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Acute Hepatitis

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1. Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001-17. (Full text)

Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001-17. Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt's renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-established during 2014-2017 to describe the current (...) epidemiology and associated risk factors, and changes from surveillance conducted during 2001-2004.Patients with suspected AVH were enrolled, completed a questionnaire, and provided blood for testing for hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D, and E (HEV) infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios and Chi2 were used to detect differences between hepatitis types by patient characteristics and exposures. Newcombe-Wilson method was used to compare results between surveillance periods

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed

2. Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection. (PubMed)

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV (...) antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood. In 2010, an estimated 160 million people worldwide (2% to 3% of the world's population) had chronic HCV infection. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HCV remains controversial. Chronic HCV infection can damage the liver.To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions in the treatment of acute HCV

2018 Cochrane

6. Differential prevalence and geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in acute and chronic hepatitis C patients in Vietnam. (Full text)

Differential prevalence and geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in acute and chronic hepatitis C patients in Vietnam. The highest burden of disease from hepatitis C virus (HCV) is found in Southeast Asia, but our understanding of the epidemiology of infection in many heavily burdened countries is still limited. In particular, there is relatively little data on acute HCV infection, the outcome of which can be influenced by both viral and host genetics which differ within (...) the region. We studied HCV genotype and IL28B gene polymorphism in a cohort of acute HCV-infected patients in Southern Vietnam alongside two other cohorts of chronic HCV-infected patients to better understand the epidemiology of HCV infection locally and inform the development of programs for therapy with the increasing availability of directly acting antiviral therapy (DAAs).We analysed plasma samples from patients with acute and chronic HCV infection, including chronic HCV mono-infection and chronic

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed

7. Rat hepatitis E virus linked to severe acute hepatitis in an immunocompetent patient. (PubMed)

Rat hepatitis E virus linked to severe acute hepatitis in an immunocompetent patient. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health concern in developing countries where the primary transmission is via contaminated water. Zoonotic HEV cases have been increasingly described in Europe, Japan and the United States with pigs representing the main animal reservoir of infection. We report an unusual acute hepatitis infection in a previously healthy man caused by a rat hepatitis E virus (...) with a considerably divergent genomic sequence compared to other rat HEV strains. It is possible that rat HEV is an under recognized cause of hepatitis infection and further studies are necessary to elucidate its potential risk and mode of transmission.

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

8. Chinese herbal medicine reduces acute hepatitis exacerbation in patients with hepatitis B virus infection: A case-control study in Taiwan. (PubMed)

Chinese herbal medicine reduces acute hepatitis exacerbation in patients with hepatitis B virus infection: A case-control study in Taiwan. Little information is available about the impact of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment on acute exacerbation of hepatitis. This study aimed to assess the risk of acute exacerbation of hepatitis and subsequent cirrhosis and hepatoma in HBV patients with and without CHM use.This population-based case-control study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal (...) Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2013. Newly diagnosed HBV patients had acute exacerbation of hepatitis and subsequent cirrhosis and hepatoma as the case group, while another patients had no acute exacerbation of hepatitis and cirrhosis and hepatoma as the control group. To correct the differences in sociodemographic factors and Western medication use between the two groups, propensity score matching was used at a 1:1 ratio, and resulted in a comparison of 1306 and 805 patients per group

2019 Complementary Therapies In Medicine

9. Corticosteroid Therapy for Indeterminate Pediatric Acute Liver Failure and Aplastic Anemia with Acute Hepatitis. (PubMed)

Corticosteroid Therapy for Indeterminate Pediatric Acute Liver Failure and Aplastic Anemia with Acute Hepatitis. To examine the characteristics and outcomes of a multicenter patient cohort with indeterminate pediatric acute liver failure (IND-PALF) and with aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis treated with corticosteroids.Retrospective study of patients age 1-17 years with IND-PALF and aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis who presented between 2009 and 2018 to 1 of 4 institutions and were (...) received a median of 139 days (range 19-749) of corticosteroid therapy, with a median of 12 days (range 1-240) to international normalized ratio ≤1.2. Patients with aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis (n = 6; median of 9.5 years of age [range 1-12], 83% male), received 1-2 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone for a median of 100 days (range 63-183), and all recovered with their native liver. One patient with IND-PALF and 2 patients with aplastic anemia with acute hepatitis developed a serious infection

2019 Journal of Pediatrics

10. Is HBV viral load at admission associated with development of acute-on-chronic liver failure in patients with acute decompensation of chronic hepatitis B related cirrhosis? (Full text)

Is HBV viral load at admission associated with development of acute-on-chronic liver failure in patients with acute decompensation of chronic hepatitis B related cirrhosis? Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is one of the most common precipitating events associated with acute decompensation (AD) or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhotic patients. However, whether their serum HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) levels are associated with ACLF incidence

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases PubMed

11. Early treatment of acute hepatitis C infection is cost-effective in HIV-infected men-who-have-sex-with-men. (Full text)

Early treatment of acute hepatitis C infection is cost-effective in HIV-infected men-who-have-sex-with-men. Treatment of hepatitis C virus infections (HCV) with direct acting antivirals (DAA) can prevent new infections since cured individuals cannot transmit HCV. However, as DAAs are expensive, many countries defer treatment to advances stages of fibrosis, which results in ongoing transmission. We assessed the epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of treatment initiation in different

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed

12. Ribavirin in Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Patients with Gynecological Cancer: A Case Series (Full text)

Ribavirin in Acute Hepatitis E Infection in Patients with Gynecological Cancer: A Case Series Hepatitis E virus infection is usually a self-limited disease. However, during the last years there has been growing evidence for prolonged and chronic infection occurring in patients with immunosuppression. Also patients with malignant and rheumatic diseases have been identified to be at risk for chronic hepatitis E. However, their course and prognosis are not well characterized and there have been (...) no reports of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with gynecological cancer. Here, we report three Caucasian females with breast and ovarian cancers presenting with elevation of aminotransferase levels during anticancer treatment. Although only few or no clinical hints suggested hepatitis E virus infection, the diagnosis of hepatitis E virus infection was confirmed by seroconversion, which might occur with some delay, and/or by polymerase chain reaction. While two patients had a self-limited course

2018 Journal of clinical and translational hepatology PubMed

13. Acute decompensation boosts hepatic collagen type III deposition and deteriorates experimental and human cirrhosis (Full text)

Acute decompensation boosts hepatic collagen type III deposition and deteriorates experimental and human cirrhosis Patients with end-stage liver disease develop acute decompensation (AD) episodes, which become more frequent and might develop into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, it remains unknown how AD induces acceleration of liver disease. We hypothesized that remodeling of collagen type III plays a role in the acceleration of liver cirrhosis after AD and analyzed its (...) analyzed 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after bile duct ligation (n = 5 each group). In 110 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis who underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure for AD, clinical and laboratory parameters as well as Pro-C3 and C3M were measured in blood samples from portal and hepatic veins and were collected just before the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement and 1-3 weeks later. Animal studies showed increased markers of collagen type III

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

14. The Incidence and Predictive Factors in the Development of Acute Hepatitis in Patients with Leukemia (Full text)

The Incidence and Predictive Factors in the Development of Acute Hepatitis in Patients with Leukemia Liver involvement is common in hematological malignancies, but the incidence and pattern of liver injury vary among the different types. The aims of our study were to determine the incidence and clinical course of acute hepatitis and the important factors for its development in patients with leukemia after chemotherapy.All patients with the diagnosis of leukemia who were treated (...) at the Department of Hematology between January 2008 and January 2013 were included in the study. A detailed medical history, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment modalities, complications, and clinical course were recorded retrospectively.A total of 124 patients (64 females) with the diagnosis of leukemia were included in the study. The mean age was 45.2 years (16-89 years) and mean follow-up time was 29.7 months (0.25-192 months). A total of 43 (34.6%) patients had acute hepatitis after chemotherapy

2018 Euroasian journal of hepato-gastroenterology PubMed

15. Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Treatment With Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (Full text)

Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Treatment With Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir, a once-a-day, oral combination pill, was approved in 2014 for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Initial trials did not comment on nephrotoxicity; however, recent data suggest a risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of the medication. We assessed the rates of AKI in patients undergoing ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in a large, urban tertiary care center

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

16. Changes in natural killer cells and exhausted memory regulatory T Cells with corticosteroid therapy in acute autoimmune hepatitis (Full text)

Changes in natural killer cells and exhausted memory regulatory T Cells with corticosteroid therapy in acute autoimmune hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune-mediated liver disease currently treated by immunosuppressive medications with significant side effects. Thus, novel mechanistic treatments are greatly needed. We performed prospective deep immunophenotyping of blood immune cells in patients with acute AIH before and after corticosteroid therapy. Blood samples from 26 patients (...) with acute AIH (United Kingdom-AIH Consortium) were phenotyped by flow cytometry at baseline and 4 months after starting corticosteroids. Pretreatment liver tissues were stained for forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3POS) regulatory T cells (Tregs), clusters of differentiation (CD)56POS natural killer (NK) cells, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10. Chemokine secretion by cultured primary hepatocyte and biliary epithelial cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Functional coculture assays

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

17. Serologic Responses and Effectiveness of Hepatitis A Vaccination Among HIV-Positive Individuals During the Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A. (PubMed)

Serologic Responses and Effectiveness of Hepatitis A Vaccination Among HIV-Positive Individuals During the Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis A. Outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection have been occurring among men who have sex with men in the Asia-Pacific region, the United States, and several European countries since June 2015 and recently among persons who are homeless and use illicit drugs in the United States. We evaluated the serologic responses and effectiveness of HAV vaccination (...) % in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses, respectively. The factors associated with seroconversion at weeks 28-36 were younger age (per 1-year decrease, adjusted odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.12) and undetectable plasma HIV RNA load (adjusted odds ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-7.68).During the outbreak of acute hepatitis A, two-dose HAV vaccination is effective at preventing HAV infection among HIV-positive individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy

2018 Hepatology

18. Impact of hepatitis B vaccination on acute hepatitis B epidemiology in European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2006 to 2014. (Full text)

Impact of hepatitis B vaccination on acute hepatitis B epidemiology in European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2006 to 2014. Hepatitis B prevention in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries relies on vaccination programmes. We describe the epidemiology of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) at country and EU/EEA level during 2006-2014. Using a multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression model we assessed differences in the acute HBV infection notification rates between (...) groups of countries that started universal HBV vaccination before/in vs after 1995; implemented or not a catch-up strategy; reached a vaccine coverage ≥ 95% vs < 95% and had a hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence ≥ 1% vs < 1%. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends by groups of countries, and additional Poisson regression models to evaluate the association between three-dose HBV vaccine coverage and acute HBV infection notification rates at country and EU/EEA level. The EU/EEA

2018 Euro Surveillance PubMed

19. A Case of Acute Autoimmune Hepatitis Superimposed on Chronic Hepatitis B Infection (Full text)

A Case of Acute Autoimmune Hepatitis Superimposed on Chronic Hepatitis B Infection Autoimmune hepatitis has been associated with chronic HCV infection, but there are only few cases reported of HBV infection as a possible trigger. We present a case of a young male who was diagnosed with acute autoimmune hepatitis superimposed on existent chronic HBV infection. A 30-year-old Hispanic male with no past medical history presented to the hospital with complaints of few days of generalized weakness (...) hepatitis. Prednisone 60 mg daily was started. Six months later, blood work showed completely normal liver enzymes and total IgG. Hepatotropic viruses have been proposed as triggering factors for several autoimmune diseases. There are theories suggesting that similarity in viral epitope and self-proteins expression on liver cells' surface causes a cross-reactive immunologic response and possible viral-induced autoimmune hepatitis.

2018 Case reports in gastrointestinal medicine PubMed

20. Genetic variation of hepatitis B surface antigen among acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infections in The Netherlands (Full text)

Genetic variation of hepatitis B surface antigen among acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infections in The Netherlands Genetic variation within hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), in particular within the major hydrophobic region (MHR), is related to immune/vaccine and test failures and can have a significant impact on the vaccination and diagnosis of acute infection. This study shows, for the first time, variation among acute cases and compares the amino acid variation within the HBsAg (...) . Both acute and chronic GtD showed the highest variation compared to that of other genotypes (P < .01). Substitutions within the MHR were found in 8.5% of the acute strains and 18.6% of the chronic strains. Specific MHR substitutions described to have an impact on vaccine/immune escape and/or HBsAg test failure were found among 4.1% of the acute strains and 7.0% of the chronic strains. In conclusion, we show a high variation of HBsAg among acute and chronic hepatitis B virus-infected cases

2018 Journal of medical virology PubMed

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