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Adrenal Anatomy

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181. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

The rate of pheochromocytoma formation in the VHL patient population is 25% to 30%.[ , ] Of patients with VHL-associated pheochromocytomas, 44% developed disease in both adrenal glands.[ ] The rate of malignant transformation is very low. Levels of plasma and urine normetanephrine are typically elevated in patients with VHL,[ ] and approximately two-thirds will experience physical manifestations such as hypertension, tachycardia, and palpitations.[ ] Patients with a partial loss of VHL function (Type 2

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

182. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

. (Refer to the , , and sections of this summary for more information.) PGLs and PHEOs are rare tumors arising from chromaffin cells, which have the ability to synthesize, store, and secrete catecholamines and neuropeptides. In 2004, the World Health Organization characterized PHEOs as adrenal gland tumors and PGLs as extra-adrenal tumors.[ ] Either tumor may occur sporadically, as a manifestation of a hereditary syndrome, or as the sole tumor in familial PGL and PHEO syndrome. (Refer to the section (...) -Associated Tumors Other manifestations of MEN1 include carcinoids of the foregut (5%–10% of MEN1 patients). These are typically bronchial or thymic and are sometimes gastric. Skin lesions are also common and can include facial angiofibromas (up to 80% of MEN1 patients) and collagenomas (~75% of MEN1 patients).[ ] Lipomas (~30% of MEN1 patients) and adrenal cortical lesions (up to 50% of MEN1 patients), including cortical adenomas, diffuse or nodular hyperplasia, or rarely, carcinoma are also common

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

183. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Tumors Key Points for This Section A pituitary tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the pituitary gland. form in the , a pea-sized in the center of the brain, just above the back of the nose. The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master " because it makes that affect the way many parts of the body work. It also controls hormones made by many other glands in the body. Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (...) that is collected for three days. This test is done to check if the adrenal gland is making too much cortisol or if the pituitary gland is telling the adrenal glands to make too much cortisol. Low-dose dexamethasone suppression test : A test in which one or more small doses of dexamethasone are given. The level of cortisol is checked from a sample of blood or from urine that is collected for three days. This test is done to check if the adrenal gland is making too much cortisol. for pituitary tumors

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

184. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

are tracheobronchial tumors and . Tracheobronchial Tumors Tracheobronchial begin in the that line the surface of the . Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are and occur in the or large (large airways of the lung). Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes that may spread to other parts of the body. Anatomy of the respiratory system, showing the trachea and both lungs and their lobes and airways. Lymph nodes and the diaphragm are also shown. Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and passes through (...) of gene change. See the summary on adult for more information. Thymoma is a rare of the that cover the outside surface of the . The thymus is a small in the upper chest under the . It is part of the and makes , called , that help fight . Thymoma usually forms in the front part of the chest and is often found during a that is done for another reason. Anatomy of the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. It makes white blood cells, called

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

185. Neck lump

may be concerned that they have a neck lump, when in fact they have identified a normal part of the anatomy of the neck for the first time, for example: Transverse process of C1 vertebra. Hyoid bone. Thyroid or cricoid cartilage. [ ] Skin infections Skin infections A skin infection, such as an abscess or infected sebaceous cyst, may be the cause of a lump in the neck [ ; ]. For more information, see the CKS topic on . Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Inflammatory lymphadenopathy Inflammatory (...) of facial skin cancer — may metastasize to cervical lymph nodes even years later. Family history of an endocrine tumour — may be suggestive of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 (thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid disease). Basis for recommendation Basis for recommendation The recommendation on history taking is extrapolated from guidelines on referral for suspected cancer published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) [ ] and guidelines for the management of thyroid

2016 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

187. Total urogenital sinus mobilization for ambiguous genitalia. (PubMed)

Total urogenital sinus mobilization for ambiguous genitalia. Genital ambiguity is a very common phenomenon in disorders of sex development (DSD). According to the Chicago Consensus 2006, feminizing genitoplasty, when indicated, should be performed in the most virilized cases (Prader III to V). Advances in the knowledge of genital anatomy in DSD have enabled the development and improvement of various surgical techniques. Mobilization of the urogenital sinus (MUS), first described by Peña, has (...) from surgery and of urinary incontinence, as well as cosmetic results, according to the opinion of the surgeon and the family.A total of 8 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery was 51months. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was diagnosed in six patients, and gonadal dysgenesis in the other two. The vagina was separated from the urethra, with suitable distance in all cases. No patient had urinary incontinence after surgery. The mean follow-up of patients was. 20months (3

2017 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

188. Cystourethroscopy versus contrast studies in urogenital sinus and cloacal anomalies in children. (PubMed)

, as well as the preoperative diagnostic cystourethroscopy.The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the contrast study and diagnostic cystourethroscopy in the demonstration of the exact changes in anatomy resulting from urogenital sinus / cloacal abnormalities.Sixteen girls with median age 21 (11-27) months were studied. They included 4 girls with complete cloacal anomalies and 12 girls with persistent urogenital sinus secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Contrast studies (...) Cystourethroscopy versus contrast studies in urogenital sinus and cloacal anomalies in children. Cloacal malformation is a spectrum of diseases affecting females, resulting in abnormal confluence of the urinary system, genital system, and/or gastrointestinal system. Proper reconstruction depends mainly on accurate preoperative illustration of the abnormal anatomy. Among the various modalities to delineate the urogenital sinus and the distances to confluence, lies the radiological contrast study

2017 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

189. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization + Nivolumab for Liver + Extra-hepatic Metastases From Colorectal Cancer

mellitus, residual hypothyroidism due to autoimmune condition only requiring hormone replacement, psoriasis not requiring systemic treatment, or conditions not expected to recur in the absence of an external trigger. Patients having a condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (> 10 mg/day prednisone equivalents) or other immunosuppressive medications within 14 days of study drug administration. Inhaled or topical steroids and adrenal replacement doses > 10 mg/day prednisone (...) or are in clinical liver failure. Patients who are known to have greater than 20% lung shunting of the hepatic artery blood flow determined by Technetium microaggregated albumin (MAA) scan (if conducted prior to study enrollment). Patients who have had a standard of care pre-assessment angiogram that demonstrates abnormal vascular anatomy that would result in significant reflux of hepatic arterial blood to the stomach, pancreas or bowel. Patients with known portal vein thrombosis. Patients with untreated brain

2017 Clinical Trials

190. Phase 1b DV281 With an Anti-PD-1 Inhibitor in NSCLC

to 2 for Dose Escalation phase and ECOG PS 0 to 1 for Dose Expansion phase Adequate organ function as indicated by laboratory values Life expectancy, in the opinion of the investigator, of at least 3 months Exclusion Criteria Condition of the subjects lung anatomy is such that proper delivery of inhaled DV281 to the specific location of intra-thoracic tumor(s) could be compromised Any known additional malignancy that is progressing or required active treatment in the last 3 years Current or history (...) medication including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, or autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Replacement therapy (eg, thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency) is not considered a form of systemic treatment. Known central nervous system metastases, brain metastases, or carcinomatous meningitis Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more

2017 Clinical Trials

191. Efficacy and Tolerability of Hemopatch After Hepatic Resection

surface encountered during a range of procedures. The Authors shown that the device is eminently capable in both via laparotomy and laparoscopic approaches, and in patients with impaired coagulation or highly variable anatomies. They support the ease-of-use, application, and immediate hemostatic effect of the patch across a broad range of surgical settings and clinical applications, including solid organ, gastrointestinal, biliopancreatic, endocrine, cardiovascular, and urologic surgeries. In a recent (...) Techniques Patients undergoing liver resection for any underlying disease and with resectable mass. The list of the underlying diseases is the following (but might not be limited to): Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, Adrenal cancer metastasis, Breast cancer metastasis, Colorectal cancer metastasis, Ovarian cancer metastasis, Biliary carcinoma, Hemangioma, Hepatic adenoma, Focal nodular hyperplasia, Unilocular hydatid cyst, Multilocular, hydatid cyst. Outcome Measures Go to Primary

2017 Clinical Trials

192. A Study to Test the Safety and Feasibility of Nivolumab With Drug Eluting Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization in Patients With Liver Cancer

and superior mesenteric angiography will be performed to delineate arterial anatomy and blood supply to the tumor. After the entire dose has been used, the embolized vessels will be re-catheterized and embolized to stasis with Bead Block beginning with 100-300 micron spheres and using a maximum of 10 cc of any given size per vessel before moving to the next size microsphere. Other Name: deb-TACE Drug: Nivolumab All participants will receive at a flat dose of 240 mg IV q 12 weeks for up to one year (...) a DLT, a new group of participants will be enrolled into Cohort 3. Drug: Drug Eluting Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization Hepatic embolization will occur on Day 0 of the study for all cohorts. On the day of the procedure, baseline angiography including celiac and superior mesenteric angiography will be performed to delineate arterial anatomy and blood supply to the tumor. After the entire dose has been used, the embolized vessels will be re-catheterized and embolized to stasis with Bead Block

2017 Clinical Trials

193. Current best practice in the management of patients after pituitary surgery (PubMed)

Current best practice in the management of patients after pituitary surgery Sellar and parasellar masses are a common finding, and most of them are treated surgically via transsphenoidal approach. This type of surgery has revolutionized the approach to several hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and is usually effective, and well-tolerated by the patient. However, given the complex anatomy and high density of glandular, neurological and vascular structures in a confined space, transsphenoidal (...) surgery harbors a substantial risk of complications. Hypopituitarism is one of the most frequent sequelae, with central adrenal insufficiency being the deficit that requires a timely diagnosis and treatment. The perioperative management of AI is influenced by the preoperative status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Disorders of water metabolism are another common complication, and they can span from diabetes insipidus, to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, up

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2017 Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism

194. Phaeochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Excision Involving the Great Vessels (PubMed)

cava via the adrenal vein. Three patients had predisposing germline mutations. All patients had adrenergic blockade prior to surgery. A diverse range of complex surgical techniques were employed to excise tumours, including cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic resection, grafting and venotomy of the vena cava. Early post-operative complications were limited.Excision of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas involving the great vessels is high risk surgery optimally undertaken within a multidisciplinary (...) setting in a tertiary referral centre. Comprehensive radiological and biochemical assessment, meticulous pre-operative preparation and close intra- and post-operative monitoring are essential. Radiological imaging may be unable to resolve the tumour extent and anatomy pre-operatively and direct visualisation of the tumour may be the only way to clarify the surgical strategy. Pre-operative knowledge of the genetic predisposition may influence surgical management.

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2017 EJVES Short Reports

196. Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure

Lowering It has been speculated that relaxation techniques may favorably alter autonomic nervous system balance and/or the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The precise pathways responsible when relaxation therapies produce a decrease in BP require clarification. Summary and Clinical Recommendations Given the variety of methods used in the relaxation trials, the heterogeneity of results, the overall poor quality of most studies, and the frequent lack of appropriate control groups, it is difficult

2013 American Heart Association

198. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

OF THE BILE DUCTS AND GALLBLADDER 20 DETECTION, EVALUATION, AND/OR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPLEEN 20 DETECTION, EVALUATION, AND /OR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE KIDNEYS AND URINARY TRACT 20 DETECTION, EVALUATION, AND /OR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ADRENAL GLANDS 21 DETECTION, EVALUATION, AND/OR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PELVIS: SOFT TISSUE COMPONENTS 21 ABDOMINAL AND PELVIC MR ANGIOGRAPHY 21 MAJOR ABDOMINAL AND PELVIC INDICATIONS 21 E. MUSCULOSKELETAL 22 Canadian Association of Radiologists CAR Standard (...) . RECOGNIZED CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF MRI: A. ADULT AND PEDIATRIC BRAIN B. HEAD AND NECK C. ADULT AND PEDIATRIC SPINE D. ABDOMEN AND PELVIS (MALE AND FEMALE GENITOURINARY SYSTEM) E. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM F. CARDIOVASCULAR G. CHEST H. BREAST IMAGING I. FETAL IMAGING A. ADULT AND PEDIATRIC BRAIN ii Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is an excellent imaging modality for the evaluation and assessment of the anatomy and abnormal conditions of the brain, in adult and pediatric patients. MRI

2011 Canadian Association of Radiologists

199. Neuroendocrine Imaging

?? ? Radiography sella Usually Not Appropriate ? Venous sampling petrosal sinus Usually Not Appropriate Varies Variant 2: Adult. Suspected or known hyperfunctioning pituitary adenoma (hyperthyroidism [high thyroid-stimulating hormone], Cushing syndrome [high adrenal corticotrophic hormone], hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, or gigantism). Initial imaging. Procedure Appropriateness Category Relative Radiation Level MRI sella without and with IV contrast Usually Appropriate O MRI sella without IV contrast Usually (...) of pituitary hormone release as well as extra-pituitary dysfunction. The hypothalamic pituitary axis consists of two separate neuroendocrine organs: the anterior pituitary system and the posterior pituitary system. The hormones of the anterior pituitary are thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenal corticotrophic hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, and the gonadotropins. These are secreted under the influence of hypothalamic trophic factors. The posterior pituitary gland consists of axonal terminations

2012 American College of Radiology

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