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81. Changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness and choroidal extravascular density by spectral domain optical coherence tomography after haemodialysis: a pilot study. (PubMed)

before and after HD. The SFCT was measured manually using Image J software, and the relationships between the change in SFCT and in the systemic parameters after HD were evaluated. The changes in choroidal extravascular density of the OCT image after HD were evaluated by comparing brightness value obtained with Adobe Photoshop software.The mean SFCT of all eyes increased significantly from 276.94±58.73 µm to 288.29±65.57 µm (p=0.003). In the univariate generalised estimating equation (GEE), the SFCT

2013 British Journal of Ophthalmology

82. The effect of different taper preparations on the ability of sonic and passive ultrasonic irrigation to reach the working length in curved canals. (PubMed)

taper, and group 2, instrumented to size 30, 0.08 taper. Both groups were irrigated with a contrast solution and divided in 2 subgroups of 15 samples each: Groups 1A and 2A were activated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), whilst groups 1B and 2B were activated with sonic irrigation (SI). Radiographs were taken to evaluate the penetration of the contrast solution up to working length. This evaluation was performed using Adobe Photoshop CS5. Results were analysed with the chi-square test

2013 International endodontic journal

83. Grayscale median analysis of primary stenosis and restenosis after carotid endarterectomy. (PubMed)

carotid endarterectomy (CEA).Retrospective data were collected and analyzed from all patients undergoing CAS from November 2005 to August 2010. Available preoperative images amenable to GSM analysis were processed in Adobe Photoshop (version CS4; San Jose, Calif). Statistical analysis included t-test, Fischer exact test, and generation of a receiver operating characteristic curve.With at least 29 days of follow-up, 212 patients underwent 228 CAS procedures. There were 189 stents placed for primary

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2013 Journal of Vascular Surgery

84. Interference of partial visual analysis of root filling quality and apical status on retreatment decisions (PubMed)

dentists.Twelve digitalized periapical radiographs were analyzed by 10 observers. The study was conducted at three time points at 1-week intervals. Radiographs edited with the Adobe Photoshop CS4 software were analyzed at three time points: first, only root filling quality was analyzed; second, only the periapical areas of the teeth under study were visualized; finally, observers analyzed the unedited radiographic image. Spearman's coefficient was used to analyze the correlations between the scores assigned

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2012 Journal of Applied Oral Science

85. Blow-up: a free lunch? (PubMed)

Blow-up: a free lunch? We consider operations that change the size of images, either shrinks or blow-ups. Image processing offers numerous possibilities, put at everyone's disposal with such computer programs as Adobe Photoshop. We consider a different class of operations, aimed at immediate visual awareness, rather than pixel arrays. We demonstrate cases of blow-ups that do not sacrifice apparent resolution. This apparent information gain is due to "amodal occlusion."

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2012 i-Perception

86. A morphometric analysis of maxillary central incisor on the basis of facial appearance in Korea (PubMed)

, with normal dentofacial appearance. The MEDIA group consisted of 40 celebrities selected only on the basis of their soft-tissue facial appearance. The facial photographs of 40 celebrities were collected from the Internet websites. The width and length of the maxillary central incisor were measured using Adobe Photoshop® 7.0, a software for analysis, measurement and edition of photographs. Data were analyzed statistically using the Independent t-test at 5% statistical significance level.The mean ratio

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2012 The journal of advanced prosthodontics

87. Higher P-Wave Dispersion in Migraine Patients with Higher Number of Attacks (PubMed)

, and dispersion) from 12-lead ECG recording during pain-free periods. ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then used for magnification of x400 by Adobe Photoshop software.P-wave durations were found to be similar between migraine patients and controls. Although P WD (P-wave dispersion) was similar, the mean value was higher in migraine subjects. P WD was positively correlated with P max (P < 0.01). Attacks number per month and male gender were the factors related to the P WD (P

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2012 The Scientific World Journal

88. An Image Analysis Method for the Precise Selection and Quantitation of Fluorescently Labeled Cellular Constituents: Application to the Measurement of Human Muscle Cells in Culture (PubMed)

An Image Analysis Method for the Precise Selection and Quantitation of Fluorescently Labeled Cellular Constituents: Application to the Measurement of Human Muscle Cells in Culture The accurate measurement of the morphological characteristics of cells with nonuniform conformations presents difficulties. We report here a straightforward method using immunofluorescent staining and the commercially available imaging program Adobe Photoshop, which allows objective and precise information (...) to be gathered on irregularly shaped cells. We have applied this measurement technique to the analysis of human muscle cells and their immunologically marked intracellular constituents, as these cells are prone to adopting a highly branched phenotype in culture. Use of this method can be used to overcome many of the long-standing limitations of conventional approaches for quantifying muscle cell size in vitro. In addition, wider applications of Photoshop as a quantitative and semiquantitative tool

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2012 Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

89. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to female alopecia: a study of identical twins. (PubMed)

, and vertex hair loss were assessed from the photographs using Adobe Photoshop. Hair loss measures were then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning.Factors associated with increased frontal hair loss included multiple marriages (p = 0.043); longer sleep duration (p = 0.011); higher severity of stress (p = 0.034); positive smoking history (p = 0.021); higher income (p = 0.023); absence

2012 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

90. Use of a photographic manipulation tool to assess corneal vascular response. (PubMed)

), on a daily wear basis for 9 months. At all scheduled visits, photographs were taken of the superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal limbal regions which were then imported into Adobe Photoshop. A red-free filter was applied to enhance the contrast of the blood columns. In each quadrant, the length of the longest visible blood column was measured and the blood columns that penetrated 0.5 mm into the cornea were counted. A control group of 11 non-lens wearers was recruited. Their photographs were taken (...) 14.0 ± 8.2; 9 months 6.5 ± 6.0). The control group showed no change over time for the maximum blood column length (p = 0.638) or the number of columns 0.5 mm (p = 0.341).A group of highly myopic subjects exhibited reduction in the maximum length and number of blood columns in the cornea when ref it with a highly permeable silicone hydrogel material. The use of photography, along with Adobe Photoshop software, provides a reliable way of measuring corneal vascular responses over time.

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2012 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

91. Formation of duodenal atresias in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2IIIb-/- mouse embryos occurs in the absence of an endodermal plug. (PubMed)

photographed and reconstructed into 3-dimensional display using Adobe Photoshop and Amira Visage software.Normal mouse duodenum does not form an endodermal plug, although a plug does form in the pyloric region of the stomach at E14.5. Fgfr2IIIb-/- embryos experience significant apoptosis in the duodenal region at E10.5, followed by the disappearance of the endoderm in the atretic precursor by E11.5. Thereafter, the mesoderm of the atretic precursor involutes over the next 2 days in the absence of further

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2012 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

92. Effect of image compression and resolution on retinal vascular caliber. (PubMed)

compression. Using Adobe Photoshop, these images were compressed at progressively higher levels up to 147:1, and then retinal vascular caliber was measured at each level using semiautomated software. To examine resolution, 40 fundus photographs acquired on high-resolution film were scanned with settings corresponding to 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1 megapixel fundus cameras. After adjusting for scale factor, vascular caliber was measured at each level of resolution. Data were analyzed by comparing the calculated

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2012 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

93. The influence of maxillary central incisor height-to-width ratio on perceived smile aesthetics. (PubMed)

The influence of maxillary central incisor height-to-width ratio on perceived smile aesthetics. To determine the influence of varying the width-to-height ratio of maxillary central incisors on perceived smile aesthetics.Cross-sectional study.Postgraduate dental teaching hospital.A posed female smile was digitally modified using Adobe Photoshop(®). Three images were created; central incisors with normal form, tooth wear and delayed apical migration. For each image the length of the teeth

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2012 British Dental Journal

94. Use of standardized, quantitative digital photography in a multicenter Web-based study. (PubMed)

, and centimeter scale. The images were downloaded, transferred via the Web, and stored on servers at the principal investigator's home institution. Color adjustments to each photo were made using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). In an initial pilot study, model hands marked with circles of known areas were used to determine the accuracy of the planimetry technique. Two-dimensional digital planimetry using SigmaScan Pro 5.0 (SPSS Science, Chicago, Ill) was used to calculate wound area from (...) the digital images.Digital photography is a simple and cost-effective method for quantifying wound size when used in conjunction with digital planimetry (SigmaScan) and photo enhancement (Adobe Photoshop) programs. The accuracy of the SigmaScan program in calculating predetermined areas was within 4.7% (95% CI, 3.4%-5.9%). Dorsal hand burns of the initial 20 patients in a national study involving several centers were evaluated with this technique. Images obtained by individuals denying experience

2011 Eplasty

95. Histomorphometry of the Ligaments Using a Generic-Purpose Image Processing Software, a New Strategy for Semi-Automatized Measurements (PubMed)

Histomorphometry of the Ligaments Using a Generic-Purpose Image Processing Software, a New Strategy for Semi-Automatized Measurements Gold chloride technique can be combined with Adobe Photoshop® software to yield a quantitative assessment of the different areas in heterogeneous structures as are ligament. A semi-automatized method based on the sum of two- and three-dimensional morphological criteria upon colorimetric criteria allows the identification and measurement of the area occupied

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2011 Journal of Digital Imaging

96. Endogenous Progenitors Cell Therapy for Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Frame: 4 weeks ] Quantification of sensory nerve function in patients with symptoms of, or the potential for, neurologic damage or disease photogrammetry (Photoshop CS3, Adobe Systems) [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ] used to document wound appearance glomerular filtration rate (GFR, estimated by 24 hr. urine creatinine measurement) [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ] to estimate renal function diabetic retinopathy (digital ophthalmologic examination) [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ] to evaluate for development

2011 Clinical Trials

97. Rotational stability and posterior capsule opacification of a plate-haptic and an open-loop-haptic intraocular lens. (PubMed)

loop-haptic acrylic IOL (Acri.Lyc 53N) in the other eye. Retroillumination images were taken 1 hour, 1 week, and 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Intraocular lens rotation was measured using standard software (Adobe Photoshop). The amount of PCO was assessed subjectively at the slitlamp and objectively using an automated image-analysis software (AQUA).The study enrolled 80 eyes of 40 patients. The IOL rotation measurements showed excellent reproducibility, with a deviation of less than 0.8

2011 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

98. Analytic assessment under ultraviolet light of actinic lentigines under bleaching treatment. (PubMed)

of a combination of bleaching agents on actinic lentigines. In the endeavor of improving sensitivity, the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) method was used to derive analytical measurements of lentigo areas and darkness. The test product was a commercially available formulation associating glycolic acid, kojic acid, lipohydroxyacid, and a Vitreoscilla extract. The Analysis® Olympus and Adobe Photoshop® quantitative methods were applied to the ULEV pictures.Data indicated a rapid bleaching effect

2011 Journal of cosmetic dermatology

99. Comparison of Intraocular Lens Decentration Parameters After Femtosecond and Manual Capsulotomies. (PubMed)

Comparison of Intraocular Lens Decentration Parameters After Femtosecond and Manual Capsulotomies. To evaluate a laser technique and manual technique to perform capsulorrhexis in cataract eyes.Anterior capsulotomy was performed with an intraocular femtosecond laser (LenSx Lasers Inc) in 54 eyes (FS group) and manual continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis was performed in 57 eyes (CCC group). Circularity and area of capsulotomy and IOL decentration were measured using Photoshop CS4 Extended (...) (Adobe Systems Inc) 1 week after surgery. Average keratometry, axial length, and preoperative anterior chamber depth were examined with the Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit AG).No statistically significant differences were noted between groups in axial length, preoperative refractive state, and in the area of capsulotomy. Circularity values were significantly better in the FS group (P=.032). We found incomplete overlap of capsulotomies in 28% of eyes in the CCC group and 11% in the FS group (P=.033

2011 Journal of Refractive Surgery

100. Femtosecond Laser Capsulotomy and Manual Continuous Curvilinear Capsulorrhexis Parameters and Their Effects on Intraocular Lens Centration. (PubMed)

of capsulotomies, and capsule overlap were measured with Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Inc) 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year after surgery. Between-group differences of parameters and predictors of IOL decentration were determined with repeated measures analysis of variance, chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses.Vertical diameter of CCC was statistically significantly higher in the first week and month. Significantly higher values of capsule overlap over 1 year and circularity in the first week showed

2011 Journal of Refractive Surgery

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