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81. Integrated care for older people (?ICOPE)?: guidance for person-centred assessment and pathways in primary care

in intrinsic capacity can be done with the help of the integrated care for older people (ICOPE) screening tool. • Those identi?ed with these conditions are re- ferred to a primary health-care clinic for in-depth assessment, which informs the development of a personalied care plan • The care plan may include multiple interventions to manage declines in intrinsic capacity and to optimie functional ability, such as by physical exercises, oral supplemental nutrition, cognitive stimulation and home adaptations (...) . Most care plans will include interventions to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise; • the management and treatment of underlying diseases, multimorbidities and geriatric syndromes. WHO has developed clinical guidelines to address most of the relevant chronic diseases that may contribute to declines in intrinsic capacity (2). Every health-care provider should have access to these guidelines; • support for self-care and self-management; • the management of any advanced chronic conditions

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

82. Treatment of Depression in Children: A Systematic Review

therapy, behavioral activation, other behavioral therapy, IPT, directive counseling, Katathym-imaginative psychotherapy, family therapy, parent education, self-help groups, problem-solving therapy, autonomic training, combined-modality therapy, psychological adaptation therapies Lifestyle: Exercise (physical activity), diet therapy, mindfulness (including mindfulness-based stress reduction), meditation (including mindfulness mediation), relaxation therapy, massage therapy, music therapy, art therapy (...) To be provided in the final report. Key Informants To be provided in the final report. Technical Expert Panel To be provided in the final report. Peer Reviewers To be provided in the final report. vi Treatment of Depression in Children: A Systematic Review Structured Abstract Background. Depressive disorders can affect long-term mental and physical health functioning among children and adolescents, including increasing risk of suicide. Despite access to several nonpharmacologic, pharmacologic, and combined

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

83. Reducing Acute Care Length of Stay in Newfoundland & Labrador

); ? the combination of these trends results in an exponential increase in the total number of ALOS days among increasing age groups of acute care patients (Figure 3). The ALOS profiles for different types of acute care patients tend to follow a similar pattern in which most patients have shorter stays and fewer patients have longer stays (see Figure 4 which shows data for all of Canada). Medical patients are the largest group in terms of numbers of acute care patients. Mental health patients have the longest ALOS (...) or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, data, product, or process disclosed in this report. Conclusions drawn from, or actions undertaken on the basis of, information included in this report are the sole responsibility of the user. This report is the property of the Newfoundland & Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research (NLCAHR). Reproduction of this document for non-commercial purposes is permitted provided proper

2018 Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information

84. Cardiac rehabilitation

and therapeutic effects on many chronic conditions including CHD. 38 The term ‘physical activity’ is defined as bodily movement which requires energy expenditure. 39 Exercise is a subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and aims to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness. 39 All individuals should be advised to minimise the amount of time they spend sedentary, especially over extended periods and should aim to be active daily. 8 This should be in line (...) with UK guidance (see Annex 2). 38 Over one week, activity should add up to 150 minutes (2½ hours) of moderate-intensity activity in bouts of 10 minutes or more, or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity. This can include occupational and leisure time activity and may be accumulated in bouts of activities such as brisk walking. 8 In addition it is recommended that all adults should undertake physical activity to improve muscle strength on at least two days a week. 38 Those who are moderately active

2017 SIGN

85. Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular disease

of this guideline for the purpose of implementation in NHSScotland. Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular diseaseContents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 The need for a guideline 1 1.2 Remit of the guideline 2 1.3 Risk estimation 4 1.4 Statement of intent 5 2 Key recommendations 7 2.1 Estimating cardiovascular risk 7 2.2 Diet 7 2.3 Physical activity 7 2.4 Smoking 7 2.5 Antiplatelet therapy 7 2.6 Lipid lowering 7 3 Cardiovascular risk 8 3.1 Risk factors 8 3.2 The concept of risk and why it matters 8 3.3 Risk (...) syndrome 21 6 Physical activity 22 6.1 Definitions 22 6.2 Physical activity and cardiovascular risk 22 7 Smoking 26 7.1 Tobacco exposure and cardiovascular risk 26 7.2 Smoking cessation interventions 27 8 Alcohol 32 8.1 Alcohol and cardiovascular risk 32 9 Antiplatelet therapy 35 9.1 Antiplatelet agents for people with established cardiovascular disease 35 9.2 Antiplatelet agents for people without cardiovascular disease 36 9.3 Antiplatelet agents for people with diabetes 38 Risk estimation

2017 SIGN

86. Risk factors for breast cancer: A review of the evidence 2018

4.7.12 Diet—foods high in carotenoids 108 4.7.13 Diet—Mediterranean diet 110 4.7.14 Diet—phytoestrogens 112 Breast cancer risk factors: A review of the evidence iv 4.7.15 Diet—glycaemic index 114 4.7.16 Diet—total energy 115 4.7.17 Diet—sugar 117 4.7.18 Diet—fat 118 4.7.19 Diet—processed meat 119 4.7.20 Diet—red meat 121 4.7.21 Environmental tobacco smoke 123 4.7.22 Tobacco smoking 125 4.7.23 Physical activity 127 4.7.24 Shift work disrupting circadian rhythm 130 4.8 Medical factors 133 4.8.1 Aspirin (...) and risk of breast cancer 393 Table D.53 Diet—processed meat and risk of breast cancer 395 Table D.54 Diet—red meat and risk of breast cancer 398 Table D.55 Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of breast cancer 401 Table D.56 Tobacco smoking and risk of breast cancer 405 Table D.57 Physical activity and risk of breast cancer 409 Table D.58 Shift work disrupting circadian rhythm and risk of breast cancer 415 Table D.59 Aspirin and risk of breast cancer 420 Table D.60 Cardiac glycosides and risk

2018 Cancer Australia

87. Interventions to improve the labour market outcomes of youth: a systematic review of training, entrepreneurship promotion, employment services and subsidized employment interventions

of the underlying research. The review is systematic through a clearly defined and transparent inclusion and exclusion criteria, an objective and extensive search, a punctual data extraction process, a standardized statistical testing and analysis, and a thorough reporting of findings. These elements and underlying methods and tools were laid out and reviewed in the protocol (Kluve et al., 2014). The evidence suggests that investing in youth through active labour market measures may pay off. The evidence also (...) . A number of Campbell’s editors, librarians, methodologists and external peer reviewers contribute. The Campbell Collaboration P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen 0403 Oslo, Norway www.campbellcollaboration.org 4 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org Table of contents PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY 12 ABSTRACT 15 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 17 Background 17 Objectives 17 Search methods 17 Selection criteria 18 Data collection and analysis 18 Results 19 Conclusions 21 1 BACKGROUND 24 1.1 The research problem: why

2017 Campbell Collaboration

88. GCPH response - a healthier future

. Increasing active travel, like increasing physical activity more generally, cannot be achieved through behavioural focused interventions alone and requires changes in our approaches to planning, transportation and sport and recreation. A recent Sustrans research report highlighted that the main barrier to active travel to school is parental concerns over safety 51 . This is consistent with GCPH research into the influences on adult travel choices 52 . Bike training and road safety education is important (...) of estimates of physical activity based on the SHS needs to be reviewed, particularly in relation to children's physical activity for which other surveys provide quite different results. It would be timely, at the outset of this strategy, to have a more robust and accurate means of measuring physical activity. In addition, we recognise the inherent challenges in getting accurate dietary intake data and we wonder whether a similar approach could be adopted to food data as was used for alcohol data – to use

2018 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

89. Improving the health of the public by 2040

by lifestyle factors, including smoking, diet and physical activity, alongside nascent concerns with social inequalities of health. The recent concept of a ‘fifth wave’ is one defined by a ‘culture of health’, in which the value of health and incentives for healthy behaviour are maximised, healthy choices are promoted by default, and factors that create a culture and environment which promote unhealthy behaviour are minimised. 23 Ecological public health The concept of ‘ecological public health’ focuses (...) recent UK initiatives in public health research 111 Annex IV. Previous reviews of UK public health research 113 Annex V. Some recent UK initiatives for the strategic coordination of research 114 Annex VI. Examples of the impact of population data 115 Glossary 116 Improving the health of the public by 20404 Executive summary Executive summary Over the coming decades, the UK population will face a wide range of complex health challenges and opportunities, many of which can only be fully addressed

2017 Academy of Medical Sciences

90. Wellbeing indicators across the life cycle

“individuals have the psychological, social and physical resources they need to meet a particular psychological, social and/or physical challenge.” It is usually multidimensional, capturing all important aspects in life, including mental health, physical health, economic wellbeing, social wellbeing and liveability. Wellbeing can be measured objectively and subjectively. WELLBEING INDICATORS ACROSS THE LIFE CYCLE | SAX INSTITUTE 5 Indicators and measurement Data availability The availability (...) in the academic and grey literature. We assessed the quality of evidence for each indicator using three criteria: • Frequency of inclusion in key frameworks (rated as high, medium or low), for the whole population, children, youth and older adults • Reliability — the consistency of the statistical association of the indicator with wellbeing outcomes in multiple reputable journal articles or reports (high, medium or low) • Availability of data for NSW (including administrative data, if known) (measured as high

2017 Sax Institute Evidence Check

91. Community-based approaches to adolescent obesity

as discretionary foods. 21 These foods are typically energy dense and nutrient poor, and are not considered as part of a recommended diet — except occasionally by the physically active. 21 COMMUNITY BASED APPROACHES TO ADOLESCENT OBESITY | SAX INSTITUTE 11 Physical activity has a vital role in adolescent health, and contributes to short and long-term physical, social and psychological development. 22-24 Improved academic performance, improved social and mental health, and decreased anxiety and depression have (...) been associated with physical activity in adolescents. 25, 26 However, epidemiological studies have identified an increasing prevalence of inactivity in those aged 11–15 years old, with nine out of ten young people not meeting national physical activity guidelines. 24 In Australia, adolescents aged 15–17 years old average one hour of physical activity per day and three hours of screen- based leisure activities per day 27 , well outside the Australian national physical activity and sedentary

2017 Sax Institute Evidence Check

92. Addressing the global challenge of multimorbidity: Lessons from the BRICS countries

Obesity, for instance, increases the risk of a host of conditions, and any factors that affect the risk of obesity – such as poor diet or lack of physical activity – will therefore influence the risk of multiple conditions. Diseases may also share underlying pathology – chronic inflammation, for example, increases the risk of multiple conditions. Developing one condition may also predispose to another, through physiological or behavioural mechanisms (or both). An example is the increased risk (...) , such as changes in cytokine levels, and behavioural pathways, such as reduced physical exercise or impacts on other aspects of personal care or health-seeking behaviour. In some cases, conditions are likely to share underlying causes. Prevention and treatment addressing these shared factors may therefore deliver benefits across conditions. However, some common comorbidities may be quite dissimilar. For example, people with psychiatric disorders also experience extremely high rates of cardiovascular and other

2017 Academy of Medical Sciences

93. Enhancing Equitable Access to Assistive Technologies in Canada

brief summarizes research evidence drawn from systematic reviews of the research literature and occasionally from single research studies. A systematic review is a summary of studies addressing a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and appraise research studies, and to synthesize data from the included studies. The evidence brief does not contain recommendations, which would have required the authors of the brief to make judgments based (...) Canadians, but (where possible) it also gives particular attention to two groups: • people living with a disability (includes cognitive impairments, intellectual disabilities, mental health or substance abuse problems, and vision and hearing impairment); and • people living in rural/remote communities. Many other groups warrant serious consideration as well, and a similar approach could be adopted for any of them. † The PROGRESS framework was developed by Tim Evans and Hilary Brown (Evans T, Brown H

2017 McMaster Health Forum

94. Later school start times for supporting the education, health and well-being of high school students

BACKGROUND 12 Description of the condition 13 Description of the intervention 15 How the intervention might work 15 Why it is important to do this review 16 Objectives 17 Methods 17 Search methods for identification of studies 20 Data collection and analysis 22 Assessment of risk of bias in included studies 23 Data synthesis 26 RESULTS 29 Description of studies 29 Narrative synthesis 38 Mental health indicators 40 Student truancy or attendance 40 Student alertness 41 Missing outcome data 42 Adverse (...) of 11 interventions in six countries. What studies are included? Included studies were randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series studies with data for students aged 13 to 19 years and that compared 8 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org different school start times. Studies had to report either primary outcomes of interest (academic outcomes, amount or quality of sleep, mental health indicators, attendance, or alertness

2017 Campbell Collaboration

95. Developing a National Pain Strategy for Canada

. Whenever possible, the evidence brief summarizes research evidence drawn from systematic reviews of the research literature and occasionally from single research studies. A systematic review is a summary of studies addressing a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and appraise research studies and to synthesize data from the included studies. The evidence brief does not contain recommendations, which would have required the authors of the brief (...) ; • exploring new and innovative treatment options and alternative public-health policies; • sharing data and best practices; and • reducing the stigma of problematic substance use.(6) The media has also given significant attention to the opioid crisis and many of the same potential solutions. A recent media analysis by a patient advocate also identified the media coverage being given to the importance of awareness-raising and education, and to a number of cross-cutting themes, including: • learning from

2017 McMaster Health Forum

96. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Joint Position Statement on the Cardiovascular Screening of Competitive Athletes

Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation . 2007 ; 115 : 1643–1655 The distinction between competitive and recreational athletes often lies in the ability and freedom afforded by the participant to judge when it is prudent to reduce or stop exertion. x 3 Poirier, P., Sharma, S., and Pipe, A. The Atlantic Rift: guidelines for athletic screening-where should Canada stand?. Can J Cardiol . 2016 ; 32 : 400–406 (...) . A prospective study of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults. N Engl J Med . 2016 ; 374 : 2441–2452 , x 30 Pilmer, C.M., Porter, B., Kirsh, J.A. et al. Scope and nature of sudden cardiac death before age 40 in Ontario: a report from the cardiac death advisory committee of the office of the chief coroner. Heart Rhythm . 2013 ; 10 : 517–523 One might argue that PPS might lead to a diagnosis of heart disease, and the provision of advice regarding vigorous physical activity that might reduce

2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society

97. Research gaps identified in systematic reviews and health technology assessments published by the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services in 2015

and parent education/ guidance and counselling (5). Information and communication strategies targeting physical activity and one or more lifestyle changes This systematic review included 79 comparisons (from 75 studies) conducted in 22 different countries. The main conclusion of this systematic review was that infor- mation and communication strategies had beneficial effects for certain outcomes with short-term follow-up when compared with the control group who did not re- ceive the intervention. At long (...) -term follow-up, we found that there was less caloric intake in the intervention group compared to the control group. For other outcomes, there was little or no difference between groups. We assessed the quality of the evi- dence to be of moderate to very low quality. Based on this documentation, we found little or no effect of population-targeted strategies to promote physical activity com- pared with a population-targeted interventions to improve diet (3). Knowledge gaps – Information

2017 Norwegian Institute of Public Health

98. WHO recommendation on duration of bladder catheterization after surgical repair of simple obstetric urinary fistula

and midwives to improve fistula surgery outcomes. • Assess the effectiveness of physical exercise before and after surgery/ rehabilitation for improving surgical outcomes. • Determine if simple surgical procedures (i.e. 2–3 simple sutures to adapt fistula edges) could enhance spontaneous closure of the fistula or increase the success rate of the repair surgery. • Determine the optimal time between the occurrence of the fistula and the repair . • Describe the bladder dysfunctions after fistula surgery (...) mediation relating to disputes arising under the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the mediation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization. Suggested citation. WHO recommendation on duration of bladder catheterization after surgical repair of simple obstetric urinary fistula. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) data. CIP data are available at http://apps.who.int/iris. Sales, rights and licensing. To purchase WHO

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

99. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

set the AI for sodium for the population aged 19-50 years at 1500 mg (65 mmol) per day based on three criteria: (1) the amount of sodium that would likely need to be ingested in order to meet the needs of all other essential nutrients through food (2) the amount of sodium that would need to be replenished due to sweat losses in un-acclimatized individuals who are exposed to high temperatures or who are moderately physically active (as recommended in other DRI reports) and (3) the level of sodium (...) on cardiovascular and renal disease outcomes and related risk factors, as well as evidence from prospective cohort studies on the associations between sodium, potassium, or sodium to potassium ratio and these outcomes. The purpose of the review is to provide a future Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Committee with the evidence on chronic disease endpoints for consideration in reviewing the DRIs for sodium and potassium. Data sources. PubMed ® , Embase ® , the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

100. What are the estimated costs of childhood overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland?

body mass index (BMI). 5What are the estimated costs of childhood overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland? ? To make recommendations based on the findings, including recommendations on measures that will facilitate ongoing work on the cost of overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland, drawing on both routine data collection in health and social care services, and specific population-based research programmes. Link with EU Joint Action on Nutrition and Physical Activity (JANPA) project (...) O’Malley, Laura Pimpin, Michelle Queally and Laura Webber ISBN: 978-1-905767-75-5 Publication date: November 2017 What are the estimated costs of childhood overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland? Table of contents Table of contents 1 List of tables 3 List of figures 1 List of abbreviations 1 Acknowledgements 3 Executive summary 4 Introduction 4 Aims and objectives 5 Link with EU Joint Action on Nutrition and Physical Activity (JANPA) project 6 Literature review 6 Methods 11 Results 20

2018 Institute of Public Health in Ireland

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