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Adrenal Anatomy

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1. High resolution tissue mass spectrometry imaging reveals a refined functional anatomy of the human adult adrenal gland. (PubMed)

High resolution tissue mass spectrometry imaging reveals a refined functional anatomy of the human adult adrenal gland. In the adrenal gland, neuroendocrine cells that synthesize catecholamines and epithelial cells that produce steroid hormones are united beneath a common organ capsule to function as a single stress-responsive organ. The functional anatomy of the steroid hormone-producing adrenal cortex and the catecholamine-producing medulla is ill defined at the level of small molecules. Here (...) defined adrenal anatomy of 10 distinct molecular zones including a highly structured corticomedullary interface. By incorporating pathway information, activities of carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism as well as endocrine bioactivity were revealed to be highly spatially organized, which could be visualized as different molecularly defined zones. Together, these findings provide a molecular definition of human adult adrenal gland structure beyond classical histological anatomy.

2018 Endocrinology

2. Anomalous adrenal vein anatomy complicating the evaluation of primary hyperaldosteronism (PubMed)

Anomalous adrenal vein anatomy complicating the evaluation of primary hyperaldosteronism Adrenal vein development in utero occurs concurrently with the development of the inferior vena cava, the renal veins, and the gonadal veins. The embryologic formation of these veins involves communication of various venous systems. Although the left adrenal-renal vein complex is most commonly described as a shared emptying of the left adrenal vein and the left inferior phrenic vein into the left renal vein (...) , there have been reports of numerous anatomic variations of this complex. In this report, we present a case of a rare variant of the left adrenal vein, in which the left adrenal vein empties into the left gonadal vein, which takes an atypical course superolateral to the left kidney.

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2017 Radiology Case Reports

3. Adrenal Anatomy

Adrenal Anatomy Adrenal Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Adrenal Anatomy Adrenal Anatomy Aka: Adrenal Anatomy (...) , Adrenal Gland II. Anatomy: Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Adrenal Anatomy." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Adrenal Glands (C0001625) Definition (NCI) A flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper

2018 FP Notebook

4. Evaluation of right adrenal vein anatomy by Dyna computed tomography in patients with primary aldosteronism (PubMed)

Evaluation of right adrenal vein anatomy by Dyna computed tomography in patients with primary aldosteronism Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and consists up to 11% of patients with hypertension. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the recommended procedure for diagnosis of PA, but the technique is difficult and the right adrenal vein is especially hard to catheterize. We retrospectively examined the clinically relevant anatomy of the right adrenal vein (...) in a sample of 66 PA patients with technically successful AVS and distinctly-opacified right adrenal veins in Dyna computed tomography (CT). In the majority of cases: the right adrenal veins were catheterized when the catheter tilted posterior and rightward (57/66, 86.4%), the transverse direction of the right adrenal vein from the inferior vena cava (IVC) was posterior and rightward (55/66, 83.3%), and the vertical direction of the right adrenal vein from the IVC was caudal (52/66, 78.8%). This study

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2016 Scientific reports

5. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

endocrinologists and urologist during this transition. 6.2 In adolescent females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we suggest a gynecological history and examination to ensure functional female anatomy without vaginal stenosis or abnormalities in menstruation. (2|⊕⊕○○) Genetic counseling 6.3 In children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adolescents transitioning to adult care, adults with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia upon diagnosis, and partners of patients with congenital adrenal (...) |⊕⊕○○) Technical remark: Clinicians should use their own judgment for the above procedures. Restoring functional anatomy by surgery in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia 7.1 In all pediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, particularly minimally virilized girls, we advise that parents be informed about surgical options, including delaying surgery and/or observation until the child is older. (Ungraded Good Practice Statement) Technical remark: Surgeries should be performed only

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2018 The Endocrine Society

6. Retroperitoneal tumors and congenital variations in vascular anatomy of retroperitoneal great vessels. (PubMed)

Retroperitoneal tumors and congenital variations in vascular anatomy of retroperitoneal great vessels. Variations in vascular anatomy (VIVAs) of the retroperitoneal great vessels are uncommon but can potentially complicate surgical procedures and negatively affect treatment outcomes, yet their incidence and clinical impact are poorly studied. We sought to assess the incidence and clinical impact of VIVAs of retroperitoneal great vessels in patients with retroperitoneal tumors.We retrospectively (...) analyzed imaging, surgical, treatment and survival data of all pediatric patients with retroperitoneal tumors who underwent resection between January 2007 and October 2016, comparing preoperative scans with corresponding intraoperative observations, and subsequent surgical outcomes.Among 66 children with renal, adrenal and paravertebral tumors, 6 (9%) had retroperitoneal VIVAs. Retroperitoneal VIVAs were present only with right-sided tumors and significantly associated with more frequent intraoperative

2019 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

7. Retrospective analysis of variant venous anatomy in 303 laparoscopic adrenalectomies and its clinical implications. (PubMed)

Retrospective analysis of variant venous anatomy in 303 laparoscopic adrenalectomies and its clinical implications. To clarify the correlation of variant venous anatomy with adrenal tumor phenotype and surgical outcomes.This retrospective study included 303 consecutive minimally invasive adrenalectomies from 301 patients. All adrenal veins were identified. We compared the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data between patients with and without variant adrenal venous anatomy. We (...) also explored the factors associated with venous variants.We found variant venous anatomy in 62 of 303 adrenalectomies (20.5%). Compared with patients with normal anatomy, those with variant anatomy were associated with larger tumor size, larger adrenal veins, more adrenal medullary tumors, longer operation time, more estimated intraoperative blood loss, longer length of hospitalization, and more transfusion. Computed tomography (CT) images may improve the identification of venous anatomy. Tumor

2019 Journal of Surgical Oncology

8. Role of daily plan adaptation in MR-guided stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for adrenal metastases. (PubMed)

Role of daily plan adaptation in MR-guided stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for adrenal metastases. To study interfractional organ changes during magnetic resonance (MR)-guided stereotactic ablative radiation therapy for adrenal metastases and to evaluate the dosimetric advantages of online plan adaptation.Seventeen patients underwent a total of 84 fractions of video-assisted, respiration-gated, MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy to deliver either 50 Gy (5 fractions), 60 Gy (8 fractions (...) ), or 24 Gy (3 fractions). An MR scan was repeated before each fraction, followed by rigid coregistration to the gross tumor volume (GTV) on the pretreatment MR scan. Contour deformation, planning target volume (PTV) (GTV + 3 mm) expansion, and online plan reoptimization were then performed. Reoptimized plans were compared with baseline treatment plans recalculated on the anatomy-of-the-day ("predicted plans"). Interfractional changes in organs at risk (OARs) were quantified according to OAR volume

2018 Biology and Physics

9. Variant adrenal venous anatomy in 546 laparoscopic adrenalectomies. (PubMed)

Variant adrenal venous anatomy in 546 laparoscopic adrenalectomies. Knowing the types and frequency of adrenal vein variants would help surgeons identify and control the adrenal vein during laparoscopic adrenalectomy.To establish the surgical anatomy of the main vein and its variants for laparoscopic adrenalectomy and to analyze the relationship between variant adrenal venous anatomy and tumor size, pathologic diagnosis, and operative outcomes.In a retrospective review of patients at a tertiary (...) referral hospital, 506 patients underwent 546 consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies between April 22, 1993, and October 21, 2011. Patients with variant adrenal venous anatomy were compared with patients with normal adrenal venous anatomy regarding preoperative variables (patient and tumor characteristics [size and location] and clinical diagnosis), intraoperative variables (details on the main adrenal venous drainage, any variant venous anatomy, duration of operation, rate of conversion to hand

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2013 JAMA surgery

10. Anatomical Variations of the Right Adrenal Vein: Concordance Between Multidetector Computed Tomography and Catheter Venography. (PubMed)

Anatomical Variations of the Right Adrenal Vein: Concordance Between Multidetector Computed Tomography and Catheter Venography. Adrenal venous sampling is the most reliable diagnostic procedure to determine surgical indications in primary aldosteronism. Because guidelines recommend multidetector computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the adrenal gland, some past reports used multidetector CT as a guide for adrenal venous sampling. However, the detailed anatomy of the right adrenal vein and its (...) relationship with an accessory hepatic vein remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to describe detailed anatomical variations of the right adrenal vein and to determine the concordance between CT and catheter venography in patients with primary aldosteronism. In total, 440 consecutive patients who underwent adrenal venous sampling were included. Four-phase dynamic CT was performed. Anatomical locations and variations of the right adrenal vein and its relationship with the accessory hepatic vein

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2017 Hypertension

11. Guidelines for the Minimally Invasive Treatment of Adrenal Pathology

, the left renal vein can be identified and followed to the left adrenal vein. After the vein is taken, the gland can be mobilized from inferior and medial to superior and lateral. Lateral retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (LPA) LPA is the most common technique used by the urologic surgeon for adrenalectomy likely due to the familiarity with the anatomy of laparoscopic nephrectomy. Similar to PRA, LPA is advocated in patients with prior abdominal surgery [13, 76]. While tumor size is also an important (...) Guidelines for the Minimally Invasive Treatment of Adrenal Pathology Guidelines for the Minimally Invasive Treatment of Adrenal Pathology - A SAGES Publication Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons Guidelines for the Minimally Invasive Treatment of Adrenal Pathology This document was reviewed and approved by the Board of Governors of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) in Feb 2013. Dimitrios Stefanidis, MD, PhD, Melanie Goldfarb, MD

2013 Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

12. Adrenal Anatomy

Adrenal Anatomy Adrenal Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Adrenal Anatomy Adrenal Anatomy Aka: Adrenal Anatomy (...) , Adrenal Gland II. Anatomy: Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Adrenal Anatomy." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Adrenal Glands (C0001625) Definition (NCI) A flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper

2015 FP Notebook

13. Retroperitoneal Laparoscopy in Dogs: Access Technique, Working Space, and Surgical Anatomy (PubMed)

Retroperitoneal Laparoscopy in Dogs: Access Technique, Working Space, and Surgical Anatomy To develop and describe a laparoscopic retroperitoneal access technique, investigate working space establishment, and describe the surgical anatomy in the retroperitoneal space as an initial step for clinical application of retroperitoneal laparoscopy in dogs.Cadaveric and experimental study.Cadaveric (n=8) and healthy (n=6) adult dogs.The retroperitoneal access technique was developed in 3 cadavers based (...) and adrenal glands, were easily visualized.The retroperitoneal access technique and working space establishment with CO2 insufflation starting with 5 mmHg and increasing to 10 mmHg provided adequate working space and visualization of retroperitoneal organs, which may allow direct access for retroperitoneal laparoscopy in dogs.© 2016 The Authors. Veterinary Surgery published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

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2016 Veterinary Surgery

14. Renal Anatomy

Renal Anatomy Renal Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Renal Anatomy Renal Anatomy Aka: Renal Anatomy , Kidney (...) Anatomy , Kidney , Renal System II. Anatomy: General Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Anatomy: Micro Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Images: Related links to external sites (from

2018 FP Notebook

15. Anatomical Variations of the Venous Drainage from the Left Adrenal Gland: An Anatomical Study. (PubMed)

concerning the left adrenal vein (LAV) and its potential anastomosis with the reno-lumbo-azygo trunk (RLAT) and the diaphragmatic circulation.Between November 2014 and October 2015 in the LADAF (French Alps Anatomy Laboratory), we dissected 44 formalin-fixed adult cadavers.We found no direct anastomosis between the left adrenal vein and the reno-azygo-lumbar trunk and two anastomoses (4.5%) between the adrenal capsular vein and azygos system. A lumbo-azygo trunk has been found 38 times (86.3%), drained (...) Anatomical Variations of the Venous Drainage from the Left Adrenal Gland: An Anatomical Study. For radiologists, the venous drainage of adrenal glands is a key to the technique of selective adrenal venous sampling. For endocrine surgeons, it is key to adrenalectomy for carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. This study aims to demonstrate direct anastomosis between the left adrenal vein, the diaphragmatic circulation and the azygos system. Anatomical textbooks only offer very little information

2016 World Journal of Surgery

16. The morphology of the adrenal gland in the European bison (Bison bonasus) (PubMed)

The morphology of the adrenal gland in the European bison (Bison bonasus) The anatomy of the adrenal glands has been widely studied in many species of domestic and wild mammals. However, there are no available literature reports describing the morphology and morphometry of the adrenal glands of the European bison (Bison bonasus).The study was conducted on 97 European bison of both sexes. The growth of the adrenal glands corresponded to the growth of the whole body, with the largest increase (...) in size occurring in the first 2 years of the animal's life, followed by a slower increase in size until the animal was 5-7 years old. There were no statistically significant differences between ipsilateral adrenal glands of males and females with respect to age. There was no statistically significant difference in weight between the left and the right adrenal gland. However, there was a difference in the length, width and thickness of the two glands. Reference intervals for adrenal gland size

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2016 BMC veterinary research

17. Posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach to the adrenal arteries. (PubMed)

, which focuses on surgical anatomy of adrenal arteries when approached during a posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Details about relative positions between adrenal arteries and adjacent structures are considered and shown during their dissection.The posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach offers a direct view of adrenal arteries and allows for their exposure and safe division in the early steps of adrenalectomy. (...) Posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach to the adrenal arteries. Differently from transperitoneal adrenalectomy, with the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach adrenal arteries are dissected first [1, 2]. Knowledge of their position is pivotal as they are covered by peri-adrenal fat [3, 4].Four posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies were selected, in which adrenal arteries are dissected to show their path and how they can be localized among peri-adrenal fat.A video is presented herein

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2016 Surgical endoscopy

18. The anatomy and functional significance of the vascularization of the adrenal gland in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) (PubMed)

The anatomy and functional significance of the vascularization of the adrenal gland in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) 14353802 2003 05 01 2018 12 01 0021-8782 89 1 1955 Jan Journal of anatomy J. Anat. The anatomy and functional significance of the vascularization of the adrenal gland in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). 106-13 HARRISON R G RG ASLING C W CW eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 OM Adrenal Glands blood supply Animals Haplorhini Macaca mulatta (...) Neovascularization, Pathologic 5528:4469:17:364 ADRENAL GLANDS/blood supply MONKEYS 1955 1 1 1955 1 1 0 1 1955 1 1 0 0 ppublish 14353802 PMC1244730 J Anat. 1951 Jan;85(1):12-23 14814014

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1955 Journal of anatomy

19. Surgical Anatomy of Adrenal Glands (PubMed)

Surgical Anatomy of Adrenal Glands 17859687 2007 09 17 2018 11 13 0003-4932 154 Suppl 6 1961 Dec Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. Surgical Anatomy of Adrenal Glands. 298-305 Donnellan W L WL eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 1961 12 1 0 0 1961 12 1 0 1 1961 12 1 0 0 ppublish 17859687 PMC1466803 Virchows Arch. 1954;324(6):688-99 13179461 Am J Surg. 1955 Aug;90(2):180-8 13238672 Br Med J. 1955 Sep 17;2(4941):708-9 13250192 Acta Chir Scand. 1956 May 31;111(1):54-70 13326150

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1961 Annals of Surgery

20. Should we question early feminizing genitoplasty for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and XX karyotype? (PubMed)

Should we question early feminizing genitoplasty for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and XX karyotype? There is a wide difference of opinion between the medical-surgical community and advocacy group regarding Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) being ranked in the intersex category. This rupture is even more evident when the issue of genitoplasty is brought up. For physicians it is obvious and unequivocal that a person with CAH (...) sex assignment seems legitimate according to this study and the development of gender identity in these patients matches the sex assigned at birth. Resolving early on the adequacy of the genital anatomy with the sex assigned is promoted by patients as well as their parents. Proper psychomotor development and sexual satisfaction underline the absence of complications related to the surgical technique and the relevance of early surgical management.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2015 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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