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181. Assessing individual & community impacts of Stalled Spaces-funded projects - See more at:

have shown that community gardens can enhance social opportunities, improve access to food and nutrition, increase levels of physical activity and improve people’s mental health 50,51 . Community gardens can also be a particularly useful resource for older people, as illustrated by two case control studies of allotment gardeners and non- users, which identified that negative social- and health-related indicators such as high stress levels and loneliness were less common in participants (...) (n=95). Physical activity levels Seventy-four per cent of people reported that they had at least become a bit more active since becoming involved, with the remaining 26% indicating that their activity levels had not changed. Men were slightly more likely to report becoming much more physically active than women, although there was little difference observed by gender for those that reported becoming no more active. In terms of impact by socioeconomic deprivation, people from the 20% most deprived

2015 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

182. Pedestrian and cyclist casualty trends in Scotland

. Adopting approaches to neighbourhood design which enable safe walking, cycling and play will help create safer and more sustainable community environments. In a generally favourable policy context, the challenge is to increase investment in active travel sufficiently to enable significant modal shifts towards walking and cycling to be achieved. Increases in everyday walking and cycling are likely to provide the multiple benefits with increased physical activity leading to better physical and mental (...) health, improved air quality and reduced carbon emissions. 4 Limitations in available data, and the disparate sources of data on active travel, highlight a need to create an accessible active travel web resource – providing statistics and research on active travel trends, casualties, new infrastructure and related initiatives. Such a resource would provide an improved evidence base for debate, would help to give walking a higher profile and would help inform how further progress can be made to both

2015 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

183. Evaluating Sistema Scotland - initial findings report

to provide robust evidence to address the evaluation aims. The role of the GCPH within the evaluation is to lead the collection of reliable data and to describe key impacts and outcomes of Sistema Scotland’s work on programme participants, their families, their community and the wider benefits of this work at a regional or societal level. In addition to the resources provided by the GCPH, Audit Scotland have funded a part-time research post (0.6 FTE) until May 2015. The post was to support the evaluation (...) to the rest of Scotland, and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) data from 2012 show that the level of income deprivation in Stirling is below that of Scotland as a whole. Despite this, Raploch has not fared as well and the gap between Raploch and the rest of Stirling has grown. Raploch faces a range of health and social inequalities, including relatively low life expectancy, high crime, high unemployment and, until recently, poorer quality housing. In addition, two of Raploch’s four SIMD zones

2015 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

184. Evaluating Sistema Scotland: evaluation plan

and sport attendance and participation within the UK 83 . A 2013 Scottish Government study examined the interactions between the newly available data on cultural and sport participation and data on self-rated health and life satisfaction from the Scottish Household Survey 84 . Those who participated in cultural activities were nearly 38% more likely to have reported good health and were 30% more likely to have reported they were satisfied with their lives compared with those who had not participated (...) conditions, disposable income, educational attainment, smoking status, leisure time, physical activity, and urban/non-urban 15residency). Interestingly the effect was observed only among residents of urban areas. These and other Scandinavian longitudinal studies demonstrate the correlation between cultural/arts attendance and reduced mortality. The fact that these relationships remain significant after adjusting for socioeconomic variables is striking. These studies do not however illuminate the causal

2014 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

185. Management of Hepatitis C

of information Completely revised 14 Implementing the guideline Minor update 1.3 STATEMENT of INTENT This guideline is not intended to be construed or to serve as a standard of care. Standards of care are determined on the basis of all clinical data available for an individual case and are subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advance and patterns of care evolve. Adherence to guideline recommendations will not ensure a successful outcome in every case, nor should they be construed (...) infected with HCV should be advised to avoid activities which could result in percutaneous or mucous membrane exposure to their infected blood, such as the sharing of razors and toothbrushes. 4.2 TRANSMISSIoN THRouGH INjECTING DRuG uSE The sharing of injecting equipment by drug users is the principal means through which infection is transmitted in developed countries. 14, 34 observational data demonstrate that interventions such as needle and syringe exchange and methadone maintenance therapy

2013 SIGN

186. Evaluating the effectiveness of the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games

A variety of opportunities for wider community involvement should be provided, allowing local people to promote Glasgow’s reputation as a friendly city. Commemorative events should be held to celebrate the city’s achievements after the Games. 4 Health and wellbeing (individual behaviour change) The Games should be used to increase opportunities for and promotion of healthy eating, smoke-free environments and physical activity (including more opportunities for safer active travel). 5 Image of Glasgow (...) Particular efforts should be made to improve the perception of Glasgow in the run up to and beyond the Games in order to boost both tourism and new business investment. A long-term strategy for showcasing local products and businesses should be developed. 6 Housing and public space Public space should be designed so that it promotes physical activity and social interaction. People directly affected by the construction of the 2014 Athletes’ Village should be involved in the planning process. Housing

2014 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

187. Research to support the evaluation and implementation of adult cooking skills interventions in the UK: pilot RCT with process and economic evaluation components: Phase 2

, NO, DS, HB and LV. Qualitative data was analysed by RP and MS. DS and JA provided statistical advice, LV and HB advised on economic evaluation, and MS advised on qualitative analyses. All authors contributed to data interpretation. The project was managed overall JH, supported by JA, AA, MS and MW. The report was drafted by JH, NO, RP, FB, MS, JA and MW. All authors commented on drafts and approved the final version. MW is guarantor for the work. Acknowledgements This work would not have been (...) 1. Work Package 1 – analysis of NDNS data 28 1.1. Background 28 1.2. Methods 29 1.2.1. Data source 29 1.2.2. Inclusion criteria 30 1.2.3. Variables of interest 30 1.2.4. Statistical analysis 31 1.2.5. Ethics 31 1.3. Results 31 1.4. Discussion 38 1.4.1. Summary of results 38 1.4.2. Strengths and limitations of methods 38 1.4.3. Interpretation and implications of results 39 1.5. Conclusion 41 2. Work Package 2 – analysis of course manual & intervention observations 42 2.1. Background 42 2.1.1

2014 Public Health Research Consortium

188. Controversies in Obesity Management

, and it is also being explored in patients with lower levels of obesity (body mass index [BMI] 30 kg/m 2 or >27 kg/m 2 who meet the following criteria: 1) serious risk factors such as coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, or T2DM; and 2) have failed to lose at least one pound per week after six months of a weight-loss regimen that includes diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy. None of the public or private payers surveyed cover vBloc (IGB and DJBL (...) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass ©Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, 2015 v [Return to Table of Contents] SF-36 Standard form – 36 SOS Swedish Obese Subjects T2DM Type 2 diabetes mellitus USPSTF United States Preventive Services Task Force vBloc Vagus nerve block VSG Vertical sleeve gastrectomy ©Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, 2015 vi [Return to Table of Contents] Executive Summary As the obesity epidemic has spread around the world, a deeper understanding of the drivers of weight gain

2015 California Technology Assessment Forum

189. Clinical practice guideline for the management of patients with Parkinson´s disease

should be advised to exercise caution with medication that could alter their ability to drive or operate machinery, and should read the information available on the packaging of this medication: the warning symbol or pictogram on the box (driving pictogram), which is supplemented by the information provided in the prospectus. v Persons with PD are recommended to maintain proper sleep hygiene, by doing physical exercise at least a few hours before going to sleep and using satin sheets to facilitate (...) causes of urinary dysfunction in patients with PD, such as prostate hypertrophy or cancer, is recommended. v Changes in diet and physical activity are recommended for patients with PD and constipation. Increase intake of liquids and fibre, with fibre supplements and stool softeners, if necessary. v It is advisable to consider and evaluate treatments that frequently cause constipation (tricyclic antidepressants, loperamide, codeine and opiodes, antimuscarinics, and some antiparkinson drugs). v

2015 GuiaSalud

190. Systematic review of needs for medical devices for ageing populations

/medical_devices/en/ ISBN 978 92 4 150922 0 Systematic review of needs for medical devices for ageing populationsWHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Systematic review of needs for medical devices for ageing populations: commissioned to the Australian Safety and Efficacy Register of New Interventional Procedures – Surgical (ASERNIP-S) by the World Health Organization (WHO). 1.Equipment and Supplies – supply and distribution. 2.Health Services for the Aged. 3.Self-Help Devices – supply and distribution (...) ). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO website ( form/en/index.html). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its


191. Reducing the Burden of Obesity

. There is evidence to suggest that education programs can have a positive impact on physical activity levels. 29 30 Surgery for weight loss All individuals seeking weight loss should begin with non-surgical therapy and consider bariatric surgery only if they are unable to achieve sufficient long-term weight loss and co-morbidity improvement. 31 Clinical decisions should be based on a comprehensive evaluation of the patient’s health and prediction of future morbidity and mortality. Surgical options to address (...) R, Fleming F, Dick A. Perioperative outcomes among patients with the modified metabolic syndrome who are undergoing non- cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology: 113 (4) 859-872. 27 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007. From: 28 Vos, T. et al. Assessing Cost


192. Allyson Pollock and Graham Kirkwood: Tackle and scrum should be banned in school rugby

in catastrophic injuries although not in other injuries including concussion. [ 24] In the UK, teacher training in the skills of rugby are lacking as is concussion awareness training. [ 25, 26] In July 2016, the four UK chief medical officers (CMOs) rejected the call for a ban on tackling in youth rugby citing a report [ 27] they had commissioned from the Physical Activity Expert Group (PAEG) chaired by Professor Charlie Foster of University of Oxford and a paper [ 28] authored by two World Rugby employees (...) Sport Collision Injury Collective. Open Letter: Preventing injuries in children playing school rugby. 01 Mar 2016. . Department for Education. GCSE PE activity list. Jan 2015. . Rice SG. Medical conditions affecting sports participation. Pediatrics 2008;121(4):841-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0080 Spinks AB, McClure RJ. Quantifying the risk of sports injury: a systematic review of activity-specific rates for children under 16 years of age. Br J Sports Med 2007;41(9):548-57. doi: 10.1136/bjsm

2017 The BMJ Blog

193. Congenital Heart Disease in the Older Adult

, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and stroke. Attainment of ideal body weight, with a BMI goal of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m 2 , healthy eating, and a healthy lifestyle should be stressed and monitored. This would include sodium restriction, a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-type eating plan, and regular physical activity, as determined by the underlying cardiac situation. Moderation of alcohol consumption should also be discussed. Pharmacological therapy should be initiated per current published (...) arrhythmias, connective tissue disease, and familial aortic aneurysm. Issues related to contraception and pregnancy will not be addressed in this document, although we recognize that some women >40 years of age may still have child-bearing potential. The writing group was charged with the task of performing an evidence-based assessment of the data and providing a class of recommendation and a level of evidence to each recommendation according to the ACC/AHA classification system ( ). Table 1. Applying

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2015 American Heart Association

194. 2015 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Management of Adult Patients With Supraventricular Tachycardia

between guidelines, data standards, appropriate use criteria, and performance measures are addressed elsewhere. Intended Use Practice guidelines provide recommendations applicable to patients with or at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The focus is on medical practice in the United States, but guidelines developed in collaboration with other organizations may have a broader target. Although guidelines may inform regulatory or payer decisions, they are intended to improve quality of care (...) in the interest of patients. Evidence Review Guideline Writing Committee (GWC) members review the literature; weigh the quality of evidence for or against particular tests, treatments, or procedures; and estimate expected health outcomes. In developing recommendations, the GWC uses evidence-based methodologies that are based on all available data. Literature searches focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) but also include registries, nonrandomized comparative and descriptive studies, case series, cohort

2015 American Heart Association

195. Update on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Light of Recent Evidence

, conducted from 2001 to 2012, provided extensive longitudinal data on the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention, targeting weight reduction through caloric restriction and increased physical activity, on CVD rates (the primary outcome) and CVD risk factors among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this trial, 2575 participants were randomized to a control group and 2570 to an intervention that consisted of a weekly goal for physical activity of 50 min/wk initially, increasing to ≥175 min/wk (...) commuting, occupational, home, and leisure time. Subjects in both groups received dietary counseling, which included caloric intake (55% complex carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 15% protein) designed to obtain a negative balance of 500 kcal/d against energy expended. Compared with the control group, supervised exercise produced significant improvements in physical fitness, A 1c , systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, waist circumference

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2015 American Heart Association

196. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease

depressive disorder is characterized by ≥1 episodes of major depression without episodes of mania/hypomania. Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of mania/hypomania, generally alternating with episodes of major depression. DSM-5 indicates Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 5th edition. * The other symptoms must co-occur with depressed or irritable mood or diminished interest/pleasure. † The other symptoms must co-occur with euphoria or irritability. The overall objective (...) , parent education, tobacco smoking status, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rateSensitivity analyses further controlled for hostility Self-reported depressive symptoms assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression ScaleCIMT measured via ultrasound images from right and left common carotid, bulb, and internal carotid arteriesPulse-wave velocity measured via ultrasound of carotid and femoral arteries Higher depressive symptoms were independently associated

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2015 American Heart Association

197. Current clinical irrelevance of luteal phase defect: a committee opinion

-adrenal axes in athletic women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989;68:402–11. 29. de Souza MJ, van Heest J, Demers LM, Lasley BL. Luteal phase de?ciency in recreational runners: evidence for a hypometabolic state. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:337–46. 30. De Souza MJ, Leidy HJ, O'Donnell E, Lasley B, Williams NI. Fasting ghrelin levels in physically active women: relationship with menstrual disturbances and metabolic hormones. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:3536–42. 31. Wuttke W, Theiling K, Hinney B (...) progester- one levels, endometrial biopsy, and other diagnostic studies have not been established, and performance of these tests cannot be recommended. IFDIAGNOSISISNOTPOSSIBLE,IS TREATMENTFORLUTEALINADEQUACYEVER APPROPRIATE? The?rstapproachtotreatmentofpotentiallutealinadequacy isthecorrectionofanyunderlyingcondition.Ifnounderlying abnormality (e.g., hypothalamic dysfunction, thyroid dysfunction, or hyperprolactinemia) is identi?ed, treatment becomes empiric and is based on limited reliable data

2015 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

198. Eligibility and Disqualification Recommendations for Competitive Athletes With Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Task Force 3: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy and Other Cardiomyopathies, and Myocarditis

recently, these data have been confirmed in genetically positive patients, which is particularly relevant to the athlete, raising concern not only with regard to competitive sports but also regarding participation in moderate to extreme recreational physical activities. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death in ARVC commonly occur during exertion, including competitive sports, , , and frequent endurance exercise increases the risk for ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation and heart (...) ) . Other recommendations for sports participation in patients with HCM and ICDs can be found in the Task Force 9 report on “Arrhythmias and Conduction Defects.” LV Noncompaction LV noncompaction (LVNC) is an uncommon and recently recognized cardiac disease with sporadic or familial occurrence. Its true incidence and prevalence are not known, in part because of difficulty in making the diagnosis and lack of agreement on criteria, as well as its heterogeneous clinical spectrum and usual requirement

2015 American Heart Association

199. Eligibility and Disqualification Recommendations for Competitive Athletes With Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Task Force 4: Congenital Heart Disease

testing, should be considered before any physical activity, because this population represents a very high risk of sudden death. Additional caution should be taken when these patients are exercising at altitude (“Elevated Pulmonary Vascular Resistance in CHD”). Unfortunately, data to address the safety of participation in competitive sports in this population are lacking. Recommendations In athletes with unrepaired cyanotic heart disease, a complete evaluation is recommended, which should involve (...) of ventricular function to evaluate the medium- and long-term effects of exercise participation. Limited data are available to assess the risks associated with sports participation in those who have had a double-switch procedure that resulted in the redirection of pulmonary venous blood to the LV and aorta. However, assessment of the venous baffle and Rastelli or arterial switch integrity is required before consideration of sports participation. Recommendations It is recommended that before participation

2015 American Heart Association

200. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

useMedical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use Fifth edition 2015WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use -- 5th ed. 1.Contraception – methods. 2.Family Planning Services. 3.Eligibility Determination – standards. 4.Quality Assurance, Health Care. 5.Health Services Accessibility. I.World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 154915 8 (NLM classification: WP 630) © World Health Organization 2015 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health (...) Organization are available on the WHO website ( or can be pur- chased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO website ( The designations employed

2015 World Health Organisation Guidelines

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