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Active Tuberculosis Treatment

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1. National scale-up of tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus collaborative activities in Myanmar from 2005 to 2016 and tuberculosis treatment outcomes for patients with human immunodeficiency virus-positive tuberculosis in the Mandalay Region in 2015. (PubMed)

National scale-up of tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus collaborative activities in Myanmar from 2005 to 2016 and tuberculosis treatment outcomes for patients with human immunodeficiency virus-positive tuberculosis in the Mandalay Region in 2015. HIV-associated TB is a serious public health problem in Myanmar. Study objectives were to describe national scale-up of collaborative activities to reduce the double burden of TB and HIV from 2005 to 2016 and to describe TB treatment outcomes (...) of individuals registered with HIV-associated TB in 2015 in the Mandalay Region.Secondary analysis of national aggregate data and, for treatment outcomes, a cohort study of patients with HIV-associated TB in the Mandalay Region.The number of townships implementing collaborative activities increased from 7 to 330 by 2016. The number of registered TB patients increased from 1577 to 139 625 in 2016, with the number of individuals tested for HIV increasing from 432 to 114 180 (82%) in 2016: 10 971 (10%) were

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2018 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

2. Acceptability of active case finding with a seed-and-recruit model to improve tuberculosis case detection and linkage to treatment in Cambodia: A qualitative study. (PubMed)

Acceptability of active case finding with a seed-and-recruit model to improve tuberculosis case detection and linkage to treatment in Cambodia: A qualitative study. With support of the national tuberculosis (TB) program, KHANA (a local non-governmental organization in Cambodia) has implemented an innovative approach using a seed-and-recruit model to actively find TB cases in the community. The model engaged community members including TB survivors as seed and newly diagnosed people with TB (...) as recruiters to recruit presumptive TB cases in their social network in a snowball approach for screening and linkage to treatment. This study aimed to explore the acceptability of the active case finding with the seed-and-recruit model in detecting new TB cases and determine the characteristics of successful seeds.This qualitative study was conducted in four provinces (Banteay Meanchey, Kampong Chhnang, Siem Reap, and Takeo) in Cambodia in 2017. Fifty-six in-depth interviews and ten focus group

2019 PLoS ONE

3. The effect of interrupted anti-retroviral treatment on the reconstitution of memory and naive T cells during tuberculosis treatment in HIV patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PubMed)

The effect of interrupted anti-retroviral treatment on the reconstitution of memory and naive T cells during tuberculosis treatment in HIV patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis The reconstitution of cellular immune components contributes to clinical outcome of HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Interruption of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) could lead to perturbations in reconstitution of T cells in HIV/ tuberculosis (TB) patients.To ascertain the effect of interrupted ART (...) on reconstitution of CD4+ and CD8+ T sub-sets in TB patients.Participants with HIV (CD4>350 cells/µL) and TB were recruited under a larger phase 3 open label randomised controlled clinical trial. The CD45RO and CD62L markers were measured on CD4+ and CD8+ cells by flow cytometry. Samples were analysed at baseline, 3, 6, 12 months.There was a significant increase of naive CD8+ cells (p = 0.003) and a decrease in effector CD8+ cells (p = 0.004) among participants in ART/TB treatment arm during the first 6 months

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2017 African health sciences

4. Incidence of Active Tuberculosis within One Year after Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Treatment according to Latent Tuberculosis Infection Status in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (PubMed)

Incidence of Active Tuberculosis within One Year after Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Treatment according to Latent Tuberculosis Infection Status in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease We investigated the incidence of active tuberculosis among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, with or without latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).The study was performed at a Korean tertiary referral center between January 2011 and June 2017 (...) ratio (SIR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for active tuberculosis.Mean patient age was 33.1 years, and patients with Crohn's disease were predominant (80.7%). Within 1 year after the initiation of TNF inhibitor treatment, 1 patient in the LTBI group (1/84; 1.2%) and 7 patients in the non-LTBI group (7/656; 1.1%) developed active tuberculosis. The overall 1-year incidence of tuberculosis among the patients was significantly higher than that among the general population (SIR, 14.0; 95% CI, 7.0-28.0

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2018 Journal of Korean medical science

5. The diagnostic accuracy of tests for the measurement of active tuberculosis treatment responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The diagnostic accuracy of tests for the measurement of active tuberculosis treatment responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration (...) (fixed) across all studies. However, this assumption is unlikely to hold true for data from animal studies, which generally include various species, strains and treatment regimes, for which different true effects are likely to exist. The random-effects model takes into account both the within-study (sampling error) and between-study (differences in the true effect size) variance. Should the excessive between-study variance be very low or zero, the random-effects model will yield the same results

2019 PROSPERO

6. First time in human (FTIH) study and prediction of early bactericidal activity for GSK3036656, a potent Leucyl - tRNA synthetase inhibitor for tuberculosis treatment. (PubMed)

First time in human (FTIH) study and prediction of early bactericidal activity for GSK3036656, a potent Leucyl - tRNA synthetase inhibitor for tuberculosis treatment. This first time in human (FTIH) study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and food effect of single and repeat oral doses of GSK3036656, a Leucyl - tRNA synthetase inhibitor. In Part A, GSK3036656 single doses of 5 (fed and fasted), 15, and 25 mg, and placebo were administered. In Part B, repeat doses of 5 and 15 (...) drug - related material detected in urine, the minimum absorbed dose after single (25 mg) and repeat (15 mg) dosing was 50 and 78%, respectively. Unchanged GSK3036656 represented at least 44% and 71% of the 25 and 15 mg dose, respectively. Clinical trial simulations were performed to guide dose escalation during the FTIH study and to predict the GSK3036656 dose range that produces the highest possible early bactericidal activity (EBA0-14) in the prospective Phase II trial, with consideration

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2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances macrophage P-glycoprotein (MDR1) expression and activity to promote intracellular survival during anti-TB drug treatment. (PubMed)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances macrophage P-glycoprotein (MDR1) expression and activity to promote intracellular survival during anti-TB drug treatment. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Recent emergence of MDR-TB strains seriously threatens TB control and prevention. However the role of macrophage multi drug resistance gene MDR1 on intracellular M.tb survival during anti-TB drug treatment is not known.We employed the human monocyte derived macrophages (...) not increase MDR1 expression, indicating active secretion of virulence factor(s) in pathogenic M.tb contributing to this phenotype. Finally, inhibition of MDR1 improves antibiotic-mediated killing of M.tb.We report a novel finding that M.tb up regulates MDR1 during infection, which limits the exposure of M.tb to sub-lethal concentrations of antimicrobials. This condition promotes M.tb survival and potentially enhances the emergence of resistant variants.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

8. Anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis in Eastern Cape, South Africa (PubMed)

Anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis in Eastern Cape, South Africa The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has become a global public health problem. Polyherbal medicines offer great hope for developing alternative drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis.To evaluate the anti-tubercular activity of polyherbal medicines used for the treatment of tuberculosis.The remedies were screened against (...) Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Middlebrook 7H9 media and MGIT BACTEC 960 system. They were liquid preparations from King Williams Town site A (KWTa), King Williams Town site B (KWTb), King Williams Town site C (KWTc), Hogsback first site (HBfs), Hogsback second site (HBss), Hogsback third site (HBts), East London (EL), Alice (AL) and Fort Beaufort (FB).The susceptibility testing revealed that all the remedies contain anti-tubercular activity with KWTa, KWTb, KWTc, HBfs, HBts, AL and FB exhibiting

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2017 African health sciences

9. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis. (PubMed)

participants, very low quality evidence), or treatment completion (data not pooled; two trials, 365 participants, very low quality evidence).Supplementation probably produces a modest increase in weight gain during treatment for active tuberculosis, although this was not seen consistently across all trials (data not pooled; five trials, 883 participants, moderate quality evidence). Two small studies provide some evidence that quality of life may also be improved but the trials were too small to have much (...) Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis. Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis.To assess the effects of oral

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2016 Cochrane

10. Do incentives and enablers improve adherence to tuberculosis treatment?

the disease to others when they cough or sneeze and others inhale droplets carrying the bacteria. People with active tuberculosis of the lungs who are undiagnosed or untreated are an important public health concern because they can infect others. People may be undiagnosed or untreated for a number of reasons. In some countries, people may have poor access to healthcare services. Diagnostic tests usually require several visits to the clinic (Mantoux test). Treatment for active tuberculosis usually lasts (...) Do incentives and enablers improve adherence to tuberculosis treatment? Do incentives and enablers improve adherence to tuberculosis treatment? - NIPH Selected items added to basket Close Search for: Søk Meny Infectious diseases & Vaccines Close Mental & Physical health Close Environment & Lifestyle Close Health in Norway Close Quality & Knowledge Close Research & Access to data Close About NIPH Close Do incentives and enablers improve adherence to tuberculosis treatment? Fact sheet Have you

2017 Norwegian Institute of Public Health

11. What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health

TB by preventing reactivation (3).WHAT CONSTITUTES AN EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PACKAGE OF SERVICES FOR THE PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND CARE OF TUBERCULOSIS AMONG REFUGEES AND MIGRANTS IN THE WHO EUROPEAN REGION? HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 6 Fig. 2. Active TB cases among native and foreign-born individuals in EU/EEA countries, 2015 Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control & WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2017 (5). Native Foreign Unknown Total WHO European (...) What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health Sally Hargreaves | Kieran Rustage | Laura B Nellums | Jaynaide Powis | James Milburn Santino Severoni | Masoud Dara | Soorej J Puthoopparambil | Jon S Friedland HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 56 What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

12. Mapping evidence on tuberculosis active case finding policies, strategies, and interventions for tuberculosis key populations: a systematic scoping review protocol. (PubMed)

Mapping evidence on tuberculosis active case finding policies, strategies, and interventions for tuberculosis key populations: a systematic scoping review protocol. Early diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) have been shown to reduce the impact of TB illness particularly, among TB key populations such as people living with HIV/AIDS, prisoners, refugees, migrants, displaced populations, survivors of TB illness, and indigenous populations. We propose to conduct a systematic scoping review (...) to map global evidence on active tuberculosis case finding policies, strategies, and interventions for TB key populations.This study will be guided by the scoping review framework, proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. A comprehensive literature search will be performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct, and EBSCOhost (Academic search complete, PsycINFO, Health Sources, CINAHL, and MEDLINE with full text). Primary studies both published in peer-reviewed

2019 Systematic reviews

13. Quantitative investigation of factors relevant to the T cell spot test for tuberculosis infection in active tuberculosis. (PubMed)

and 0.247, respectively, with a total of 0.534. The quantification graph showed that quantified SFCs to ESAT-6 or CFP-10 grading had a linear correlation with risk factors. Albumin-globulin ratio, CD4+ and CD8+ were independent risk factors for false negative T-SPOT.TB (all P < 0.05).In T-SPOT.TB-assisted diagnosis of patients with active tuberculosis, previous treatment, decreased CD4+ and platelet count might lead to the decreased SFCs to ESAT-6, decreased alpha-2 globulin and high platelet (...) Quantitative investigation of factors relevant to the T cell spot test for tuberculosis infection in active tuberculosis. Previous qualitative studies suggested that the false negative rate of the T cell spot test for tuberculosis infection (T-SPOT.TB) is associated with many risk factors in tuberculosis patients. However, more precise quantitative studies are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting quantified spot-forming cells (SFCs) to early secreted

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

14. Smoking cessation interventions for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes. (PubMed)

Smoking cessation interventions for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Active smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection 2 to 2.5 times and is significantly associated with recurrent TB and TB mortality. Observational studies have shown associations between smoking and poor TB treatment outcomes such as increased loss to follow-up rate, severity of disease, drug resistance and slow smear conversion. Since most smoking-related immunologic abnormalities are reversible (...) within six weeks of stopping smoking, smoking cessation may have substantial positive effects on TB treatment outcomes, TB relapse and future lung disease.To analyse the effect of tobacco smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) on the treatment outcomes of people with adult pulmonary TB.We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register using free-text and MeSH terms for TB and antitubercular treatment. We also searched MEDLINE and EMBASE using the same topic-related terms, combined

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2016 Cochrane

15. Endobronchial anthracofibrosis: possibly a new indication of aggressive treatment for active endobronchial tuberculosis (PubMed)

Endobronchial anthracofibrosis: possibly a new indication of aggressive treatment for active endobronchial tuberculosis Anthracofibrosis, which was defined as a luminal narrowing associated with overlying anthracotic mucosa on bronchoscopy, has been infrequently reported. Recently, we have identified a case of patient who had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), manifested left main bronchial stenosis and hyperpigmentation. Despite repeated and multiple cryotherapy, the condition was still (...) progressing. Given to the potential relationship between active endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) and anthracofibrosis, the patient received a diagnostic anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) treatment due to initial failed cryotherapy, resulting in improvement of hyperpigmentation and stenosis of the left main bronchus. Eventually, the patient recovered well with regular anti-TB combined with intermittent cryotherapy. Our study suggests that even without etiological evidence, there might be an indication

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2018 Journal of thoracic disease

16. Strategies for Successful Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in the Setting of DRESS on RIPE (PubMed)

Strategies for Successful Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in the Setting of DRESS on RIPE We describe 2 young, female patients who developed drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome while on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Active TB was treated successfully with second-line TB medications, including moxifloxacin, ethambutol, linezolid, and amikacin for 18 months.

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2018 Open forum infectious diseases

17. An optimized background regimen for treatment of active tuberculosis with the next-generation benzothiazinone Macozinone (PBTZ169). (PubMed)

An optimized background regimen for treatment of active tuberculosis with the next-generation benzothiazinone Macozinone (PBTZ169). The efficacy of the standardized four-drug regimen (comprising isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is menaced by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Intensive efforts have been made to develop new antibiotics or to repurpose old (...) drugs, and several of these are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for their antitubercular activity. Among the new candidate drugs is macozinone (MCZ), the piperazine-containing benzothiazinone PBTZ169, which is currently being evaluated in phase I/II clinical trials. Here, we determined the in vitro and in vivo activity of MCZ in combination with a range of anti-TB drugs in order to design a new regimen against active TB. Two-drug combinations with MCZ were tested against M. tuberculosis

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

18. Using Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) for latent tuberculosis treatment - A hit or a miss? A propensity score analysis of treatment completion among 274 homeless adults in Fulton County, GA. (PubMed)

Using Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) for latent tuberculosis treatment - A hit or a miss? A propensity score analysis of treatment completion among 274 homeless adults in Fulton County, GA. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment in persons at increased risk of disease progression is a key strategy with the strong potential to increase rate of tuberculosis (TB) decline in the United States. However, LTBI treatment in homeless persons, a population at high-risk of active TB disease (...) , is usually associated with poor adherence. We describe the impact of using directly observed treatment (DOT) versus self-administered treatments (SAT) as an adherence-improving intervention to administer four months of daily rifampin regimen for LTBI treatment among homeless adults in Atlanta. Retrospective analysis of clinical care data on 274 homeless persons who initiated daily rifampin treatment for LTBI treatment at a county health department between January 2014 and December 2016 was performed

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2019 PLoS ONE

19. Application of ImmunoScore Model for the Differentiation between Active Tuberculosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection as Well as Monitoring Anti-tuberculosis Therapy (PubMed)

Application of ImmunoScore Model for the Differentiation between Active Tuberculosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection as Well as Monitoring Anti-tuberculosis Therapy Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading global public health problem. To achieve the end TB strategy, non-invasive markers for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of TB disease are urgently needed, especially in high-endemic countries such as China. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and tuberculin skin test (TST), frequently used (...) immunological methods for TB detection, are intrinsically unable to discriminate active tuberculosis (ATB) from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Thus, the specificity of these methods in the diagnosis of ATB is dependent upon the local prevalence of LTBI. The pathogen-detecting methods such as acid-fast staining and culture, all have limitations in clinical application. ImmunoScore (IS) is a new promising prognostic tool which was commonly used in tumor. However, the importance of host immunity has

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2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

20. Survey on medicinal plants traditionally used in Senegal for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and assessment of their antimycobacterial activity. (PubMed)

Survey on medicinal plants traditionally used in Senegal for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and assessment of their antimycobacterial activity. In West Africa, populations are used to taking traditional medicine as a first aid against common health problems. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB), which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases.The main aim of this study (...) was to identify plants used to treat TB-symptoms by the population of Senegal and to evaluate their possible concomitant use with clinically approved TB-drugs. This approach allowed the selection of plants effectively used in traditional medicine. In order to verify if the usage of some of these plants can be rationalized, the activity of their traditional preparations was assessed with both an intracellular and extracellular antimycobacterial host-pathogen assays.An ethnopharmacological survey conducted

2017 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

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