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Acute Hepatitis

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1. Givosiran (Givlaari) - acute hepatic porphyria

Givosiran (Givlaari) - acute hepatic porphyria Drug Approval Package: GIVLAARI (givosiran)Injection U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Search FDA Submit search Drug Approval Package: GIVLAARI (givosiran)Injection Company: Alnylam Pharmaceuticals Inc. Application Number: 212194 Approval Date: 11/20/2019 Persons with disabilities having problems accessing the PDF files below may call (301) 796-3634 for assistance. FDA Approval Letter and Labeling (PDF) (PDF) FDA Application Review Files

2020 FDA - Drug Approval Package

2. Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV (...) antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood. In 2010, an estimated 160 million people worldwide (2% to 3% of the world's population) had chronic HCV infection. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HCV remains controversial. Chronic HCV infection can damage the liver.To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions in the treatment of acute HCV

2018 Cochrane

6. Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001-17. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001-17. Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt's renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-established during 2014-2017 to describe the current (...) epidemiology and associated risk factors, and changes from surveillance conducted during 2001-2004.Patients with suspected AVH were enrolled, completed a questionnaire, and provided blood for testing for hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D, and E (HEV) infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios and Chi2 were used to detect differences between hepatitis types by patient characteristics and exposures. Newcombe-Wilson method was used to compare results between surveillance periods

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

7. Antivirals for adults with recent onset (acute) hepatitis C

Antivirals for adults with recent onset (acute) hepatitis C NHS England » Antivirals for adults with recent onset (acute) hepatitis C Search Search Menu Antivirals for adults with recent onset (acute) hepatitis C Document first published: 26 September 2019 Page updated: 26 September 2019 Topic: Publication type: NHS England will routinely commission antivirals for adults with acute hepatitis C (HCV), including the treatment of acute HCV infection in immunosuppressed adults (e.g. post

2019 NHS England

8. Differential prevalence and geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in acute and chronic hepatitis C patients in Vietnam. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential prevalence and geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in acute and chronic hepatitis C patients in Vietnam. The highest burden of disease from hepatitis C virus (HCV) is found in Southeast Asia, but our understanding of the epidemiology of infection in many heavily burdened countries is still limited. In particular, there is relatively little data on acute HCV infection, the outcome of which can be influenced by both viral and host genetics which differ within (...) the region. We studied HCV genotype and IL28B gene polymorphism in a cohort of acute HCV-infected patients in Southern Vietnam alongside two other cohorts of chronic HCV-infected patients to better understand the epidemiology of HCV infection locally and inform the development of programs for therapy with the increasing availability of directly acting antiviral therapy (DAAs).We analysed plasma samples from patients with acute and chronic HCV infection, including chronic HCV mono-infection and chronic

2019 PLoS ONE

9. Hepatitis E virus genotypes and subgenotypes causing acute hepatitis, Bulgaria, 2013-2015. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatitis E virus genotypes and subgenotypes causing acute hepatitis, Bulgaria, 2013-2015. In industrialized areas of the world, including Europe, Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen. In fact, autochthonous cases caused by HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3) are increasingly reported. Several studies described the human HEV-3 subtypes and strains circulating in West Europe countries; in contrast, very little is known about the HEV strains responsible for acute hepatitis E in countries (...) of East Europe/Balkans, such as Bulgaria.Anti-HEV IgM positive serum samples (n = 103) from acute hepatitis cases (2013-2015) from all over Bulgaria were analysed for HEV RNA by Real-Time PCR. Viremia was detected in 90/103 samples. A fragment of the viral genome (ORF-2 region) was amplified by nested PCR from 76/90 viremic samples, leading to a sequence in 64 of them. Genotyping by phylogenetic analysis with standard reference sequences showed HEV-1 in 1/64 cases, HEV-3 in 63/64. Subtyping of HEV-3

2018 PLoS ONE

10. Hepatitis E Virus Infections Among HIV-Positive Individuals During an Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A in Taiwan. (Abstract)

Hepatitis E Virus Infections Among HIV-Positive Individuals During an Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A in Taiwan. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) share the similar fecal-oral transmission route. During an outbreak of sexually transmitted acute hepatitis A among MSM worldwide between 2015 and 2017, we investigated the possibility of sexual transmission and related morbidity of HEV infection among HIV-positive patients. From 1 March, 2015 to 31 August, 2017, anti-HEV IgG (...) . Although 4 patients had hepatitis for a prolonged duration between 8 to 17 months, no abdominal imaging revealed liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Conclusion HEV endemicity remained low among HIV-positive patients in Taiwan during the outbreak of acute hepatitis A. Our data suggest that sexual transmission of HEV with significant morbidity of HEV infection, if any, is rare in this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights

2019 Hepatology

11. Chinese herbal medicine reduces acute hepatitis exacerbation in patients with hepatitis B virus infection: A case-control study in Taiwan. (Abstract)

Chinese herbal medicine reduces acute hepatitis exacerbation in patients with hepatitis B virus infection: A case-control study in Taiwan. Little information is available about the impact of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment on acute exacerbation of hepatitis. This study aimed to assess the risk of acute exacerbation of hepatitis and subsequent cirrhosis and hepatoma in HBV patients with and without CHM use.This population-based case-control study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal (...) Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2013. Newly diagnosed HBV patients had acute exacerbation of hepatitis and subsequent cirrhosis and hepatoma as the case group, while another patients had no acute exacerbation of hepatitis and cirrhosis and hepatoma as the control group. To correct the differences in sociodemographic factors and Western medication use between the two groups, propensity score matching was used at a 1:1 ratio, and resulted in a comparison of 1306 and 805 patients per group

2019 Complementary Therapies In Medicine

12. Rat hepatitis E virus linked to severe acute hepatitis in an immunocompetent patient. (Abstract)

Rat hepatitis E virus linked to severe acute hepatitis in an immunocompetent patient. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health concern in developing countries where the primary transmission is via contaminated water. Zoonotic HEV cases have been increasingly described in Europe, Japan and the United States with pigs representing the main animal reservoir of infection. We report an unusual acute hepatitis infection in a previously healthy man caused by a rat hepatitis E virus (...) with a considerably divergent genomic sequence compared to other rat HEV strains. It is possible that rat HEV is an under recognized cause of hepatitis infection and further studies are necessary to elucidate its potential risk and mode of transmission.

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

13. Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir for 8 Weeks to Treat Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Men With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections: Sofosbuvir-Containing Regimens Without Interferon for Treatment of Acute HCV in HIV-1 Infected Individuals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir for 8 Weeks to Treat Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Men With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections: Sofosbuvir-Containing Regimens Without Interferon for Treatment of Acute HCV in HIV-1 Infected Individuals. Current guidelines for the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections provide varying recommendations for the optimal treatment of acute HCV infections. There are limited data from small cohort studies to provide guidance on the best approach (...) to treatment of this important patient population.Sofosbuvir-Containing Regimens Without Interferon for Treatment of Acute HCV in HIV-1 Infected Individuals is an open-label, 2-cohort, Phase 1 clinical trial in which the second cohort assessed the safety and efficacy of 8 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for the treatment of acute HCV infections in participants with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infections. This final analysis of the second cohort had a planned accrual of 27 participants

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

14. Is HBV viral load at admission associated with development of acute-on-chronic liver failure in patients with acute decompensation of chronic hepatitis B related cirrhosis? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Is HBV viral load at admission associated with development of acute-on-chronic liver failure in patients with acute decompensation of chronic hepatitis B related cirrhosis? Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is one of the most common precipitating events associated with acute decompensation (AD) or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhotic patients. However, whether their serum HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) levels are associated with ACLF incidence

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

15. Corticosteroid Therapy for Indeterminate Pediatric Acute Liver Failure and Aplastic Anemia with Acute Hepatitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corticosteroid Therapy for Indeterminate Pediatric Acute Liver Failure and Aplastic Anemia with Acute Hepatitis. To examine the characteristics and outcomes of a multicenter patient cohort with indeterminate pediatric acute liver failure (IND-PALF) and with aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis treated with corticosteroids.Retrospective study of patients age 1-17 years with IND-PALF and aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis who presented between 2009 and 2018 to 1 of 4 institutions and were (...) received a median of 139 days (range 19-749) of corticosteroid therapy, with a median of 12 days (range 1-240) to international normalized ratio ≤1.2. Patients with aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis (n = 6; median of 9.5 years of age [range 1-12], 83% male), received 1-2 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone for a median of 100 days (range 63-183), and all recovered with their native liver. One patient with IND-PALF and 2 patients with aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis developed a serious infection

2019 Journal of Pediatrics

16. Acute decompensation boosts hepatic collagen type III deposition and deteriorates experimental and human cirrhosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute decompensation boosts hepatic collagen type III deposition and deteriorates experimental and human cirrhosis Patients with end-stage liver disease develop acute decompensation (AD) episodes, which become more frequent and might develop into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, it remains unknown how AD induces acceleration of liver disease. We hypothesized that remodeling of collagen type III plays a role in the acceleration of liver cirrhosis after AD and analyzed its (...) analyzed 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after bile duct ligation (n = 5 each group). In 110 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis who underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure for AD, clinical and laboratory parameters as well as Pro-C3 and C3M were measured in blood samples from portal and hepatic veins and were collected just before the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement and 1-3 weeks later. Animal studies showed increased markers of collagen type III

2018 Hepatology communications

17. Ribavirin in Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Patients with Gynecological Cancer: A Case Series Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ribavirin in Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Patients with Gynecological Cancer: A Case Series Hepatitis E virus infection is usually a self-limited disease. However, during the last years there has been growing evidence for prolonged and chronic infection occurring in patients with immunosuppression. Also patients with malignant and rheumatic diseases have been identified to be at risk for chronic hepatitis E. However, their course and prognosis are not well characterized and there have been (...) no reports of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with gynecological cancer. Here, we report three Caucasian females with breast and ovarian cancers presenting with elevation of aminotransferase levels during anticancer treatment. Although only few or no clinical hints suggested hepatitis E virus infection, the diagnosis of hepatitis E virus infection was confirmed by seroconversion, which might occur with some delay, and/or by polymerase chain reaction. While two patients had a self-limited course

2018 Journal of clinical and translational hepatology

18. Changes in natural killer cells and exhausted memory regulatory T Cells with corticosteroid therapy in acute autoimmune hepatitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes in natural killer cells and exhausted memory regulatory T Cells with corticosteroid therapy in acute autoimmune hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated liver disease currently treated by immunosuppressive medications with significant side effects. Thus, novel mechanistic treatments are greatly needed. We performed prospective deep immunophenotyping of blood immune cells in patients with acute AIH before and after corticosteroid therapy. Blood samples from 26 patients (...) with acute AIH (United Kingdom-AIH Consortium) were phenotyped by flow cytometry at baseline and 4 months after starting corticosteroids. Pretreatment liver tissues were stained for forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3POS) regulatory T cells (Tregs), clusters of differentiation (CD)56POS natural killer (NK) cells, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10. Chemokine secretion by cultured primary hepatocyte and biliary epithelial cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Functional coculture assays

2018 Hepatology communications

19. The Incidence and Predictive Factors in the Development of Acute Hepatitis in Patients with Leukemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Incidence and Predictive Factors in the Development of Acute Hepatitis in Patients with Leukemia Liver involvement is common in hematological malignancies, but the incidence and pattern of liver injury vary among the different types. The aims of our study were to determine the incidence and clinical course of acute hepatitis and the important factors for its development in patients with leukemia after chemotherapy.All patients with the diagnosis of leukemia who were treated (...) at the Department of Hematology between January 2008 and January 2013 were included in the study. A detailed medical history, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment modalities, complications, and clinical course were recorded retrospectively.A total of 124 patients (64 females) with the diagnosis of leukemia were included in the study. The mean age was 45.2 years (16-89 years) and mean follow-up time was 29.7 months (0.25-192 months). A total of 43 (34.6%) patients had acute hepatitis after chemotherapy

2018 Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology

20. Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Treatment With Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Treatment With Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir, a once-a-day, oral combination pill, was approved in 2014 for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Initial trials did not comment on nephrotoxicity; however, recent data suggest a risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of the medication. We assessed the rates of AKI in patients undergoing ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in a large, urban tertiary care center

2018 Hepatology communications

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