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Adrenal Anatomy

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81. Adrenal gland

of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia (2013). Endocrine Gland Development and Disease . Burlington: Elsevier Science. p. 241. . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( ) Antonio Carlos A. Westphalen and Bonnie N. Joe (2006). . Appl Radiol . 35 (8): 10–26. O'Hare, A. Munro Neville, Michael J. (1982). The Human Adrenal Cortex Pathology and Biology – An Integrated Approach . Springer London. pp. Chapter 4: Structure of the adult cortex. . ^ Moore KL, Dalley AF, Agur AM (2013). Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 7th (...) Adrenal gland Adrenal gland - Wikipedia Adrenal gland From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article may be written from an excessively perspective . Please so that it appropriately covers non-human species, or discuss this issue on the . ( ) Adrenal gland The adrenal glands lie above the kidneys. Details and , and and Identifiers Glandula suprarenalis [ ] The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands ) are that produce a variety of hormones including and the steroids

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2012 Wikipedia

82. Hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis

Hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis - Wikipedia Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). Hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal cortex. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis ( HPA axis or HTPA axis ) is a complex set of direct influences and interactions among three components: the , the (a pea-shaped structure located (...) , the physiological role of the HPA axis and corticosteroids in stress response is so fundamental that analogous systems can be found in invertebrates and monocellular organisms as well. The HPA axis, , , and the are the four major neuroendocrine systems through which the hypothalamus and pituitary direct neuroendocrine function. Contents Anatomy [ ] The key elements of the HPA axis are: The of the , which contains neurons that synthesize and secrete and (CRH). These two regulate: The anterior lobe

2012 Wikipedia

83. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia

of lipoid CAH due to P450scc deficiency are still unclear, but are thought to result in miscarriage when the deficit in the enzyme's activity are severe enough. The results of reduced or absent testosterone output by fetal Leydig cells in the male is detailed below. Female patients [ ] Genetic XX females with lipoid CAH are born with normal external and internal pelvic anatomy. They come to medical attention when they develop a salt-wasting adrenal crisis or other signs of progressive (...) Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Wikipedia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an that is an uncommon and potentially lethal form of (CAH). It arises from defects in the earliest stages of synthesis: the transport of into the and the conversion

2012 Wikipedia

84. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency

pressure. Glucocorticoid effects [ ] Although production of cortisol is inefficient enough to normalize ACTH, the 50-100-fold elevations of have enough weak activity to prevent glucocorticoid deficiency and adrenal crisis. Sex steroid effects [ ] Genetic XX females affected by total 17α-hydroxylase deficiency are born with normal female internal and external anatomy. At the expected time of neither the adrenals nor the ovaries can produce sex steroids, so neither breast development nor pubic hair (...) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency - Wikipedia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency , , Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency is an uncommon form of resulting from a defect in the , which encodes for the 17α

2012 Wikipedia

85. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

anatomy is present. See also [ ] , , and References [ ] Simard J, Moisan AM, Morel Y (August 2002). "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4) isomerase deficiency". Semin. Reprod. Med . 20 (3): 255–76. : . . Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia , P Stewart, Chapter 14, Section IV, Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 11th edition, Elsevier, 2008, p. 485-494. External links [ ] Classification - : - : : : : External resources : : Diseases of the system (...) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency - Wikipedia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Other names CAH due to 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

2012 Wikipedia

86. Does Preoperative Genitography in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Cases Affect Surgical Approach to Feminizing Genitoplasty? (PubMed)

adrenal hyperplasia who underwent feminizing genitoplasty at our institution between 2003 and 2009. Preoperative genitogram findings were recorded and correlated with operative findings.A total of 42 preoperative genitograms were available for review in 40 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who underwent feminizing genitoplasty. Genitography revealed complete anatomy of the urogenital sinus in 30 cases (72%) while bladder filling alone was present in 9 (21%) and vaginal filling was noted (...) , and not on genitogram.Genitography during preoperative evaluation in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia undergoing feminizing genitoplasty did not reveal urogenital sinus anatomy completely in 25% of the patients in our series. Preoperative genitogram did not influence the surgical approach. Its value as preoperative imaging in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia may be limited.Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2010 Journal of Urology

87. The Accuracy of the Glucagon Test Compared to the Insulin Tolerance Test in the Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency in Young Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency. (PubMed)

of age.This was a prospective study conducted in two Pediatric Endocrinology Centers.Forty-eight children (median age, 4.2 yr) with GH deficiency confirmed by a peak GH to ITT and arginine less than 10 microg/liter were enrolled: 24 with normal hypothalamic-pituitary anatomy, seven with isolated anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and 17 with structural hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities at magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve subjects had central adrenal insufficiency defined by a peak cortisol response (...) The Accuracy of the Glucagon Test Compared to the Insulin Tolerance Test in the Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency in Young Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency. The accuracy of the glucagon test in the diagnosis of central adrenal insufficiency in young children has not yet been definitively established.The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the glucagon test as an alternative to the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in children with GH deficiency under 6 yr

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2010 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

88. Management of stable angina

to prevent new vascular events 17 4.4 Medication concordance 18 5 Interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery 19 5.1 Coronary artery anatomy and definitions 19 5.2 Percutaneous coronary intervention 19 5.3 Coronary artery bypass grafting 21 5.4 Choice of revascularisation technique 23 5.5 Postintervention drug therapy 26 5.6 Postintervention rehabilitation 28 5.7 Managing restenosis 28 5.8 Managing refractory angina 28 6 Stable angina and non-cardiac surgery 30 6.1 Assessment prior to surgery 30 6.2 (...) or amputation or thromboembolectomy • Duodeno-pancreatic surgery • Liver resection, bile duct surgery • Oesophagectomy • Repair of perforated bowel • Adrenal resection • Total cystectomy • Pneumonectomy • Pulmonary or liver transplant CAS = carotid artery stenting; CEA = carotid endarterectomy. Surgical risk estimate is a broad approximation of 30-day risk of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction that takes into account only the specific surgical intervention, without considering the patient’s

2018 SIGN

89. Appropriate Use Criteria: Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis

) 22 Osseous tumor 22 Osteoid osteoma 23 Osteomyelitis 23 Pelvic fracture 23 Sacroiliitis 24 Septic arthritis 24 Pancreatic Indications 24 Pancreatic mass 24 Pancreatic pseudocyst 24 Pancreatitis 24 Renal & Urinary Tract Indications 25 Bladder or urethral diverticula 25 Hematuria 25 Hydronephrosis 26 Nephrocalcinosis 26 Polycystic kidney disease 26 Pyelonephritis 26 Renal mass 26 Urinary tract calculi 27 Miscellaneous Conditions 28 Adrenal hemorrhage 28 Adrenal mass 28 Hemoperitoneum 28 Hernia 29

2019 AIM Specialty Health

91. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Infantile Hemangiomas

with a hemangioma specialist or other appropriate expert (eg, pediatric neurologist, neurosurgeon, or radiologist) can be helpful to determine if imaging is required and which studies should be performed. MRI is the optimal imaging modality to define underlying structural abnormalities, and contrast is needed to assess vascular components. MRA can illustrate the vascular anatomy. Thus, MRI and MRA, with and without contrast of the head and neck, are the best studies to detect PHACE syndrome. MRI does not use

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

92. Paediatric Urology

. Is suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis significant during clinical treatment of phimosis? J Urol, 2010. 183: 2327. 22. Wu, X., et al. A report of 918 cases of circumcision with the Shang Ring: comparison between children and adults. Urology, 2013. 81: 1058. 23. Pedersini, P., et al. “Trident” preputial plasty for phimosis in childhood. J Pediatr Urol, 2017. 13: 278.e1. 24. Miernik, A., et al. Complete removal of the foreskin--why? Urol Int, 2011. 86: 383. 25. Wiswell, T.E. The prepuce, urinary (...) or 3 years. J Urol, 2007. 178: 1589. 75. Novaes, H.F., et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy - a systematic review. Int Braz J Urol, 2013. 39: 305. 76. Docimo, S.G. The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. J Urol, 1995. 154: 1148. 77. Ziylan, O., et al. Failed orchiopexy. Urol Int, 2004. 73: 313. 78. Prentiss, R.J., et al. Undescended testis: surgical anatomy of spermatic vessels, spermatic surgical triangles and lateral spermatic ligament. J Urol

2019 European Association of Urology

93. Male Sexual Dysfunction

of recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 924. 23. Phillips, B. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Updated by Jeremy Howick March 2009. 1998. 24. Guyatt, G.H., et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. Bmj, 2008. 336: 1049. 25. Van den Broeck T, et al. What are the benefits and harms of testosterone treatment for male sexual dysfunction? PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews, 2015. 26. Gratzke, C., et al. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of erectile

2019 European Association of Urology

94. Chronic Pelvic Pain

colpopexy: management of postoperative pudendal nerve entrapment. Obstet Gynecol, 1996. 88: 713. 218. Fisher, H.W., et al. Nerve injury locations during retropubic sling procedures. Int Urogynecol J, 2011. 22: 439. 219. Moszkowicz, D., et al. Where does pelvic nerve injury occur during rectal surgery for cancer? Colorectal Dis, 2011. 13: 1326. 220. Ashton-Miller, J.A., et al. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2007. 1101: 266. 221. Amarenco, G., et al. [Perineal neuropathy

2019 European Association of Urology

95. Renal Cell Carcinoma

in the diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma: role of multidetector ct and three-dimensional CT. Radiographics, 2001. 21 Spec No: S237. 96. Wittekind Ch., et al. TNM supplement, A Commentary on Uniform Use. Wittekind Ch., Greene F., Henson D.E., Hutter R.V., Sobin L.H., Editors. 2012, Wiley-Blackwell. 97. Klatte, T., et al. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy. Eur Urol, 2015. 68: 980. 98. Spaliviero, M., et al. An Arterial Based Complexity (...) (>/=7cm) clear cell renal cell carcinomas treated with nephron-sparing surgery versus radical nephrectomy: Results of a multicenter cohort with long-term follow-up. PLoS One, 2018. 13: e0196427. 227. Mir, M.C., et al. Partial Nephrectomy Versus Radical Nephrectomy for Clinical T1b and T2 Renal Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Comparative Studies. Eur Urol, 2017. 71: 606. 228. Lane, B.R., et al. Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol, 2009. 181: 2430. 229. Xu

2019 European Association of Urology

97. Diagnosis & Assessment of Hypertension - Endocrine Hypertension

. Even so, use of AVS might be limited because of technical challenges and reportedly high procedural failure rates, because of difficulties in localizing the adrenal veins (especially on the right side) because of small vessel size and variations in anatomy . In a retrospective study of 5 centres using the German Conn’s registry, successful bilateral catheterization was only achieved in 30.5% of cases . Performance appeared to be related to technical proficiency. Accordingly, when strictly performed (...) with the following (Grade D): Unexplained spontaneous hypokalemia (K + < 3.5 mmol/L) or marked diuretic- induced hypokalemia (K + < 3.0 mmol/L); Resistance to treatment with ≥ 3 drugs; An incidental adrenal adenoma. Screening for hyperaldosteronism should include assessment of plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity or plasma renin (Supplemental ). For patients with suspected hyperaldosteronism (on the basis of the screening test; Supplemental , Item iii.), a diagnosis of primary aldosteronism should

2018 Hypertension Canada

99. Physiologic Predictors of Severe Injury: Systematic Review

of risk and match patient risk to hospital transport decisions. The first step is to assess variables such as level of consciousness, circulation, and respiration. This assessment is combined with the results of the second step, an assessment of the anatomy of the injury. The combined results of steps 1 and 2 are used to identify the most seriously injured patients who “should be transported preferentially to the highest level of care within the defined trauma system.” 5 The initial triage criteria (...) in the current guidelines are physiologic status and level of consciousness. Measures, monitors, and tools are needed to facilitate assessment of physiologic status because, unlike the anatomy of the injury, physiologic status cannot be directly observed. Thresholds indicating need for major level trauma care have been operationalized in the triage guidelines as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) =13, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 29 breaths per minute (>20 in infants aged less than 1 year) or need for ventilatory

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

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