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Adamantane

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141. Avian Influenza (Follow-up)

and IDSA have issue guidelines regarding antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. [ , ] The neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir) and cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitors (baloxavir marboxil) have activity against influenza A and B viruses (including H1N1), whereas the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) have activity against influenza A viruses only. Since 2006, only the neuraminidase inhibitors have been recommended, because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes

2014 eMedicine.com

142. Avian Influenza (Treatment)

and IDSA have issue guidelines regarding antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. [ , ] The neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir) and cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitors (baloxavir marboxil) have activity against influenza A and B viruses (including H1N1), whereas the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) have activity against influenza A viruses only. Since 2006, only the neuraminidase inhibitors have been recommended, because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes

2014 eMedicine.com

143. Pulmonary Rehabilitation (Treatment)

and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Since January 2006, the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir) have been the only recommended influenza antiviral drugs because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine, rimantadine) among influenza A (H3N2) virus strains. The neuraminidase inhibitors have activity against influenza A and B viruses, while the adamantanes have activity against only influenza A viruses. In 2007-2008, a significant increase in the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance

2014 eMedicine.com

144. Pneumonia, Viral (Treatment)

but sensitivity to the adamantanes (amantadine/rimantadine). Thus, for resistant strains (especially subclades 2.2 and 2.3.4), consideration for combination therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane or oseltamivir-ribavirin, or even triple therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane-ribavirin, should be given. [ ] Previous Next: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia As with influenza, treatment of uncomplicated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is supportive in nature. Ribavirin

2014 eMedicine.com

145. Pharyngitis, Viral (Treatment)

, they are no longer recommended for antiviral treatment of influenza A. [ ] Adamantanes, particularly amantadine, can be associated with a significant discontinuation rate due to CNS side effects such as lightheadedness, difficulty concentrating, nervousness, and insomnia in older adults. [ ] The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor (oseltamivir or zanamivir) for outpatients with suspected or confirmed influenza who are at higher risk

2014 eMedicine.com

146. Pulmonary Rehabilitation (Overview)

and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Since January 2006, the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir) have been the only recommended influenza antiviral drugs because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine, rimantadine) among influenza A (H3N2) virus strains. The neuraminidase inhibitors have activity against influenza A and B viruses, while the adamantanes have activity against only influenza A viruses. In 2007-2008, a significant increase in the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance

2014 eMedicine.com

147. Influenza (Treatment)

and IDSA have issue guidelines regarding antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. [ , ] The neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir) and cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitors (baloxavir marboxil) have activity against influenza A and B viruses (including H1N1), whereas the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) have activity against influenza A viruses only. Since 2006, only the neuraminidase inhibitors have been recommended, because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes

2014 eMedicine.com

148. Pneumonia, Viral (Follow-up)

but sensitivity to the adamantanes (amantadine/rimantadine). Thus, for resistant strains (especially subclades 2.2 and 2.3.4), consideration for combination therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane or oseltamivir-ribavirin, or even triple therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane-ribavirin, should be given. [ ] Previous Next: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia As with influenza, treatment of uncomplicated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is supportive in nature. Ribavirin

2014 eMedicine.com

149. Pulmonary Rehabilitation (Follow-up)

and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Since January 2006, the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir) have been the only recommended influenza antiviral drugs because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine, rimantadine) among influenza A (H3N2) virus strains. The neuraminidase inhibitors have activity against influenza A and B viruses, while the adamantanes have activity against only influenza A viruses. In 2007-2008, a significant increase in the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance

2014 eMedicine.com

150. Influenza (Follow-up)

and IDSA have issue guidelines regarding antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. [ , ] The neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir) and cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitors (baloxavir marboxil) have activity against influenza A and B viruses (including H1N1), whereas the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) have activity against influenza A viruses only. Since 2006, only the neuraminidase inhibitors have been recommended, because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes

2014 eMedicine.com

151. Avian Influenza (Treatment)

cough suppressants and expectorants to treat the cough. Steam inhalations may also be useful. If dehydration occurs, administration of oral or intravenous fluids is indicated. Previous Next: Antiviral Therapy Antiviral agents available for influenza treatment and/or prevention include neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, zanamivir) and the cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor (baloxavir marboxil). [ , , , ] The use of adamantanes, such as amantadine, has not been recommended since (...) the 2005-2006 influenza season owing to resistance among influenza A viruses. [ ] The use of adamantanes, such as amantadine, has not been recommended since the 2005-2006 influenza season owing to resistance among influenza A viruses. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) Guidelines for Antiviral Therapy IDSA latest guidelines for antiviral therapy are as follows: [ ] High risk individuals Clinicians should initiate antivirals as soon as possible for adults and children with documented

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

152. Pneumonia (Follow-up)

(oseltamivir [Tamiflu], zanamivir, amantadine, rimantadine) are approved for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Influenza A pneumonia that is particularly severe or when it occurs in a high-risk patient may be treated with zanamivir or oseltamivir. The neuraminidase inhibitors have activity against influenza A and B viruses, whereas the adamantanes have activity against only influenza A viruses. Check for resistance patterns for other antiviral agents indicated for treatment or chemoprophylaxis (...) of influenza. Since January 2006, the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir) have been the only recommended influenza antiviral drugs because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine, rimantadine) among influenza A (H3N2) virus strains. In 2007-08, a significant increase in the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance was reported among influenza A (H1N1) viruses worldwide. During the 2007-08 influenza season, 10.9% of H1N1 viruses tested in the United States were resistant

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

153. Influenza (Treatment)

cough suppressants and expectorants to treat the cough. Steam inhalations may also be useful. If dehydration occurs, administration of oral or intravenous fluids is indicated. Previous Next: Antiviral Therapy Antiviral agents available for influenza treatment and/or prevention include neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, zanamivir) and the cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor (baloxavir marboxil). [ , , , ] The use of adamantanes, such as amantadine, has not been recommended since (...) the 2005-2006 influenza season owing to resistance among influenza A viruses. [ ] The use of adamantanes, such as amantadine, has not been recommended since the 2005-2006 influenza season owing to resistance among influenza A viruses. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) Guidelines for Antiviral Therapy IDSA latest guidelines for antiviral therapy are as follows: [ ] High risk individuals Clinicians should initiate antivirals as soon as possible for adults and children with documented

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

154. Pneumonia, Viral (Follow-up)

but sensitivity to the adamantanes (amantadine/rimantadine). Thus, for resistant strains (especially subclades 2.2 and 2.3.4), consideration for combination therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane or oseltamivir-ribavirin, or even triple therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane-ribavirin, should be given. [ ] Previous Next: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia As with influenza, treatment of uncomplicated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is supportive in nature. Ribavirin

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

155. Avian Flu (Follow-up)

and IDSA have issue guidelines regarding antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. [ , ] The neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir) and cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitors (baloxavir marboxil) have activity against influenza A and B viruses (including H1N1), whereas the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) have activity against influenza A viruses only. Since 2006, only the neuraminidase inhibitors have been recommended, because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

156. Pulmonary Rehabilitation (Diagnosis)

and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Since January 2006, the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir) have been the only recommended influenza antiviral drugs because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine, rimantadine) among influenza A (H3N2) virus strains. The neuraminidase inhibitors have activity against influenza A and B viruses, while the adamantanes have activity against only influenza A viruses. In 2007-2008, a significant increase in the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance

2014 eMedicine.com

157. Pneumonia, Viral (Treatment)

but sensitivity to the adamantanes (amantadine/rimantadine). Thus, for resistant strains (especially subclades 2.2 and 2.3.4), consideration for combination therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane or oseltamivir-ribavirin, or even triple therapy with neuraminidase inhibitor-adamantane-ribavirin, should be given. [ ] Previous Next: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia As with influenza, treatment of uncomplicated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is supportive in nature. Ribavirin

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

158. Pediatrics, Pneumonia (Treatment)

(oseltamivir [Tamiflu], zanamivir, amantadine, rimantadine) are approved for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Influenza A pneumonia that is particularly severe or when it occurs in a high-risk patient may be treated with zanamivir or oseltamivir. The neuraminidase inhibitors have activity against influenza A and B viruses, whereas the adamantanes have activity against only influenza A viruses. Check for resistance patterns for other antiviral agents indicated for treatment or chemoprophylaxis (...) of influenza. Since January 2006, the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir) have been the only recommended influenza antiviral drugs because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine, rimantadine) among influenza A (H3N2) virus strains. In 2007-08, a significant increase in the prevalence of oseltamivir resistance was reported among influenza A (H1N1) viruses worldwide. During the 2007-08 influenza season, 10.9% of H1N1 viruses tested in the United States were resistant

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

159. Avian Flu (Treatment)

and IDSA have issue guidelines regarding antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. [ , ] The neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir) and cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitors (baloxavir marboxil) have activity against influenza A and B viruses (including H1N1), whereas the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) have activity against influenza A viruses only. Since 2006, only the neuraminidase inhibitors have been recommended, because of widespread resistance to the adamantanes

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

160. Avian Influenza (Follow-up)

cough suppressants and expectorants to treat the cough. Steam inhalations may also be useful. If dehydration occurs, administration of oral or intravenous fluids is indicated. Previous Next: Antiviral Therapy Antiviral agents available for influenza treatment and/or prevention include neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, peramivir, zanamivir) and the cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor (baloxavir marboxil). [ , , , ] The use of adamantanes, such as amantadine, has not been recommended since (...) the 2005-2006 influenza season owing to resistance among influenza A viruses. [ ] The use of adamantanes, such as amantadine, has not been recommended since the 2005-2006 influenza season owing to resistance among influenza A viruses. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) Guidelines for Antiviral Therapy IDSA latest guidelines for antiviral therapy are as follows: [ ] High risk individuals Clinicians should initiate antivirals as soon as possible for adults and children with documented

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

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