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121. The use of digital imaging for colour matching and communication in restorative dentistry. (PubMed)

. A Nikon Coolpix 990 digital camera with Nikon SB21B ring flash was used to record the digital images of the shade tabs of the two shade guides and the images were processed using Adobe Photoshop software. A total of 27 samples (three replicates of each shade of the nine tabs selected) were matched with a digital shade guide prepared from the digital images of the second shade guide by 10 observers on a computer screen (computerised matching method). The 10 observers also matched the same shade tabs (...) using the conventional matching method simulated in a phantom head. In addition, colour values were obtained from the digital images using Adobe Photoshop and quantified according to an internationally recognised scale as CIELAB colour values, L*,a*,b*. The relationship of the digitally derived CIELAB values to the CIELAB values obtained using a reflectance spectrophotometer was investigated.The cross tabulation statistical analysis showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between

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2005 British Dental Journal

122. Efficacy and oral side effects of two highly concentrated tray-based bleaching systems. (PubMed)

colour was evaluated by measuring L*a*b* values generated from standardised digital image analysis with Adobe Photoshop of the facial surfaces of the right central maxillary incisor. Tooth hypersensitivity, with intensity graded from 0 (no hypersensitivity) to 10 (high hypersensitivity), was assessed chair-side using an air syringe. After bleaching therapy, both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in tooth colour (p < or = 0.05). A shift towards less yellow (-Deltab*) and brighter

2007 Clinical oral investigations

123. Comparison of passive ultrasonic debridement between fluted and nonfluted instruments in root canals. (PubMed)

imported into Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA), and percentage of debris remaining was calculated. Analysis of variance and Student Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (p<0.05) showed that when comparing the entire canal, 3 minutes of activation with a file had significantly less debris remaining than 1 minute of activation with a spreader. There was a trend for 1 minute of activation with a file to have less debris than either 3 minutes or 1 minute of activation with a spreader. When

2007 Journal of Endodontics

124. Effect of obesity on P-wave dispersion and QT dispersion in women. (PubMed)

and the minimum P-wave duration), maximum and minimum QTc interval, and QTc dispersion (the difference between the maximum and the minimum QTc interval) were measured from 12-lead ECG. ECG's were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then used for magnification of 400 times by Adobe Photoshop software.There was significant difference in BMI (40+/-3 vs 22+/-1 kg/m(2), P<0.001, respectively) between obese and non-obese women. Obese women had higher Max. P-wave duration (116+/-11 vs 94+/-14 ms, P

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2006 International Journal of Obesity

125. Effect of weight loss on P wave dispersion in obese subjects. (PubMed)

computer by a scanner and then magnified 400 times by Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Systems, Mountain View, CA). P wave dispersion, which is also defined as the difference between the maximum P wave duration and the minimum P wave duration, was also calculated.After a 12-week weight loss program, BMI (p < 0.001), maximum P wave duration (p < 0.001), and P wave dispersion (p < 0.001) significantly decreased. The mean percentage of weight loss was 13% (10% to 20.3%). The decrease in the level of P wave

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2006 Obesity

126. Photoreceptor layer features in eyes with closed macular holes: optical coherence tomography findings and correlation with visual outcomes. (PubMed)

Photoreceptor layer features in eyes with closed macular holes: optical coherence tomography findings and correlation with visual outcomes. Study correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and visual acuity (VA) outcomes after successful macular hole surgery (MHS).Retrospective cross-sectional study.Postoperative OCT scans were analyzed in 34 eyes of 30 patients. Raw files of horizontal and vertical OCT scans were exported to Adobe Photoshop 7.0. Measured parameters

2005 American Journal of Ophthalmology

127. Anterior tibial subluxation in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees: quantification using magnetic resonance imaging. (PubMed)

deficiency and no history of injury in the contralateral knee were studied. We used thick-sliced T1-weighted sagittal MRI to quantify ATS at full extension. To measure ATS, MRIs were loaded into a personal computer, and the contour of the unaffected knee was compared with the affected knee using Photoshop software (Adobe, San Jose, CA). Anterior instability was measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer (MedMetric, Inc, San Diego, CA).The extent of ATS in 96 ACL-deficient knees was 2.1 +/- 1.3 mm (mean +/- SD

2005 Arthroscopy

128. In vitro radiographic determination of distances from working length files to root ends comparing Kodak RVG 6000, Schick CDR, and Kodak insight film. (PubMed)

to digitized Kodak film. Standardized images were taken of files placed 0.5 to 1.5 mm short of true radiographic lengths. Images were imported into Adobe PhotoShop 7.0, thereby blinding observers who measured distances from files to root apices and assessed images for clarity (acceptability). Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests demonstrated that Kodak RVG 6000 images with enhanced contrast produced significantly less measurement error than unenhanced contrast Schick CDR images (p < 0.05

2006 Journal of Endodontics

129. An interinstitutional comparative study and validation of computer aided drusen quantification. (PubMed)

An interinstitutional comparative study and validation of computer aided drusen quantification. To assess the portability and clinical applicability of a software program based on Photoshop (Adobe Systems Inc, San Jose, CA, USA) for digital drusen quantification.Independent graders from the Digital Fundus Photo Reading Center of Columbia University and King's College Hospital used macular background levelling software to quantify the percentage of drusen in the central and middle Wisconsin

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2005 British Journal of Ophthalmology

130. Effect of systemic bevacizumab therapy on retinal pigment epithelial detachment. (PubMed)

at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 and month 3 by using optical coherence tomography (Stratus OC, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA). Changes in maximum PED height and greatest linear diameter (GLD) were planimetrically analysed by using Adobe Photoshop CS and correlated with retinal morphological changes and changes in BCVA.Systemic bevacizumab therapy was well tolerated. Mean maximum PED height decreased significantly by 21% as early as 1 week (-96 microm (SD 48.8), p<0.01). At 3 months follow-up

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2007 British Journal of Ophthalmology

131. The clinical significance of adenoid-choanae area ratio in children with adenoid hypertrophy. (PubMed)

treatment other than the above-mentioned procedures in the same period. We used 0 degrees telescope to take pictures of the nasopharynx under general anesthesia preoperatively. The pictures were transformed digitally. The A/C ratio was calculated by the program we developed after these pictures were processed by the Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe, USA) software.The A/C ratio in adenoid hypertrophy group (0.863+/-0.0983) is significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of control group (0.445+/-0.1431). Mouth breathing

2005 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

132. Measuring nasal tip and lobule width; effect of transdomal and lateral crura suturing. (PubMed)

rhinoplasty patients were analysed. Transdomal sutures and lateral crura sutures were used in 29 and 28 patients, respectively. TI and LI were determined with digital imaging software (Adobe Photoshop) pre- and postoperatively.Average (SD) preoperative LI changed from 0.74 (0.07) to 0.71 (0.06) postoperatively with the lateral crura suturing technique (p = 0.045). We were not able to measure an effect in TI with the transdomal suturing technique.Detailed postoperative analysis with digital imaging

2007 Rhinology

133. Clavicular anatomy and the applicability of precontoured plates. (PubMed)

and magnitude of the superior clavicular bow were determined with use of a digitizer and modeling software. Axial radiographs were made of each clavicle and the precontoured Acumed Locking Clavicle Plate, which is designed to be applied superiorly. With use of Adobe Photoshop technology, the plates were freely translated and rotated along each clavicle to determine the quality of fit and the location of the "best fit."The location of the maximum superior bow was lateral, with a mean distance of 37.2

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2007 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

134. Canal transportation after root canal instrumentation: a comparative study with computed tomography. (PubMed)

by an electric engine; Group 3, ProTaper NiTi rotary system powered by an electric engine. To compare the canal transportation produced by the different techniques, preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation 3-dimensional CT images were obtained from root cross-sections of the region located 3 mm short of the apical foramen of each root canal. The CT scans were exported to Adobe Photoshop software, and the initial and final images were superimposed to detect the root canal wall differences between them

2007 Journal of Endodontics

135. Correction of uneven illumination (vignetting) in digital microscopy images. (PubMed)

image./This report outlines an alternative shading correction method that is based upon the intrinsic properties of the image, which are revealed through Gaussian smoothing. The technique can be implemented within Adobe Photoshop or other graphics editing software and works well with both haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical images.This technique provides an effective means of optimising digital microscopy image appearances for printing, image analysis, or telepathology.

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2003 Journal of Clinical Pathology

136. Is digital image compression acceptable within diabetic retinopathy screening? (PubMed)

the JPEG algorithm within Adobe Photoshop (version 4.0) and then displayed with a Sony Trinitron colour monitor. Four different levels of compression were used, JPEG-1, JPEG-2, JPEG-3, JPEG-4, and an objective analysis was undertaken using 'lesion counts'. The compressed images were assessed separately and blindly and the results compared with their original BMP images.Eight BMP images could not be evaluated (five right eye and three left eye). A total of 290 images were therefore used in the final

2003 Diabetic Medicine

137. Objective measurement of breast cancer oestrogen receptor status through digital image analysis. (PubMed)

were stained with anti-alpha-oestrogen receptor monoclonal antibody (1D5) using a standard immunohistochemical protocol. Images from 10 high-powered fields were captured from each section using a digital camera mounted on a microscope and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop image analysis software. A nuclear mask was obtained by digitally selecting the nuclear area. Staining intensity in the nuclear mask was then analyzed using red-scale absorption characteristics. Manual assessment of oestrogen

2003 European Journal of Surgical Oncology

138. Transcontinental communication and quantitative digital histopathology via the Internet; with special reference to prostate neoplasia (PubMed)

application FTP (file transfer protocol). The images were then sent from Ancona to other laboratories for additional histopathological review and quantitative analyses. They were viewed using Adobe Photoshop, Paint Shop Pro, and Imaging for Windows. For karyometric analysis full resolution imagery was used, whereas histometric analyses were carried out on JPEG imagery also.The three applications of the telecommunication system were remote histopathological assessment, remote data acquisition

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2002 Journal of Clinical Pathology

139. Canal-centering ability of two rotary file systems. (PubMed)

on the external surface of the root. The teeth were embedded in composite resin by using the Endodontic Cube as a mold and sectioned into five pieces. ProFile Ni-Ti.06 taper Series 29 and ProFile GT rotary instrumentation techniques were randomly assigned to one of the canals and used in a crown-down fashion to a 0.217 ProFile and a 0.06 GT master apical file, respectively. Digital photographs were made of the middle three sections and software features of Adobe Photoshop were used to measure the movement

2002 Journal of Endodontics

140. Effect of software manipulation (Photoshop) of digitised retinal images on the grading of diabetic retinopathy (PubMed)

Effect of software manipulation (Photoshop) of digitised retinal images on the grading of diabetic retinopathy To determine whether software processing of digitised retinal images using a "sharpen" filter improves the ability to grade diabetic retinopathy.150 macula centred retinal images were taken as 35 mm colour transparencies representing a spectrum of diabetic retinopathy, digitised, and graded in random order before and after the application of a sharpen filter (Adobe Photoshop). Digital

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1999 The British journal of ophthalmology

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