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1. Common pitfalls and mistakes in the set-up, analysis and interpretation of results in network meta-analysis: what clinicians should look for in a published article. (PubMed)

Common pitfalls and mistakes in the set-up, analysis and interpretation of results in network meta-analysis: what clinicians should look for in a published article. Several tools have been developed to evaluate the extent to which the findings from a network meta-analysis would be valid; however, applying these tools is a time-consuming task and often requires specific expertise. Clinicians have little time for critical appraisal, and they need to understand the key elements that help them (...) , inconsistency can be always evaluated statistically, and it should be specifically investigated and reported in the published paper. Network meta-analysis allows researchers to list treatments in preferential order; however, in this paper we demonstrated that rankings could be misleading if based on the probability of being the best. Clinicians should always be interested in the effect sizes rather than the naive rankings.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

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2017 Evidence-Based Mental Health

2. Trends in statistical methods in articles published in Archives of Plastic Surgery between 2012 and 2017 (PubMed)

of statistical methods, and the type of statistical software used. We checked whether there were errors in the description of statistical methods and results. A total of 230 articles (59.3%) published in APS between 2012 and 2017 used one or more statistical method. Within these articles, there were 261 applications of statistical methods with continuous or ordinal outcomes, and 139 applications of statistical methods with categorical outcome. The Pearson chi-square test (17.4%) and the Mann-Whitney U test (...) Trends in statistical methods in articles published in Archives of Plastic Surgery between 2012 and 2017 This review article presents an assessment of trends in statistical methods and an evaluation of their appropriateness in articles published in the Archives of Plastic Surgery (APS) from 2012 to 2017. We reviewed 388 original articles published in APS between 2012 and 2017. We categorized the articles that used statistical methods according to the type of statistical method, the number

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2018 Archives of plastic surgery

3. Rounded data have a high potential for false comparative statistical results as shown with elbow arc of motion. (PubMed)

Rounded data have a high potential for false comparative statistical results as shown with elbow arc of motion. Visually measured range-of-motion (ROM) data are usually rounded to the nearest 5° interval and then recorded. Rounding might significantly influence the outcome of statistical tests.We performed numerical simulation of t test application on 2 datasets, as typically reported for the elbow flexion-extension arc of motion. The test was performed on exact data and then repeated (...) on the same data rounded to the nearest 5° interval. The simulation input parameters were as follows: difference in means (1°-30°), standard deviation (1°-30°), and number of cases (15, 30, 60, and 120). Diverging results were counted to find the rate of failure.Depending on the given difference in means, the given standard deviation, and the number of cases, the failure rate of the t test after rounding reached up to 40%.The accuracy of statistical tests performed on rounded ROM data is limited because

2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

4. Statistical Data Editing in Scientific Articles (PubMed)

Statistical Data Editing in Scientific Articles Scientific journals are important scholarly forums for sharing research findings. Editors have important roles in safeguarding standards of scientific publication and should be familiar with correct presentation of results, among other core competencies. Editors do not have access to the raw data and should thus rely on clues in the submitted manuscripts. To identify probable errors, they should look for inconsistencies in presented results (...) . Common statistical problems that can be picked up by a knowledgeable manuscript editor are discussed in this article. Manuscripts should contain a detailed section on statistical analyses of the data. Numbers should be reported with appropriate precisions. Standard error of the mean (SEM) should not be reported as an index of data dispersion. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) and median (interquartile range [IQR]) should be used for description of normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively

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2017 Journal of Korean medical science

5. A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology. (PubMed)

A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology. This article uses meta-analyses published in Psychological Bulletin from 1995 to 2005 to describe meta-analyses in psychology, including examination of statistical power, Type I errors resulting from multiple comparisons, and model choice. Retrospective power estimates indicated that univariate categorical and continuous moderators (...) conducted, resulting in a sizable estimated probability of a Type I error, particularly for tests of means within levels of a moderator, univariate categorical moderators, and residual variability within individual levels of a moderator. Across all surveyed studies, the median effect size and the median difference between two levels of study level moderators were smaller than Cohen's (1988) conventions for a medium effect size for a correlation or difference between two correlations. The median Birge's

2016 Multivariate Behavioral Research

6. Fabrication of novel elastosomes for boosting the transdermal delivery of diacerein: statistical optimization, ex-vivo permeation, in-vivo skin deposition and pharmacokinetic assessment compared to oral formulation (PubMed)

Fabrication of novel elastosomes for boosting the transdermal delivery of diacerein: statistical optimization, ex-vivo permeation, in-vivo skin deposition and pharmacokinetic assessment compared to oral formulation Diacerein (DCN) is a hydrophobic osteoarthritis (OA) drug with short half-life and low oral bioavailability. Furthermore, DCN oral administration is associated with diarrhea which represents obstacle against its oral use. Hence, this article aimed at developing elastosomes (edge

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2018 Drug delivery

7. An Effective Singular Value Selection and Bearing Fault Signal Filtering Diagnosis Method Based on False Nearest Neighbors and Statistical Information Criteria (PubMed)

An Effective Singular Value Selection and Bearing Fault Signal Filtering Diagnosis Method Based on False Nearest Neighbors and Statistical Information Criteria Singular value decomposition (SVD) is an effective method used in bearing fault diagnosis. Ideally two important problems should be solved in any diagnosis: one is how to decide the dimension embedding of the trajectory matrix (TM); the other is how to select the singular value (SV) representing the intrinsic information of the bearing (...) condition. In order to solve such problems, this study proposed an effective method to find the optimal TM and SV and perform fault signal filtering based on false nearest neighbors (FNN) and statistical information criteria. First of all, the embedded dimension of the trajectory matrix is determined with the FNN according to the chaos theory. Then the trajectory matrix is subjected to SVD, which is helpful to acquire all the combinations of SV and decomposed signals. According to the similarities

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

8. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

(smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure [BP], and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) produces immense health and economic burdens in the United (...) been cited >20 000 times in the literature. Figure. AHA’s My Life Check – Life’s Simple 7. Seven approaches to staying heart healthy: be active, keep a healthy weight, learn about cholesterol, don’t smoke or use smokeless tobacco, eat a heart-healthy diet, keep blood pressure healthy, and learn about blood sugar and diabetes mellitus. Each annual version of the Statistical Update undergoes revisions to include the newest nationally representative data, add additional relevant published scientific

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2019 American Heart Association

9. Misrepresentation and distortion of research in biomedical literature (PubMed)

Misrepresentation and distortion of research in biomedical literature Publication in peer-reviewed journals is an essential step in the scientific process. However, publication is not simply the reporting of facts arising from a straightforward analysis thereof. Authors have broad latitude when writing their reports and may be tempted to consciously or unconsciously "spin" their study findings. Spin has been defined as a specific intentional or unintentional reporting that fails to faithfully (...) reflect the nature and range of findings and that could affect the impression the results produce in readers. This article, based on a literature review, reports the various practices of spin from misreporting by "beautification" of methods to misreporting by misinterpreting the results. It provides data on the prevalence of some forms of spin in specific fields and the possible effects of some types of spin on readers' interpretation and research dissemination. We also discuss why researchers would

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2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

10. What statistical analysis of observational performance data can tell us and what it cannot: the case of Dutee Chand vs IAAF vs AFI

. The authors report that the advantage in athletic performance conferred by higher testosterone falls in the range of 1.8-4.5 %. But this range is determined by presenting only the five largest (significant) coefficient estimates. At least some of these estimates are likely to be false discoveries, given that over 20 tests were performed and multiple hypothesis testing corrections were not performed. Unfortunately, without publically available raw data, it is not possible to perform all the desired (...) caution, and be referred to independent statisticians. While we do not claim to play the role of such an independent statistical arbitrator in this case (especially since we have not had access to the raw data), our statistical analysis already allows one to conclude that the article by Bermon and Garnie 2017 does not meet the standard of proof set by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), without further analysis. In this scenario, independent analysis is required. Simon Franklin is a Postdoctoral

2018 British Journal of Sports Medicine Blog

11. Optimization of Anodic Porous Alumina Fabricated from Commercial Aluminum Food Foils: A Statistical Approach (PubMed)

Optimization of Anodic Porous Alumina Fabricated from Commercial Aluminum Food Foils: A Statistical Approach Anodic porous alumina is a known material based on an old industry, yet with emerging applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This is promising, but the nanostructured alumina should be fabricated from inexpensive raw material. We fabricated porous alumina from commercial aluminum food plate in 0.4 M aqueous phosphoric acid, aiming to design an effective manufacturing protocol (...) for the material used as nanoporous filler in dental restorative composites, an application demonstrated previously by our group. We identified the critical input parameters of anodization voltage, bath temperature and anodization time, and the main output parameters of pore diameter, pore spacing and oxide thickness. Scanning electron microscopy and grain analysis allowed us to assess the nanostructured material, and the statistical design of experiments was used to optimize its fabrication. We analyzed

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2017 Materials

12. Linkage of Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics data to birth registration and notification records for births in England 2005-2014: Quality assurance of linkage of routine data for singleton and multiple births. (PubMed)

weight or gestational age values missing in HES were more likely to have all links discarded.Linkage error, data quality issues, and false negatives in the quality assurance procedure were uncovered. The procedure could be improved by allowing for transposition in date fields, and more discrimination between missing and differing values. The availability of identifiers in the datasets supported clerical checking. Other research using Trusted Third Party linkage should not assume the linked dataset (...) Linkage of Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics data to birth registration and notification records for births in England 2005-2014: Quality assurance of linkage of routine data for singleton and multiple births. To quality assure a Trusted Third Party linked data set to prepare it for analysis.Birth registration and notification records from the Office for National Statistics for all births in England 2005-2014 linked to Maternity Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) delivery records by NHS

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2018 BMJ open

13. Examining publication bias—a simulation-based evaluation of statistical tests on publication bias (PubMed)

), and the number of observations for the publication bias tests (K = 100, 1,000) were varied.All tests evaluated were able to identify publication bias both in the file-drawer and p-hacking condition. The false positive rates were, with the exception of the 15%- and 20%-caliper test, unbiased. The FAT had the largest statistical power in the file-drawer conditions, whereas under p-hacking the TES was, except under effect heterogeneity, slightly better. The CTs were, however, inferior to the other tests under (...) Examining publication bias—a simulation-based evaluation of statistical tests on publication bias Publication bias is a form of scientific misconduct. It threatens the validity of research results and the credibility of science. Although several tests on publication bias exist, no in-depth evaluations are available that examine which test performs best for different research settings.Four tests on publication bias, Egger's test (FAT), p-uniform, the test of excess significance (TES), as well

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2017 PeerJ

14. Retraction statement: Contradictory data on type 1 diabetes in a recently published article: 'Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pandemrix: a population- and registry-based cohort study with ove (PubMed)

Library https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com) on the date given above, has been retracted by agreement between the journal's Editor-in-Chief Ulf de Faire, the Association for Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Limited. The retraction has been agreed due to the author's use of what appears to be a false name and affiliation. Reference Andersson L. Contradictory data on type 1 diabetes in a recently published article 'Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases (...) Retraction statement: Contradictory data on type 1 diabetes in a recently published article: 'Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pandemrix: a population- and registry-based cohort study with ove The above letter to the editor written by "Lars Andersson" (stated to be affiliated with Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet), published in print and online in the Journal of Internal Medicine in Wiley Online

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2018 Journal of internal medicine

15. Retraction statement: Response on the author's reply to the Letter to the Editor: contradictory data on type 1 diabetes in a recently published article: 'Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pande (PubMed)

Library https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com) on the date given above, has been retracted by agreement between the journal's Editor-in-Chief Ulf de Faire, the Association for Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Limited. The retraction has been agreed due to the author's use of what appears to be a false name and affiliation. Reference Andersson L. Response on the author's reply to the Letter to the Editor: contradictory data on type 1 diabetes in a recently published (...) Retraction statement: Response on the author's reply to the Letter to the Editor: contradictory data on type 1 diabetes in a recently published article: 'Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pande The above letter to the editor written by "Lars Andersson" (stated to be affiliated with Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet), published in print and online in the Journal of Internal Medicine in Wiley Online

2018 Journal of internal medicine

16. Reporting of Randomized Controlled Trials With Statistically Nonsignificant Primary Outcomes Published in High-impact Surgical Journals. (PubMed)

Reporting of Randomized Controlled Trials With Statistically Nonsignificant Primary Outcomes Published in High-impact Surgical Journals. To determine the nature and frequency of distorted presentation or "spin" (ie, specific reporting strategies which highlight that the experimental treatment is beneficial, despite a statistically nonsignificant difference for the primary outcome, or distract the reader from statistically nonsignificant results) in published reports of randomized controlled (...) trials (RCTs) with statistically nonsignificant results for primary outcomes in surgical journals.Multiple reports have suggested that interpretation of RCT results in medical journals can be distorted by authors of published reports.Using a defined search strategy, RCTs with clearly nonsignificant results for the primary outcome (P > 0.05) form 10 high-impact factor surgical journals (Annals of Surgery, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation

2017 Annals of Surgery

17. Systematic review of statistical approaches to quantify, or correct for, measurement error in a continuous exposure in nutritional epidemiology. (PubMed)

Systematic review of statistical approaches to quantify, or correct for, measurement error in a continuous exposure in nutritional epidemiology. Several statistical approaches have been proposed to assess and correct for exposure measurement error. We aimed to provide a critical overview of the most common approaches used in nutritional epidemiology.MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and CINAHL were searched for reports published in English up to May 2016 in order to ascertain studies that described (...) methods aimed to quantify and/or correct for measurement error for a continuous exposure in nutritional epidemiology using a calibration study.We identified 126 studies, 43 of which described statistical methods and 83 that applied any of these methods to a real dataset. The statistical approaches in the eligible studies were grouped into: a) approaches to quantify the relationship between different dietary assessment instruments and "true intake", which were mostly based on correlation analysis

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2017 BMC medical research methodology

18. Statistical controversies in clinical research: overlap and errors in the meta-analyses of microRNA genetic association studies in cancers. (PubMed)

Statistical controversies in clinical research: overlap and errors in the meta-analyses of microRNA genetic association studies in cancers. Various errors in the design, conduct, and analysis of medical and public health research studies can produce false results and waste valuable resources. While systematic reviews and meta-analyses are arguably considered the most dependable source of evidence-based medicine, increasing numbers of studies are indicating that, on the contrary to the public's (...) belief, many of these investigations are redundant, erroneous, and even biased.Ninety-four meta-analyses on microRNA polymorphism and risk of cancer were extracted from Pubmed database on August 2016. Two investigators independently extracted data (i.e. number of studies, ethnicity, number of cases/controls, bias, etc.) from each meta-analysis. PROSPERO registration status and reference status were also recorded.Among the 217 microRNA gene-variant cancer associations reported by 94 published meta

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2017 Annals of Oncology

19. Selecting Statistical Quality Control Procedures for Limiting the Impact of Increases in Analytical Random Error on Patient Safety. (PubMed)

Selecting Statistical Quality Control Procedures for Limiting the Impact of Increases in Analytical Random Error on Patient Safety. QC planning based on risk management concepts can reduce the probability of harming patients due to an undetected out-of-control error condition. It does this by selecting appropriate QC procedures to decrease the number of erroneous results reported. The selection can be easily made by using published nomograms for simple QC rules when the out-of-control condition (...) results in increased systematic error. However, increases in random error also occur frequently and are difficult to detect, which can result in erroneously reported patient results.A statistical model was used to construct charts for the 1ks and X/χ2 rules. The charts relate the increase in the number of unacceptable patient results reported due to an increase in random error with the capability of the measurement procedure. They thus allow for QC planning based on the risk of patient harm due

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2017 Clinical Chemistry

20. Death Certification Errors and the Effect on Mortality Statistics (PubMed)

Death Certification Errors and the Effect on Mortality Statistics Errors in cause and manner of death on death certificates are common and affect families, mortality statistics, and public health research. The primary objective of this study was to characterize errors in the cause and manner of death on death certificates completed by non-Medical Examiners. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of errors on national mortality statistics.We retrospectively compared 601 death (...) errors than certificates for deaths occurring at a private residence (59% vs 39%, P < .001). A total of 580 (93%) death certificates had a change in ICD-10 codes between the original and mock certificates, of which 348 (60%) had a change in the underlying cause-of-death code.Error rates on death certificates in Vermont are high and extend to ICD-10 coding, thereby affecting national mortality statistics. Surveillance and certifier education must expand beyond local and state efforts. Simplifying

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2017 Public Health Reports

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