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Acute Prerenal Failure

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1. Urinary Calprotectin Differentiates Between Prerenal and Intrinsic Acute Renal Allograft Failure. (PubMed)

Urinary Calprotectin Differentiates Between Prerenal and Intrinsic Acute Renal Allograft Failure. Urinary calprotectin has recently been identified as a promising biomarker for the differentiation between prerenal and intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI) in the nontransplant population. The present study investigates whether calprotectin is able to differentiate between these 2 entities in transplant recipients as well.Urinary calprotectin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 328 (...) subjects including 125 cases of intrinsic acute allograft failure, 27 prerenal graft failures, 118 patients with stable graft function, and 58 healthy controls. Acute graft failure was defined as AKI stages 1 to 3 (Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria), exclusion criteria were obstructive uropathy, urothelial carcinoma, and metastatic cancer. The clinical differentiation of prerenal and intrinsic graft failure was performed either by biopsy or by a clinical algorithm including response to fluid

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2016 Transplantation

2. Acute Prerenal Failure

Acute Prerenal Failure Acute Prerenal Failure Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Acute Prerenal Failure Acute Prerenal (...) Failure Aka: Acute Prerenal Failure , Prerenal Failure , Prerenal Uremia Syndrome From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Accounts for 50-70% of all III. Causes See See IV. Pathophysiology Reduced and renal perfusion pressure Results in afferent arteriole constriction Avid and Water reabsorption if prolonged hypoperfusion V. Signs Impaired Neck vein distention Rales Gallup Rhythm Pedal edema and pulse changes Weight loss Decreased fluid intake Decreased VI. Diagnostics Empiric volume replacement

2018 FP Notebook

3. Acute renal failure. (PubMed)

Acute renal failure. This seminar covers the most recent information on definition, epidemiology, and clinical causes of acute renal failure. The mechanisms of acute prerenal failure and the potential interference by commonly used drugs of autoregulation of renal blood flow are discussed. We summarise some basic and recent insights into the haemodynamic and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms, mainly of postischaemic acute renal failure. Recent findings on the repair mechanisms of renal (...) injury and the potential future therapeutic possibilities are discussed. We provide some differential diagnostic approaches for patients with acute renal failure and summarise prevention of the disorder and management of critically ill patients by dialysis and by other means. Finally, some information on the influence of gene polymorphisms on the prognosis of acute renal failure is given.

2017 Lancet

4. Acute Prerenal Failure

Acute Prerenal Failure Acute Prerenal Failure Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Acute Prerenal Failure Acute Prerenal (...) Failure Aka: Acute Prerenal Failure , Prerenal Failure , Prerenal Uremia Syndrome From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Accounts for 50-70% of all III. Causes See See IV. Pathophysiology Reduced and renal perfusion pressure Results in afferent arteriole constriction Avid and Water reabsorption if prolonged hypoperfusion V. Signs Impaired Neck vein distention Rales Gallup Rhythm Pedal edema and pulse changes Weight loss Decreased fluid intake Decreased VI. Diagnostics Empiric volume replacement

2015 FP Notebook

5. Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Acute Renal Failure in the Absence of Other Characteristic Features (PubMed)

on chemotherapy and immunosuppression. In patients presenting with acute renal failure with an evaluation ruling out prerenal and postrenal causes, multiple myeloma should be considered. (...) Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Acute Renal Failure in the Absence of Other Characteristic Features This case report describes a 54-year-old, asymptomatic man who presented with hyperkalemia on routine lab testing who was later found to have acute renal failure, unresponsive to fluid resuscitation, with minimal improvement after hemodialysis. After a comprehensive evaluation ruled out common causes of acute renal failure, the patient underwent testing with a bone survey, urine protein

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2017 Cureus

6. Evaluation and Management of Right-Sided Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

options and enhanced outcomes in patients with acute and chronic disorders of the right side of the heart. RV dysfunction (RVD), defined here as evidence of abnormal RV structure or function, is associated with poor clinical outcomes independently of the underlying mechanism of disease: across the spectrum of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute and chronic heart failure (HF), after cardiac surgery, acute myocardial infarction (MI), congenital heart disease (CHD), and PH (...) indicates acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARVC, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; LH, left-sided heart disease; LVAD, left ventricular assist device; PAH, pulmonary arterial hypertension; PE, pulmonary embolism; PH, pulmonary hypertension; PR, pulmonary regurgitation; PS, pulmonary stenosis; RHF, right-sided heart failure; RV, right ventricular; RVMI, right ventricular myocardial infarction; TGA, transposition of the great arteries; and TR, tricuspid regurgitation. RVD is also

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2018 American Heart Association

7. Evaluation and Management of Right-Sided Heart Failure

, is associated with poor clinical outcomes independently of the underlying mechanism of disease: across the spectrum of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute and chronic heart failure (HF), after cardiac surgery, acute myocardial infarction (MI), congenital heart disease (CHD), and PH. To distinguish right-sided HF (RHF) from structural RVD, we define RHF as a clinical syndrome with signs and symptoms of HF resulting from RVD. RHF is caused by the inability of the RV to support (...) pressure, and impedes LV diastolic filling, contributing to systemic hypoperfusion ( ). Diastolic interaction is described as ventricular competition for diastolic distension/filling within an acutely confined pericardial space. Systolic interactions also exist because it is estimated that 20% to 40% of RV systolic pressure results from LV contraction. , Figure 6. Ventricular interdependence in right-sided heart failure. Pathological increases in right ventricular (RV) filling pressures are transmitted

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2018 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation

8. McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome: a rare case report of acute renal failure (PubMed)

McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome: a rare case report of acute renal failure Giant tubular-villous adenoma of the rectum can determine secretory diarrhea, associated with a depleting syndrome of prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypoproteinemia. These symptoms are known as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, and there are about 50 cases reported in literature. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, prerenal

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2016 Clujul Medical

9. CRACKCast E097 – Renal Failure

CRACKCast E097 – Renal Failure CRACKCast E097 - Renal Failure - CanadiEM CRACKCast E097 – Renal Failure In , by Adam Thomas August 3, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 97, Renal Failure. This chapter covers an approach to acute and chronic kidney injuries, including causes, complications and treatments. Shownotes – Rosen’s in Perspective So what’s the emergency about kidney disease? Well here’s the thought process: Identify renal failure (azotemia) Rule out life threats (...) : hyperK, pulmonary edema Is this AKI or a pre-existing CKD? …all the rest of the steps we’ll cover in the show! AKI can be from pre – renal, intrinsic parenchymal damage, or post renal / obstructive causes. When you say Acute Tubular necrosis, it means the cause of intrinsic AKI can NOT be attributed to a glomerular, vascular, or interstitial cause Quick refresher: [1] Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2611_Blood_Flow_in_the_Nephron.jpg [1] Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki

2017 CandiEM

10. Heart Failure Management in Skilled Nursing Facilities

(the American Heart Association [AHA] and the Heart Failure Society of America) identified specific members of the writing group, and others were selected on the basis of known expertise. A literature search was performed using the key words skilled nursing facility , long-term care facility , nursing home , palliative medicine , rehabilitation , exercise , discharge , post-hospital , and post-acute meshed with the key word heart failure in PubMed and Ovid. Peer review was performed by experts from (...) Heart Failure Management in Skilled Nursing Facilities Heart Failure Management in Skilled Nursing Facilities | Circulation: Heart Failure Search Hello Guest! Login to your account Email Password Keep me logged in Search March 2019 February 2019 January 2019 This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse this site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Free Access article Share on Jump to Free Access article Heart Failure Management in Skilled Nursing Facilities A Scientific Statement From

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2015 American Heart Association

11. Cannabinoid hyperemesis acute renal failure: a common sequela of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. (PubMed)

dehydration and prerenal failure, a common and distinct entity we suggest be termed cannabinoid hyperemesis acute renal failure (CHARF). The characteristics of cannabinoid hyperemesis acute renal failure patients were similar to CHS patients, except a larger portion were over the age of 30 (4 of 6, vs 30%). Evaluating physicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion for this common sequela of CHS. (...) Cannabinoid hyperemesis acute renal failure: a common sequela of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. We report the case of a 25-year-old man with an 8-year history of daily marijuana use diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. The patient presented with “constant” vomiting for over a day. His symptoms were completely relieved with compulsive hot showering and partially relieved by hot baths, by high ambient room temperature, and transiently after smoking

2014 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

12. Prerenal azotemia from excessive sweating in an adult with a cystic fibrosis gene mutation (PubMed)

regulator protein mutation and a family history of cystic fibrosis were documented. We hypothesize that the abnormal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator resulted in repeated bouts of excessive sweating, extracellular fluid volume depletion, and acute renal failure. This case is unique because of the prolonged period of time over which multiple documented episodes of prerenal acute renal failure occurred and because of the onset of the episodes in adulthood. (...) Prerenal azotemia from excessive sweating in an adult with a cystic fibrosis gene mutation We present the case of a 58-year-old male with chronic kidney disease who was admitted to the hospital multiple times with extracellular fluid volume depletion and prerenal azotemia. Some episodes were associated with gastrointestinal fluid losses and others with profuse diaphoresis in the absence of gastrointestinal fluid losses. At the age of 57 years, a common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance

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2011 Indian Journal of Nephrology

13. Acute Renal Failure (Overview)

and can result in prerenal AKI. Congenital and acquired heart diseases are also important causes of decreased renal perfusion in this age group. Intrinsic AKI Intrinsic AKI may result from any of the following: Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis - Should be considered in any child who presents with hypertension, edema, hematuria, and renal failure HUS - Often is cited as the most common cause of AKI in children The most common form of HUS is associated with a diarrheal prodrome caused (...) Acute Renal Failure (Overview) Acute Kidney Injury: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjQzNDkyLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Acute Kidney Injury Updated

2014 eMedicine.com

14. Acute Renal Failure (Diagnosis)

and can result in prerenal AKI. Congenital and acquired heart diseases are also important causes of decreased renal perfusion in this age group. Intrinsic AKI Intrinsic AKI may result from any of the following: Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis - Should be considered in any child who presents with hypertension, edema, hematuria, and renal failure HUS - Often is cited as the most common cause of AKI in children The most common form of HUS is associated with a diarrheal prodrome caused (...) Acute Renal Failure (Diagnosis) Acute Kidney Injury: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMjQzNDkyLW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Acute Kidney Injury Updated

2014 eMedicine.com

15. Renal Failure, Acute (Follow-up)

examination of urine is essential in establishing differential diagnosis for acute renal failure (ARF). Findings may include the following: Normal urinary sediment without hemoglobin, protein, cells, or casts generally consistent with prerenal and postrenal failure, HUS/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), preglomerular vasculitis, or atheroembolism Granular casts - Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis Red blood cell (RBC) casts - Glomerulonephritis, malignant (...) ) elevations are seen in rhabdomyolysis and myocardial infarction. Elevations in liver transaminase levels are seen in rapidly progressive liver failure and hepatorenal syndrome. Hypocalcemia (moderate) is common in acute renal failure (ARF); marked hypocalcemia is more typical of chronic renal failure. Hyperkalemia is a common and important complication of ARF. Previous Next: Urine Chemical Indices Differentiation of prerenal azotemia from ATN takes on a special importance in early management

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

16. Renal Failure, Acute (Diagnosis)

examination of urine is essential in establishing differential diagnosis for acute renal failure (ARF). Findings may include the following: Normal urinary sediment without hemoglobin, protein, cells, or casts generally consistent with prerenal and postrenal failure, HUS/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), preglomerular vasculitis, or atheroembolism Granular casts - Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis Red blood cell (RBC) casts - Glomerulonephritis, malignant (...) ) elevations are seen in rhabdomyolysis and myocardial infarction. Elevations in liver transaminase levels are seen in rapidly progressive liver failure and hepatorenal syndrome. Hypocalcemia (moderate) is common in acute renal failure (ARF); marked hypocalcemia is more typical of chronic renal failure. Hyperkalemia is a common and important complication of ARF. Previous Next: Urine Chemical Indices Differentiation of prerenal azotemia from ATN takes on a special importance in early management

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

17. Renal Failure, Acute (Treatment)

examination of urine is essential in establishing differential diagnosis for acute renal failure (ARF). Findings may include the following: Normal urinary sediment without hemoglobin, protein, cells, or casts generally consistent with prerenal and postrenal failure, HUS/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), preglomerular vasculitis, or atheroembolism Granular casts - Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis Red blood cell (RBC) casts - Glomerulonephritis, malignant (...) ) elevations are seen in rhabdomyolysis and myocardial infarction. Elevations in liver transaminase levels are seen in rapidly progressive liver failure and hepatorenal syndrome. Hypocalcemia (moderate) is common in acute renal failure (ARF); marked hypocalcemia is more typical of chronic renal failure. Hyperkalemia is a common and important complication of ARF. Previous Next: Urine Chemical Indices Differentiation of prerenal azotemia from ATN takes on a special importance in early management

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

18. Renal Failure, Acute (Overview)

examination of urine is essential in establishing differential diagnosis for acute renal failure (ARF). Findings may include the following: Normal urinary sediment without hemoglobin, protein, cells, or casts generally consistent with prerenal and postrenal failure, HUS/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), preglomerular vasculitis, or atheroembolism Granular casts - Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis Red blood cell (RBC) casts - Glomerulonephritis, malignant (...) ) elevations are seen in rhabdomyolysis and myocardial infarction. Elevations in liver transaminase levels are seen in rapidly progressive liver failure and hepatorenal syndrome. Hypocalcemia (moderate) is common in acute renal failure (ARF); marked hypocalcemia is more typical of chronic renal failure. Hyperkalemia is a common and important complication of ARF. Previous Next: Urine Chemical Indices Differentiation of prerenal azotemia from ATN takes on a special importance in early management

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

19. Definition and classification of acute kidney injury

. Functional AKI is defined as any of the following: Fig 1: KDIGO guidelines regarding the definition of AKI. (Kidney International Supplements (2012) 2; 19) Fig 2. KDIGO staging of AKI. (Kidney International Supplements (2012) 2; 19) KHA-CARI Adaptation of KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury (May 2014) Page 3 Fig 3. KDIGO stage-based management of AKI diagram (Kidney International Supplements (2012) 2; 25). Acute kidney injury (AKI), formerly known as acute renal failure (ARF (...) : a multicenter prospective cohort study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2012;59(3):246–255. 22. Nejat M, Pickering J, Devarajan P, Bonventre J, Edelstein C, Walker R, & Endre Z. Some biomarkers of acute kidney injury are increased in pre- renal acute injury. Kidney Int. 2012; 81(12):1254–1262. 23. Doi K, Katagiri D, Negishi K, Hasegawa S, Hamasaki Y, Fujita T, et al. Mild elevation of urinary biomarkers in prerenal acute kidney injury. Kidney Int, 2012;82(10):1114–1120. 24. Murray PT, Mehta

2014 KHA-CARI Guidelines

20. Decompression illness with hypovolemic shock and neurological failure symptoms after two risky dives: a case report (PubMed)

hypovolemia after two risky dives. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head revealed multiple cerebral and pulmonary thromboembolisms. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Furthermore, the patient displayed hypotension as well as prerenal acute kidney injury with elevated levels of creatinine and reduced renal clearance, indicating a hypovolemic shock. Early hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy reduced the neurological (...) Decompression illness with hypovolemic shock and neurological failure symptoms after two risky dives: a case report Hypovolemia is known to be a predisposing factor of decompression illness (DCI) while diving. The typical clinically impressive neurological symptoms of DCI may distract from other symptoms such as an incipient hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 61-year-old male Caucasian, who presented with an increasing central and peripheral neural failure syndrome and massive

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2017 Physiological reports

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