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ABCD2 Score

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81. Copeptin for the prediction of recurrent cerebrovascular events after transient ischemic attack: results from the CoRisk study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

a stroke. Although the association of copeptin with recurrent cerebrovascular events was not significant, the association with stroke alone as end point was significant. After adjusting for the ABCD2 score, a 10-fold increase in copeptin levels was associated with an odds ratio for stroke of 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-8.96; P=0.01). After addition of copeptin to the ABCD2 score, the area under the curve of the ABCD2 score improved from 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.74) to 0.74 (95 (...) % confidence interval, 0.60-0.88, P=0.02). In patients with MRI (n=223), the area under the curve of the ABCD3-I score increased in similar magnitude, although not significantly. Based on copeptin, 31.2% of patients were correctly reclassified across the risk categories of the ABCD2 score (net reclassification improvement; P=0.17).Copeptin improved the prognostic value of the ABCD2 score for the prediction of stroke but not TIA, and it may help clinicians in refining risk stratification for patients

2014 Stroke

82. Post-Stroke Disease Management

-discharge) cardiovascular events [nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and vascular death] [ Time Frame: one year ] Health-related QoL (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions EQ-5D-3L - overall health utility score) [ Time Frame: at one year ] Co-primary endpoint Secondary Outcome Measures : Recurrent stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic) and TIA [ Time Frame: one year and up to three years ] Death from all causes [ Time Frame: one year and up to three years ] Functional outcome [ Time Frame (...) research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Patients with acute ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA (ABCD2≥3 or visible diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion on MRI) Age ≥ 18 years Written informed consent Exclusion Criteria: Patients living outside Tyrol Malignant or other severe

2014 Clinical Trials

83. The Middle East Dual Anti-platelet Treatment in Acute Transient Ischemic Attack

of the deficit at the time of randomization AND age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of TIA and presence of diabetes (ABCD2) score >4 OR Minor ischemic stroke: residual deficit with NIHSS ≤3 at the time of randomization. Ability to randomize within 24 hours of time last known free of new ischemic symptoms. Head CT or MRI ruling out hemorrhage or other pathology, such as vascular malformation, tumor, or abscess, that could explain symptoms or contraindicate therapy. Ability to tolerate aspirin

2014 Clinical Trials

84. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Diagnosis)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

85. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Treatment)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

86. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Overview)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

87. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Stroke (Follow-up)

. The ABCD3-I score uses DWI and intracranial atherosclerosis detected by MRA to add prognostic value to the traditional ABCD2 score. It appears that DWI abnormality increases the ability to predict stroke at 7 and 90 days in patients presenting with clinical TIA. Intracranial disease on MRA seems to add to this score in a nonsignificant way. [ ] Go to for more complete information on this topic. Previous Next: MRI in Hemorrhagic Stroke GRE and EPI sequences have the ability to detect microbleeds (...) to reconsideration of the definition. Recent tissue definitions of stroke emphasize that TIA with persistent ischemia on diffusion-weighted imaging is classified as stroke rather than a TIA. TIA, on the other hand, requires either a normal diffusion-weighted image without evidence of ischemia or reversible changes on DWI suggestive of ischemia rather than infarction. [ ] Recently, brain imaging (DWI) has been added to the clinical ABCD2 to identify patients with TIA with a high risk of stroke recurrence

2014 eMedicine.com

88. Transient Ischemic Attack (Treatment)

with infarction: a unique syndrome?. Ann Neurol . 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology (...) , Kyne L, et al. Diagnostic usefulness of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

89. Transient Ischemic Attack (Overview)

. 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology . 2011 Sep 27. 77(13):1222-8. . . Bray (...) of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation of the ABCD2 score's accuracy for predicting early

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

90. Central Vertigo (Diagnosis)

. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular events in emergency department patients discharged home with diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Ann Emerg Med . 2011 Jan (...) distributions, respectively. [ ] Infarctions in the latter distribution are associated more commonly with a mass effect and compression of the brain stem and the fourth ventricle. In another series of patients with cerebellar infarction and mass effect, mortality rate was 17% despite aggressive neurosurgical and medical management. [ ] In one series of 94 patients with cerebellar hemorrhage, 20 presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; see the calculator) score less than 8, indicating significantly impaired

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

91. Central Vertigo (Follow-up)

Med . Feb 2005. 352:777-85. . Johnston SC, Rothwell PM, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Giles MF, Elkins JS, Bernstein AL, et al. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular (...) for atherosclerotic or cardioembolic disease. Prognostic scores for early risk of stroke after TIA may be helpful in assessing risk. [ , ] A correct diagnosis of TIA followed by appropriate aspirin or anticoagulant therapy may decrease the risk of a future CVA significantly. Previous Next: Prognosis See the list below: Prognosis for patients with central vertigo depends on the underlying disease and is highly variable. Neurosurgical advancements have improved the prognosis for many serious conditions

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

92. Transient Ischemic Attack (Follow-up)

with infarction: a unique syndrome?. Ann Neurol . 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology (...) , Kyne L, et al. Diagnostic usefulness of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

93. Central Vertigo (Treatment)

and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular events in emergency department patients discharged home with diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Ann Emerg Med . 2011 Jan. 57(1):34-41

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

94. Central Vertigo (Overview)

. Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet . Jan 2007. 369:283-92. . Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Systematic review and pooled analysis of published and unpublished validations of the ABCD and ABCD2 transient ischemic attack risk scores. Stroke . 2010 Apr. 41 (4):667-73. . Kim AS, Fullerton HJ, Johnston SC. Risk of vascular events in emergency department patients discharged home with diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Ann Emerg Med . 2011 Jan (...) distributions, respectively. [ ] Infarctions in the latter distribution are associated more commonly with a mass effect and compression of the brain stem and the fourth ventricle. In another series of patients with cerebellar infarction and mass effect, mortality rate was 17% despite aggressive neurosurgical and medical management. [ ] In one series of 94 patients with cerebellar hemorrhage, 20 presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; see the calculator) score less than 8, indicating significantly impaired

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

95. Transient Ischemic Attack (Diagnosis)

. 2005 May. 57(5):679-86. . . Asimos AW, Rosamond WD, Johnson AM, Price MF, Rose KM, Murphy CV, et al. Early diffusion weighted MRI as a negative predictor for disabling stroke after ABCD2 score risk categorization in transient ischemic attack patients. Stroke . 2009 Oct. 40(10):3252-7. . Giles MF, Albers GW, Amarenco P, Arsava EM, Asimos AW, Ay H, et al. Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: A multicenter study. Neurology . 2011 Sep 27. 77(13):1222-8. . . Bray (...) of the ABCD2 score to distinguish transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke from noncerebrovascular events: the North Dublin TIA Study. Stroke . 2009 Nov. 40(11):3449-54. . Tsivgoulis G, Stamboulis E, Sharma VK, Heliopoulos I, Voumvourakis K, Teoh HL, et al. Multicenter external validation of the ABCD2 score in triaging TIA patients. Neurology . 2010 Apr 27. 74(17):1351-7. . . Asimos AW, Johnson AM, Rosamond WD, et al. A multicenter evaluation of the ABCD2 score's accuracy for predicting early

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

96. MIDNOR-TIA

Party): Norwegian University of Science and Technology Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk of stroke. Rapid assessment and treatment can reduce the risk. Several international guidelines recommend a test, the ABCD2 score, to identify TIA patients with low and high risk for stroke. The main purpose of this study is to investigate stroke risk after TIA in both short (1 week) and long term (3 months/1 year), and to assess (...) whether the Age, Blood pressure, Clinical features, Duration of TIA, Diabetes (ABCD2) score is a sufficient tool for predicting stroke risk. Secondary aims are to explore whether adopting imaging modalities (ultrasound, MRI) and biological markers of blood into a risk score could improve the predictive value of the ABCD2 score and still be feasible in a daily clinical practice. Further on overall risk factors in TIA patients, and the incidence of other vascular events will be studied. A substudy

2013 Clinical Trials

97. Factors Associated With Onset-to-Door Time in Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack Admitted to Stroke Centers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

minutes were independently associated with a short ODT. Furthermore, a history of transient ischemic attack and hypertension and a referral from another medical facility were independently associated with a long ODT. Patients with a higher ABCD2 score were likely to arrive at a stroke center more quickly.We identified several factors that were positively and negatively associated with the ODT in patients with transient ischemic attack.

2013 Stroke

98. Results of an Outpatient Transient Ischemic Attack Evaluation: A 90-Day Follow-up Study. (Abstract)

and 62 (52.5%) were discharged and enrolled in the outpatient TIA management. Two (3.2%) of the discharged patients could not be contacted for follow-up. Among the patients managed as outpatients, one (1.7%) presented with an ischemic stroke and 3 (5%) experienced a subsequent TIA within a period of 90 days after discharge from the ED. The rate of stroke predicted from the ABCD2 score was 9.7% at 90 days.The results of our study suggest that outpatient management of TIA, as described in our

2013 Journal of Emergency Medicine

99. Reduction in Early Stroke Risk in Carotid Stenosis With Transient Ischemic Attack Associated With Statin Treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

patients with TIA from 11 centers, 387 with ipsilateral carotid stenosis. ABCD2 score, abnormal diffusion weighted imaging, medication pretreatment, and early stroke were recorded.In patients with carotid stenosis, 7-day stroke risk was 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-11.1) compared with 2.7% (CI, 2.0%-3.4%) without stenosis (P<0.0001; 90-day risks 17.8% and 5.7% [P<0.0001]). Among carotid stenosis patients, nonprocedural 7-day stroke risk was 3.8% (CI, 1.2%-9.7%) with statin treatment at TIA (...) onset, compared with 13.2% (CI, 8.5%-19.8%) in those not statin pretreated (P=0.01; 90-day risks 8.9% versus 20.8% [P=0.01]). Statin pretreatment was associated with reduced stroke risk in patients with carotid stenosis (odds ratio for 90-day stroke, 0.37; CI, 0.17-0.82) but not nonstenosis patients (odds ratio, 1.3; CI, 0.8-2.24; P for interaction, 0.008). On multivariable logistic regression, the association remained after adjustment for ABCD2 score, smoking, antiplatelet treatment, recent TIA

2013 Stroke

100. Articles of the month (October 2016)

. This is a large, international, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing ticagrelor (180mg loading dose then 90mg BID) to aspirin (300mg loading dose then 100mg daily) in 13,199 patients with low risk stroke (NIHSS score <6) or high risk TIA (ABCD2 score >3) for 90 days. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), myocardial infarction, or death. It was the same in both the groups (6.7% vs 7.5%, p=0.07). Bottom line: Stick with aspirin in your CVA and TIA patients (...) a Cr measured in the 25 hours before a CT and also in the period of 24-72 hours after the scan. They also excluded patients already on dialysis and those who were given multiple contrast doses. Ultimately they ended up with 21,346 patients who they matched 1:1 based on a propensity score so they had 2 groups: contrast and no contrast. Overall, the rate of acute kidney injury was 5%. The rate was the same whether you received contrast or not (4.8% versus 5.1%, p=0.38). The incidence of emergent

2016 First10EM

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