et al. Undescended testis: surgical anatomy of spermatic vessels, spermatic surgical triangles and lateral spermatic ligament. J Urol

2019 European Association of Urology

120. Male Sexual Dysfunction

of recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 924. 23. Phillips, B. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Updated by Jeremy Howick March 2009. 1998. 24. Guyatt, G.H., et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 1049. 25. Van den Broeck T, et al. What are the benefits and harms of testosterone treatment for male sexual dysfunction? PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews, 2015. 26. Gratzke, C., et al. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of erectile

2019 European Association of Urology

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