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1. Testing innovative strategies to reduce the social gradient in the uptake of bowel cancer screening: a programme of four qualitatively enhanced randomised controlled trials

Testing innovative strategies to reduce the social gradient in the uptake of bowel cancer screening: a programme of four qualitatively enhanced randomised controlled trials Testing innovative strategies to reduce the social gradient in the uptake of bowel cancer screening: a programme of four qualitatively enhanced randomised controlled trials Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you (...) requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} This research programme found that reducing the social gradient in uptake of bowel cancer screening was difficult but 1 of the 4 interventions tested, 'Enhanced Reminder', had a positive impact. {{author}} {{($index

2017 NIHR HTA programme

2. 1-Year Survival After TAVR of Patients With Low-Flow, Low-Gradient and High-Gradient Aortic Valve Stenosis in Matched Study Populations. (PubMed)

1-Year Survival After TAVR of Patients With Low-Flow, Low-Gradient and High-Gradient Aortic Valve Stenosis in Matched Study Populations. This study sought to examine whether the prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) having high versus low transvalvular mean pressure gradients (MPGs) is intrinsically different after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), even after strict matching of baseline parameters.Patients with low MPG are characterized by higher cardiovascular (...) risk and more comorbidities than other AS patients are.In this retrospective, single-center study involving 2,282 patients, 3 groups were derived according to the following criteria: 1) high-gradient AS (HG-AS) (MPG ≥40 mm Hg); 2) low-flow, low-gradient AS (LFLG-AS) (MPG <40 mm Hg, ejection fraction [EF] ≤40%, stroke volume index ≤35 ml/m2); 3) paradoxical LFLG-AS (pLFLG-AS) (similar to LFLG-AS but with EF ≥50%). Propensity score matching that included EF was used to compare 1-year survival.A total

2019 JACC. Cardiovascular interventions

3. Fifty shades of gradients: does the pressure gradient in venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension matter? A systematic review. (PubMed)

Fifty shades of gradients: does the pressure gradient in venous sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension matter? A systematic review. OBJECTIVEThe role of venous sinus stenting (VSS) for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is not well understood. The aim of this systematic review is to attempt to identify subsets of patients with IIH who will benefit from VSS based on the pressure gradients of their venous sinus stenosis.METHODSMEDLINE/PubMed was searched for studies (...) reporting venous pressure gradients across the stenotic segment of the venous sinus, pre- and post-stent pressure gradients, and clinical outcomes after VSS. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines.RESULTSFrom 32 eligible studies, a total of 186 patients were included in the analysis. Patients who had favorable outcomes had higher mean pressure gradients (22.8 ± 11.5 mm Hg vs 17.4 ± 8.0 mm Hg, p = 0.033) and higher

2018 Journal of Neurosurgery

4. Effects of Gradient Coil Noise and Gradient Coil Replacement on the Reproducibility of Resting State Networks (PubMed)

Effects of Gradient Coil Noise and Gradient Coil Replacement on the Reproducibility of Resting State Networks The stability of the MRI scanner throughout a given study is critical in minimizing hardware-induced variability in the acquired imaging data set. However, MRI scanners do malfunction at times, which could generate image artifacts and would require the replacement of a major component such as its gradient coil. In this article, we examined the effect of low intensity, randomly occurring (...) hardware-related noise due to a faulty gradient coil on brain morphometric measures derived from T1-weighted images and resting state networks (RSNs) constructed from resting state functional MRI. We also introduced a method to detect and minimize the effect of the noise associated with a faulty gradient coil. Finally, we assessed the reproducibility of these morphometric measures and RSNs before and after gradient coil replacement. Our results showed that gradient coil noise, even at relatively low

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2018 Frontiers in human neuroscience

5. An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both? (PubMed)

An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both? There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing (...) see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2016 Social Science & Medicine

6. Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise (PubMed)

Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage (...) of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME voltage between the two ME composites and is calibrated against transverse MFGs to give a high detection sensitivity of 0.4-30.6 V/(T/m), a strong common-mode magnetic field noise rejection rate of <-14.5 dB, a small input-output nonlinearity of <10 ppm, and a low gradient noise of 0.16-620 nT/m/ Hz in a broad frequency range of 1 Hz-170 kHz under a small baseline of 35 mm. An analysis of experimental gradient noise

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2017 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

7. Comparison of RVOT Gradient Under Anaesthesia With Post-operative Gradient in Patients Undergoing TOF Repair

Comparison of RVOT Gradient Under Anaesthesia With Post-operative Gradient in Patients Undergoing TOF Repair Comparison of RVOT Gradient Under Anaesthesia With Post-operative Gradient in Patients Undergoing TOF Repair - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Comparison of RVOT Gradient Under Anaesthesia With Post-operative Gradient in Patients Undergoing TOF Repair The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03234582 Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation First Posted : July 31, 2017

2017 Clinical Trials

8. Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods with a line search only using gradient (PubMed)

Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods with a line search only using gradient In this paper, the Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods are developed to solve the optimality condition of an unconstrained optimization, they only utilize gradient information and have broader application scope. Under suitable conditions, the developed methods are globally convergent. Numerical tests and comparisons with the PRP+ conjugate gradient method only using gradient show that the methods are efficient.

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2017 Journal of Inequalities and Applications

9. LittleBrain: A gradient-based tool for the topographical interpretation of cerebellar neuroimaging findings. (PubMed)

LittleBrain: A gradient-based tool for the topographical interpretation of cerebellar neuroimaging findings. Gradient-based approaches to brain function have recently unmasked fundamental properties of brain organization. Diffusion map embedding analysis of resting-state fMRI data revealed a primary-to-transmodal axis of cerebral cortical macroscale functional organization. The same method was recently used to analyze resting-state data within the cerebellum, revealing for the first time (...) a sensorimotor-fugal macroscale organization principle of cerebellar function. Cerebellar gradient 1 extended from motor to non-motor task-unfocused (default-mode network) areas, and cerebellar gradient 2 isolated task-focused processing regions. Here we present a freely available and easily accessible tool that applies this new knowledge to the topographical interpretation of cerebellar neuroimaging findings. LittleBrain illustrates the relationship between cerebellar data (e.g., volumetric patient study

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2019 PLoS ONE

10. Performance of sparse-view CT reconstruction with multi-directional gradient operators. (PubMed)

Performance of sparse-view CT reconstruction with multi-directional gradient operators. To further reduce the noise and artifacts in the reconstructed image of sparse-view CT, we have modified the traditional total variation (TV) methods, which only calculate the gradient variations in x and y directions, and have proposed 8- and 26-directional (the multi-directional) gradient operators for TV calculation to improve the quality of reconstructed images. Different from traditional TV methods (...) , the proposed 8- and 26-directional gradient operators additionally consider the diagonal directions in TV calculation. The proposed method preserves more information from original tomographic data in the step of gradient transform to obtain better reconstruction image qualities. Our algorithms were tested using two-dimensional Shepp-Logan phantom and three-dimensional clinical CT images. Results were evaluated using the root-mean-square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and universal quality

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2019 PLoS ONE

11. Morphology and genetics of Lythrum salicaria from latitudinal gradients of the Northern Hemisphere grown in cold and hot common gardens. (PubMed)

Morphology and genetics of Lythrum salicaria from latitudinal gradients of the Northern Hemisphere grown in cold and hot common gardens. The aim of this project was to compare the phenotypic responses of global populations of Lythrum salicaria in cold/dry and hot/humid environments to determine if phenotypic plasticity varied between the native and invasive ranges, and secondarily if this variation was linked to genetic diversity. Common garden studies were conducted in Třeboň, Czech Republic (...) , and Lafayette, Louisiana, USA (cold/dry vs. hot/humid garden, respectively), using populations from latitudinal gradients in Eurasia and North America. Lythrum salicaria seeds collected from the same maternal plants across these latitudinal gradients were germinated and grown in Třeboň and Lafayette. Tissue masses (above-, below-ground, inflorescence and total) of these individuals were assessed at the end of each growing season (2006-2008). Worldwide field measurements of L. salicaria height were made

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2019 PLoS ONE

12. Multiscale spatial patterns of species diversity and biomass together with their correlations along geographical gradients in subalpine meadows. (PubMed)

Multiscale spatial patterns of species diversity and biomass together with their correlations along geographical gradients in subalpine meadows. Researchers frequently discuss spatial distribution patterns of species diversity and biomass together with their correlations along geographical gradients. Typical subalpine meadows occur widely on the east of the Loess Plateau, China; here, we selected nine mountains belonging to four mountain systems from north to south on the east of the plateau (...) . We analyzed five latitudinal and longitudinal gradients together with six elevational gradients to study the spatial distribution patterns of species diversity (including α, β, and γ diversity) and biomass plus with their relationships at various scales. Results showed that (1) for diversity, α-Diversity manifested unimodal variation patterns in horizontal spaces, peaking at high latitude and low longitude. However, α-diversity was not sensitive to elevation in vertical spaces and tended

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2019 PLoS ONE

13. Spleen and Liver Volumetrics as Surrogate Markers of Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient in Patients With Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension (PubMed)

Spleen and Liver Volumetrics as Surrogate Markers of Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient in Patients With Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension Noncirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) is a rare disease that may lead to serious clinical consequences. Currently, noninvasive tools for the assessment of NCPH are absent. We investigated the utility of spleen and liver volumetrics as a marker of the presence and severity of portal hypertension in this population. A cohort of NCPH patients evaluated between (...) 2003 and 2015 was retrospectively studied. The association of spleen and liver volumes with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) level was evaluated using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves. A cohort of patients with viral hepatitis-related liver disease was used as controls. Of the 86 patients with NCPH evaluated during the study period, 75 (mean age, 35 ± 17; 73% males) were included in the final analysis. Patients with portal hypertension had significantly higher spleen

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2018 Hepatology communications

14. Baseline diastolic pressure gradient and pressure reduction in chronic heart failure patients implanted with the CardioMEMSâ„¢ HF sensor (PubMed)

Baseline diastolic pressure gradient and pressure reduction in chronic heart failure patients implanted with the CardioMEMSâ„¢ HF sensor Remote haemodynamic monitoring (RHM) decreases hospitalization rates in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Many patients with chronic HF develop pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to left heart disease with some acquiring combined pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (Cpc-PH). The efficacy of RHM in achieving pulmonary pressure reductions in patients (...) with Cpc-PH vs. isolated post-capillary PH (Ipc-PH) is unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a higher baseline diastolic pressure gradient (DPGbaseline ) measured at the time of CardioMEMS™ HF sensor implantation is associated with lower reductions in pulmonary artery diastolic pressures (PADP).This was a retrospective analysis of 32 patients meeting clinical indications for CardioMEMS™ implantation. DPGbaseline categorized patients as Cpc-PH (DPG ≥ 7 mmHg) or Ipc-PH (DPG < 7 mmHg

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2018 ESC heart failure

15. Market Integration Predicts Human Gut Microbiome Attributes across a Gradient of Economic Development (PubMed)

Market Integration Predicts Human Gut Microbiome Attributes across a Gradient of Economic Development Economic development is marked by dramatic increases in the incidence of microbiome-associated diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic syndromes, but the lifestyle changes that drive alterations in the human microbiome are not known. We measured market integration as a proxy for economically related lifestyle attributes, such as ownership of specific market goods that index degree

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2018 mSystems

16. Natural and human-impacted diversity of bryophytes along an elevational gradient on an oceanic island (La Palma, Canarias). (PubMed)

Natural and human-impacted diversity of bryophytes along an elevational gradient on an oceanic island (La Palma, Canarias). Bryophytes have been proposed as ideal indicators of ecosystem change, because they are important components of forest integrity, and considerable research indicates that some groups are sensitive to the changes associated with specific human disturbances. Bryophyte richness and abundance have been found to vary predictably along elevational gradients, but the role (...) of human impacts on these distribution patterns remains unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of human disturbance on the elevational patterns of bryophyte diversity, along an elevational gradient. Along the gradient we collected three datasets in the following sites: preserved (P), forest track roadsides (R) and disturbed by agriculture/silviculture practices (D). Two survey plots of 100 m2 were established at every 200 m elevational step for each sites P, R, D, and in each plot

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2019 PLoS ONE

17. Estimating three-dimensional outflow and pressure gradients within the human eye. (PubMed)

Estimating three-dimensional outflow and pressure gradients within the human eye. In this paper we set the previously reported pressure-dependent, ordinary differential equation outflow model by Smith and Gardiner for the human eye, into a new three-dimensional (3D) porous media outflow model of the eye, and calibrate model parameters using data reported in the literature. Assuming normal outflow through anterior pathways, we test the ability of 3D flow model to predict the pressure elevation (...) with a silicone oil tamponade. Then assuming outflow across the retinal pigment epithelium is normal, we test the ability of the 3D model to predict the pressure elevation in Schwartz-Matsuo syndrome. For the first time we find the flow model can successfully model both conditions, which helps to build confidence in the validity and accuracy of the 3D pressure-dependent outflow model proposed here. We employ this flow model to estimate the translaminar pressure gradient within the optic nerve head of a normal

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2019 PLoS ONE

18. Cushioned-Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation (C-DGUC) improves the isolation efficiency of extracellular vesicles. (PubMed)

Cushioned-Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation (C-DGUC) improves the isolation efficiency of extracellular vesicles. Ultracentrifugation (UC) is recognized as a robust approach for the isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, recent studies have highlighted limitations of UC including low recovery efficiencies and aggregation of EVs that could impact downstream functional analyses. We tested the benefit of using a liquid cushion of iodixanol during UC to address such shortcomings (...) . In this study, we compared the yield and purity of EVs isolated from J774A.1 macrophage conditioned media by conventional UC and cushioned-UC (C-UC). We extended our study to include two other common EV isolation approaches: ultrafiltration (UF) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) sedimentation. After concentrating EVs using these four methods, the concentrates underwent further purification by using OptiPrep density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC). Our data show that C-DGUC provides a two-fold improvement

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2019 PLoS ONE

19. Development, integration and use of an ultra-high-strength gradient system on a human-size 3 T magnet for small animal MRI. (PubMed)

Development, integration and use of an ultra-high-strength gradient system on a human-size 3 T magnet for small animal MRI. This study aims to integrate an ultra-high-strength gradient coil system on a clinical 3 T magnet and demonstrate its preclinical imaging capabilities. Dedicated phantoms were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the performance of the gradient system. Advanced MR imaging sequences, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (...) (QSM), were implemented and executed on an ex vivo specimen as well as in vivo rats. The DTI and QSM results on the phantom agreed well with those in the literature. Furthermore, studies on ex vivo specimens have demonstrated the applicability of DTI and QSM on our system to probe microstructural changes in a mild traumatic brain injury rat model. The feasibility of in vivo rat DTI was also demonstrated. We showed that the inserted ultra-high-strength gradient coil was successfully integrated

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2019 PLoS ONE

20. Tree Leaf Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity Differ along a Gradient of Urban Intensity (PubMed)

Tree Leaf Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity Differ along a Gradient of Urban Intensity Tree leaf-associated microbiota have been studied in natural ecosystems but less so in urban settings, where anthropogenic pressures on trees could impact microbial communities and modify their interaction with their hosts. Additionally, trees act as vectors spreading bacterial cells in the air in urban environments due to the density of microbial cells on aerial plant surfaces. Characterizing tree (...) leaf bacterial communities along an urban gradient is thus key to understand the impact of anthropogenic pressures on urban tree-bacterium interactions and on the overall urban microbiome. In this study, we aimed (i) to characterize phyllosphere bacterial communities of seven tree species in urban environments and (ii) to describe the changes in tree phyllosphere bacterial community structure and diversity along a gradient of increasing urban intensity and at two degrees of tree isolation. Our

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2017 mSystems

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