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Adrenal Anatomy

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21. Surgical Anatomy of Adrenal Glands (PubMed)

Surgical Anatomy of Adrenal Glands 17859687 2007 09 17 2018 11 13 0003-4932 154 Suppl 6 1961 Dec Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. Surgical Anatomy of Adrenal Glands. 298-305 Donnellan W L WL eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 1961 12 1 0 0 1961 12 1 0 1 1961 12 1 0 0 ppublish 17859687 PMC1466803 Virchows Arch. 1954;324(6):688-99 13179461 Am J Surg. 1955 Aug;90(2):180-8 13238672 Br Med J. 1955 Sep 17;2(4941):708-9 13250192 Acta Chir Scand. 1956 May 31;111(1):54-70 13326150

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1961 Annals of Surgery

22. Should we question early feminizing genitoplasty for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and XX karyotype? (PubMed)

Should we question early feminizing genitoplasty for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and XX karyotype? There is a wide difference of opinion between the medical-surgical community and advocacy group regarding Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) being ranked in the intersex category. This rupture is even more evident when the issue of genitoplasty is brought up. For physicians it is obvious and unequivocal that a person with CAH (...) sex assignment seems legitimate according to this study and the development of gender identity in these patients matches the sex assigned at birth. Resolving early on the adequacy of the genital anatomy with the sex assigned is promoted by patients as well as their parents. Proper psychomotor development and sexual satisfaction underline the absence of complications related to the surgical technique and the relevance of early surgical management.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2015 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

23. Height augmentation in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (PubMed)

stage III - IV genital anatomy. Bone age was significantly advanced, yielding a severely compromised predicted final adult height. Biochemical evaluation was consistent with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.In an attempt to improve final height, in addition to glucocorticoid replacement, this patient was treated with recombinant growth hormone and a third generation aromatase inhibitor (Letrozole) with an improvement in final height attained as compared with predicted (...) Height augmentation in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Untreated, this enzyme deficiency leads to virilization, hypertension, and significant height impairment.We describe a patient from abroad who first presented to us at age 7 years for follow-up of ambiguous genitalia. He had been investigated and treated in Pakistan at 3-years-of-age following presentation for bilateral

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2015 International journal of pediatric endocrinology

24. Adrenal Surgery (Overview)

Before describing surgical technique, understanding the anatomy of the adrenal glands is essential. The adrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, belong to the endocrine system. They are a pair of triangular-shaped glands, each about 2 in. long and 1 in. wide. The suprarenal glands are responsible for the release of hormones that regulate metabolism, immune system function, and the salt-water balance in the bloodstream; they also aid in the body’s response to stress. Both adrenals are located (...) about the relevant anatomy, see . Previous Next: Contraindications Metastatic disease, unless part of research protocol, is a contraindication to adrenal surgery. Previous References Mayo CH. Paroxysmal hypertension with tumor of the retroperitoneal nerve. JAMA . 1927. 89:1047. Crout JR, Pisano JJ, Sjoerdsma A. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites in pheochromocytoma. Am Heart J . 1961 Mar. 61:375-81. . Nitschke R, Smith EI, Shochat S, et al. Localized neuroblastoma treated

2014 eMedicine.com

25. Adrenal Adenoma (Overview)

Adrenal Adenoma (Overview) Adrenal Incidentaloma: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NTg3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Adrenal Incidentaloma Updated: Feb 12, 2018 (...) is surgery. The treatment for a malignancy depends on the cell type, spread, and location of the primary tumor. [ ] Nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas are not premalignant, and surgical excision is not indicated. (See Treatment and Management.) Next: Anatomy The adrenal glands are located in the perirenal space near the upper pole of each kidney. Their appearance varies: they may be shaped like the letter H, L, Y, T, or V. Typically, they are less than 4 cm in length and less than 1 cm in width

2014 eMedicine.com

26. Adrenal Glands (Treatment)

Adrenal Glands (Treatment) Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders: Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTQwMzQ3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders (...) Updated: Feb 20, 2018 Author: Saundra M Kay, MD, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Eugene S Kim, MD, FACS, FAAP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders Anatomy The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are small, yellowish organs that rest on the upper poles of the kidneys in the Gerota fascia. The right adrenal gland is pyramidal, whereas the left one is more crescentic, extending toward the hilum of the kidney. At age 1 year, each adrenal gland weighs approximately 1 g

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

27. Adrenal Adenoma (Diagnosis)

Adrenal Adenoma (Diagnosis) Adrenal Incidentaloma: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE2NTg3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Adrenal Incidentaloma Updated: Feb 12, 2018 (...) is surgery. The treatment for a malignancy depends on the cell type, spread, and location of the primary tumor. [ ] Nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas are not premalignant, and surgical excision is not indicated. (See Treatment and Management.) Next: Anatomy The adrenal glands are located in the perirenal space near the upper pole of each kidney. Their appearance varies: they may be shaped like the letter H, L, Y, T, or V. Typically, they are less than 4 cm in length and less than 1 cm in width

2014 eMedicine.com

28. Adrenal Surgery (Diagnosis)

Before describing surgical technique, understanding the anatomy of the adrenal glands is essential. The adrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, belong to the endocrine system. They are a pair of triangular-shaped glands, each about 2 in. long and 1 in. wide. The suprarenal glands are responsible for the release of hormones that regulate metabolism, immune system function, and the salt-water balance in the bloodstream; they also aid in the body’s response to stress. Both adrenals are located (...) about the relevant anatomy, see . Previous Next: Contraindications Metastatic disease, unless part of research protocol, is a contraindication to adrenal surgery. Previous References Mayo CH. Paroxysmal hypertension with tumor of the retroperitoneal nerve. JAMA . 1927. 89:1047. Crout JR, Pisano JJ, Sjoerdsma A. Urinary excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites in pheochromocytoma. Am Heart J . 1961 Mar. 61:375-81. . Nitschke R, Smith EI, Shochat S, et al. Localized neuroblastoma treated

2014 eMedicine.com

29. Adrenal Glands (Follow-up)

Adrenal Glands (Follow-up) Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders: Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTQwMzQ3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders (...) Updated: Feb 20, 2018 Author: Saundra M Kay, MD, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Eugene S Kim, MD, FACS, FAAP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders Anatomy The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are small, yellowish organs that rest on the upper poles of the kidneys in the Gerota fascia. The right adrenal gland is pyramidal, whereas the left one is more crescentic, extending toward the hilum of the kidney. At age 1 year, each adrenal gland weighs approximately 1 g

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

30. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Follow-up)

final adult height, which is well below that of his mother. Growth hormone in combination with GnRH agonist therapy may improve adult height. [ , ] Female patients with virilizing forms of adrenal hyperplasia have a decreased fertility rate. [ ] The reasons are believed to be multifactorial and include abnormal genital anatomy, vaginal stenosis, and poor control of adrenal androgen production that results in diminished ovulation. When pregnancy does occur, the baby is generally born by means (...) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Follow-up) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care, Consultations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTE5MjE4LXRyZWF0bWVudA

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

31. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Diagnosis)

(eg, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, Denys-Drash syndrome) Urogenitography is often helpful in defining the anatomy of the internal genitalia A bone-age study is useful in evaluating for advanced skeletal maturation in a child who develops precocious pubic hair, clitoromegaly, or accelerated linear growth Other tests A karyotype is essential in an infant with ambiguous genitalia, to establish the chromosomal sex Genetic testing is essential for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of adrenal (...) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Diagnosis) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTE5MjE4LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

32. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Treatment)

final adult height, which is well below that of his mother. Growth hormone in combination with GnRH agonist therapy may improve adult height. [ , ] Female patients with virilizing forms of adrenal hyperplasia have a decreased fertility rate. [ ] The reasons are believed to be multifactorial and include abnormal genital anatomy, vaginal stenosis, and poor control of adrenal androgen production that results in diminished ovulation. When pregnancy does occur, the baby is generally born by means (...) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Treatment) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care, Consultations Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTE5MjE4LXRyZWF0bWVudA

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

33. Adrenal Insufficiency (Overview)

Adrenal Insufficiency (Overview) Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease): Practice Essentials, Anatomy, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTE5MDc3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Pediatric (...) (Adrenal Insufficiency). Next: Anatomy The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 major anatomic zones. The zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone, and the zonae fasciculata and reticularis together produce cortisol and adrenal androgens. A fetal zone, unique to primates, produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a precursor of both androgens and estrogens. This zone involutes within the first few months of postnatal life. Aldosterone secretion is primarily regulated by the renin-angiotensin system. Increased

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

34. Adrenal Glands (Overview)

Adrenal Glands (Overview) Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders: Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTQwMzQ3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders (...) Updated: Feb 20, 2018 Author: Saundra M Kay, MD, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Eugene S Kim, MD, FACS, FAAP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders Anatomy The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are small, yellowish organs that rest on the upper poles of the kidneys in the Gerota fascia. The right adrenal gland is pyramidal, whereas the left one is more crescentic, extending toward the hilum of the kidney. At age 1 year, each adrenal gland weighs approximately 1 g

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

35. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Overview)

(eg, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, Denys-Drash syndrome) Urogenitography is often helpful in defining the anatomy of the internal genitalia A bone-age study is useful in evaluating for advanced skeletal maturation in a child who develops precocious pubic hair, clitoromegaly, or accelerated linear growth Other tests A karyotype is essential in an infant with ambiguous genitalia, to establish the chromosomal sex Genetic testing is essential for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of adrenal (...) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Overview) Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTE5MjE4LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

36. Adrenal Hemorrhage

% of random autopsies. The rate is likely as high as 26% of patients dying from severe thoracolumbar injuries. The frequency of adrenal insufficiency after adrenal hemorrhage has been estimated to range up to 50% of cases. [ ] No racial or sexual predilection is reported. Pathophysiology and anatomy The precarious blood supply of the adrenal gland makes it very vulnerable to hemorrhage. Several dozen branches from the 3 main adrenal arteries form a subcapsular plexus that drains into the medullary (...) Adrenal Hemorrhage Adrenal Hemorrhage Imaging: Overview, Radiography, Computed Tomography Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzc2NDQ1LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Adrenal Hemorrhage Imaging Updated: Jan 13

2014 eMedicine Radiology

37. Adrenal Insufficiency (Diagnosis)

Adrenal Insufficiency (Diagnosis) Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease): Practice Essentials, Anatomy, Etiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTE5MDc3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing (...) (Adrenal Insufficiency). Next: Anatomy The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 major anatomic zones. The zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone, and the zonae fasciculata and reticularis together produce cortisol and adrenal androgens. A fetal zone, unique to primates, produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a precursor of both androgens and estrogens. This zone involutes within the first few months of postnatal life. Aldosterone secretion is primarily regulated by the renin-angiotensin system. Increased

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

38. Adrenal Glands (Diagnosis)

Adrenal Glands (Diagnosis) Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders: Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvOTQwMzQ3LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders (...) Updated: Feb 20, 2018 Author: Saundra M Kay, MD, FRCSC; Chief Editor: Eugene S Kim, MD, FACS, FAAP Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Pediatric Adrenal Gland Disorders Anatomy The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are small, yellowish organs that rest on the upper poles of the kidneys in the Gerota fascia. The right adrenal gland is pyramidal, whereas the left one is more crescentic, extending toward the hilum of the kidney. At age 1 year, each adrenal gland weighs approximately 1 g

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

39. Electron microscopic observation on the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue of the postnatal rabbit. (PubMed)

Electron microscopic observation on the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue of the postnatal rabbit. 5442222 1970 06 17 2018 11 13 0021-8782 106 Pt 2 1970 Mar Journal of anatomy J. Anat. Electron microscopic observation on the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue of the postnatal rabbit. 213-31 Coupland R E RE Weakley B S BS eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 X4W3ENH1CV Norepinephrine YKH834O4BH Epinephrine IM Adrenal Medulla cytology Age Factors

Full Text available with Trip Pro

1970 Journal of anatomy

40. Electron microscopic observations on the structure of the rat adrenal medulla: I. The ultrastructure and organization of chromaffin cells in the normal adrenal medulla (PubMed)

Electron microscopic observations on the structure of the rat adrenal medulla: I. The ultrastructure and organization of chromaffin cells in the normal adrenal medulla 14330730 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0021-8782 99 1965 Apr Journal of anatomy J. Anat. (ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE RAT ADRENAL MEDULLA. I. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF CHROMAFFIN CELLS IN THE NORMAL ADRENAL MEDULLA.) 231-54 COUPLAND R E RE eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 OM (...) Adrenal Medulla Animals Blood Vessels Cell Physiological Phenomena Chromaffin Cells Chromaffin System Cilia Electrons Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Histology Microscopy Microscopy, Electron Mitochondria Rats Research ADRENAL MEDULLA BLOOD VESSELS CELL STRUCTURE CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM CILIA ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM EXPERIMENTAL LAB STUDY GOLGI APPARATUS HISTOLOGY MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON MITOCHONDRIA RATS 1965 4 1 1965 4 1 0 1 1965 4 1 0 0 ppublish 14330730 PMC1261389 J Ultrastruct Res. 1961 Oct;5:453-67

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1965 Journal of anatomy

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