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ABCD2 Score

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101. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Diagnosis)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

102. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Overview)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

103. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Treatment)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

104. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Follow-up)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

105. Central Vertigo (Follow-up)

Med . Feb 2005. 352:777-85. . Johnston SC, Rothwell PM, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Giles MF, Elkins JS, Bernstein AL, et al. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular (...) for atherosclerotic or cardioembolic disease. Prognostic scores for early risk of stroke after TIA may be helpful in assessing risk. [ , ] A correct diagnosis of TIA followed by appropriate aspirin or anticoagulant therapy may decrease the risk of a future CVA significantly. Previous Next: Prognosis See the list below: Prognosis for patients with central vertigo depends on the underlying disease and is highly variable. Neurosurgical advancements have improved the prognosis for many serious conditions

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

106. Transient Ischemic Attack (Follow-up)

with infarction: a unique syndrome?. Ann Neurol . 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology (...) , Kyne L, et al. Diagnostic usefulness of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

107. Central Vertigo (Overview)

. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular events in emergency department patients discharged home with diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Ann Emerg Med . 2011 Jan (...) distributions, respectively. [ ] Infarctions in the latter distribution are associated more commonly with a mass effect and compression of the brain stem and the fourth ventricle. In another series of patients with cerebellar infarction and mass effect, mortality rate was 17% despite aggressive neurosurgical and medical management. [ ] In one series of 94 patients with cerebellar hemorrhage, 20 presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; see the calculator) score less than 8, indicating significantly impaired

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

108. Transient Ischemic Attack (Diagnosis)

. 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology . 2011 Sep 27. 77(13):1222-8. . . Bray (...) of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation of the ABCD2 score's accuracy for predicting early

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

109. Transient Ischemic Attack (Treatment)

with infarction: a unique syndrome?. Ann Neurol . 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology (...) , Kyne L, et al. Diagnostic usefulness of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

110. Central Vertigo (Treatment)

and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular events in emergency department patients discharged home with diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Ann Emerg Med . 2011 Jan. 57(1):34-41

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

111. Transient Ischemic Attack (Overview)

. 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology . 2011 Sep 27. 77(13):1222-8. . . Bray (...) of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation of the ABCD2 score's accuracy for predicting early

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

112. Central Vertigo (Diagnosis)

. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular events in emergency department patients discharged home with diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Ann Emerg Med . 2011 Jan (...) distributions, respectively. [ ] Infarctions in the latter distribution are associated more commonly with a mass effect and compression of the brain stem and the fourth ventricle. In another series of patients with cerebellar infarction and mass effect, mortality rate was 17% despite aggressive neurosurgical and medical management. [ ] In one series of 94 patients with cerebellar hemorrhage, 20 presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; see the calculator) score less than 8, indicating significantly impaired

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

114. Factors Associated With Onset-to-Door Time in Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack Admitted to Stroke Centers. (PubMed)

minutes were independently associated with a short ODT. Furthermore, a history of transient ischemic attack and hypertension and a referral from another medical facility were independently associated with a long ODT. Patients with a higher ABCD2 score were likely to arrive at a stroke center more quickly.We identified several factors that were positively and negatively associated with the ODT in patients with transient ischemic attack.

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2013 Stroke

115. Reduction in Early Stroke Risk in Carotid Stenosis With Transient Ischemic Attack Associated With Statin Treatment. (PubMed)

patients with TIA from 11 centers, 387 with ipsilateral carotid stenosis. ABCD2 score, abnormal diffusion weighted imaging, medication pretreatment, and early stroke were recorded.In patients with carotid stenosis, 7-day stroke risk was 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-11.1) compared with 2.7% (CI, 2.0%-3.4%) without stenosis (P<0.0001; 90-day risks 17.8% and 5.7% [P<0.0001]). Among carotid stenosis patients, nonprocedural 7-day stroke risk was 3.8% (CI, 1.2%-9.7%) with statin treatment at TIA (...) onset, compared with 13.2% (CI, 8.5%-19.8%) in those not statin pretreated (P=0.01; 90-day risks 8.9% versus 20.8% [P=0.01]). Statin pretreatment was associated with reduced stroke risk in patients with carotid stenosis (odds ratio for 90-day stroke, 0.37; CI, 0.17-0.82) but not nonstenosis patients (odds ratio, 1.3; CI, 0.8-2.24; P for interaction, 0.008). On multivariable logistic regression, the association remained after adjustment for ABCD2 score, smoking, antiplatelet treatment, recent TIA

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2013 Stroke

116. Results of an Outpatient Transient Ischemic Attack Evaluation: A 90-Day Follow-up Study. (PubMed)

and 62 (52.5%) were discharged and enrolled in the outpatient TIA management. Two (3.2%) of the discharged patients could not be contacted for follow-up. Among the patients managed as outpatients, one (1.7%) presented with an ischemic stroke and 3 (5%) experienced a subsequent TIA within a period of 90 days after discharge from the ED. The rate of stroke predicted from the ABCD2 score was 9.7% at 90 days.The results of our study suggest that outpatient management of TIA, as described in our

2013 Journal of Emergency Medicine

117. MIDNOR-TIA

Party): Norwegian University of Science and Technology Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk of stroke. Rapid assessment and treatment can reduce the risk. Several international guidelines recommend a test, the ABCD2 score, to identify TIA patients with low and high risk for stroke. The main purpose of this study is to investigate stroke risk after TIA in both short (1 week) and long term (3 months/1 year), and to assess (...) whether the Age, Blood pressure, Clinical features, Duration of TIA, Diabetes (ABCD2) score is a sufficient tool for predicting stroke risk. Secondary aims are to explore whether adopting imaging modalities (ultrasound, MRI) and biological markers of blood into a risk score could improve the predictive value of the ABCD2 score and still be feasible in a daily clinical practice. Further on overall risk factors in TIA patients, and the incidence of other vascular events will be studied. A substudy

2013 Clinical Trials

118. SPREAD-STACI study: a protocol for a randomized multicenter clinical trial comparing urgent with delayed endarterectomy in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. (PubMed)

artery stenosis (Nascet criteria), randomized in two groups: urgent carotid endarterectomy (within 48 hours) and delayed carotid endarterectomy ( operated between 48 hours and 15 days after onset of symptoms) Risk factors will be evaluated at enrollment. TIA will be classified by ABCD2 scoring system,and minor stroke by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The study will last 90 days per patient,starting from their initial symptom,and the follow-up will be performed

2012 International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society

119. Intensified Secondary Prevention Intending a Reduction of Recurrent Events in TIA and Minor Stroke Patients

using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Acute cerebrovascular event (either TIA or minor Stroke within 14 days before study inclusion) according to the following definitions: TIA (clinical restitution within 24 hours and ABCD2-Score ≥3) or visible DWI-lesion in MRI Minor stroke (mRankin (...) (intraarterial or surgical) [ Time Frame: Participants will be followed-up for an average of approximately 3.5 years ] Bleedings [ Time Frame: Participants will be followed-up for an average of approximately 3.5 years ] All bleedings leading to therapeutic intervention (categorized according to GUSTO definitions) Level of dependency [ Time Frame: Up to 6 years from inclusion ] Assessment according to modified Rankin Score and level of care (German care insurance) All hospital admissions [ Time Frame

2012 Clinical Trials

120. Feasibility, Safety and Efficacy of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Symptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Octogenarians

information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 80 Years to 95 Years (Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: age between 80 to 95 years old Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment-1 (TOAST-1) subtype National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 0-15, and Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-4 ABCD2 score between 6 to 7 stable vital signs, normal hepatic and renal functions no hemorrhagic

2012 Clinical Trials

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