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254901. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in postpartum dairy cattle: a meta-analysis of effects on reproductive efficiency. (PubMed)

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in postpartum dairy cattle: a meta-analysis of effects on reproductive efficiency. The efficacy of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or synthetic analogues in improving the reproductive performance of dairy cows less than 40 days postpartum has not been established. It was postulated that disparity observed between the results of similar trials may have arisen from differences in study design, including the dosage of GnRH used; the number of days after (...) calving at which GnRH was administered; the concurrent use of prostaglandins to induce oestrus; and the enrollment of cows with an abnormal puerperium. The results of 24 trials, extracted from 12 research papers were assessed using meta-analysis. When all trials were considered, treatment with GnRH did not significantly alter the number of days to first oestrus or first service or the relative risk of pregnancy at first service (P > 0.05). While treatment did significantly reduce the number of days

1998 Animal reproduction science

254902. Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: review and meta-analysis. Although declining, gastric cancer (GC) is estimated to be second in frequency worldwide. Major causes appear to be environmental rather than genetic. A relationship has been suggested between tobacco smoking and GC. A number of epidemiological studies have been performed dealing with this question. All the cohort studies showed a significantly increased risk of GC of the order of 1.5-2.5 for cigarette smokers. Evidence from case (...) -control studies is less consistent. We have carried out a meta-analysis on the 40 studies providing a quantitative estimate of the association between GC risk and tobacco smoking. Results suggest a risk of stomach cancer among smokers of the order of 1.5-1.6 as compared to non-smokers. The summary relative risk was higher in men (1.59) than in women (1.11). Several studies examined the dose-response relationship which existed in 4 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies. We estimated the number

1997 International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer

254903. Grouped random effects models for Bayesian meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Grouped random effects models for Bayesian meta-analysis. Meta-analysis refers to quantitative methods to combine results from independent studies so as to draw overall conclusions. Frequently, results from dissimilar studies are inappropriately combined, resulting in suspect inferential synthesis. We present a straightforward method to identify and address this problem through the development of grouped random effect models for meta-analysis. We examine 15 comparative studies that investigate (...) the efficacy of a new anti-epileptic drug, progabide. The flexibility of this modelling scheme is exemplified by the result that the open studies support the efficacy of progabide while the closed studies support the reverse hypothesis. Bayesian approaches for meta-analysis are preferable because of the small number of studies prevalent in meta-analysis. We specify diffuse proper prior and hyperprior distributions to assure posterior propriety. We investigate sensitivity of the posterior to choice of prior

1997 Statistics in medicine

254904. A study and meta-analysis of lay attributions of cures for overcoming specific psychological problems. (PubMed)

A study and meta-analysis of lay attributions of cures for overcoming specific psychological problems. Lay beliefs about the importance of 24 different contributors to overcoming 4 disorders that constitute primarily cognitive deficits were studied. A meta-analysis of previous programmatic studies in the area was performed so that 22 different psychological problems could be compared. In the present study, 107 participants completed a questionnaire indicating how effective 24 factors were (...) in overcoming 4 specific problems: dyslexia, fear of flying, amnesia, and learning difficulties. Factor analysis revealed almost identical clusters (inner control, social consequences, understanding, receiving help, and fate) for each problem. The perceived relevance of those factors differed significantly between problems. Some individual difference factors (sex and religion) were found to predict certain factor attributions for specific disorders. A meta-analysis of the 5 studies in this series yielded

1997 The Journal of genetic psychology

254905. The nature and extent of body-image disturbances in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

The nature and extent of body-image disturbances in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a meta-analysis. Although body-image disturbance is among the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the nature and extent of this disturbance have not been precisely identified. This is the purpose of this first meta-analysis of extant research on body image and eating disorders.Using contemporary techniques, the meta-analysis systematically examined 66 studies (from 1974 to 1993

1997 The International journal of eating disorders

254906. Obstetric complications and age at onset in schizophrenia: an international collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data. (PubMed)

Obstetric complications and age at onset in schizophrenia: an international collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data. An excess of obstetric complications in the histories of schizophrenic patients is a well-replicated finding, but less consistent results have been found concerning the relationships between obstetric complications and family history of schizophrenia, age at onset of schizophrenia, and gender. Small sample size limited the power of previous studies that attempted

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1997 American Journal of Psychiatry

254907. MRI findings in patients with affective disorder: a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

MRI findings in patients with affective disorder: a meta-analysis. A review of the literature on primarily magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with affective disorders is presented. Several studies have indicated an increased ventricle/brain ratio and other signs of cerebral atrophy, as well as an increased frequency of lesions (so-called signal hyperintensities) in the brains of unipolar and bipolar patients. This notion is strongly supported by two meta-analyses performed

1997 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

254908. Methods of screening for dementia: a meta-analysis of studies comparing an informant questionnaire with a brief cognitive test. (PubMed)

Methods of screening for dementia: a meta-analysis of studies comparing an informant questionnaire with a brief cognitive test. A meta-analysis was performed on 10 studies that directly compared an informant questionnaire with a brief cognitive test at screening for dementia. The effectiveness (effect size) of the screening tests used in each study was measured using the standardized difference between the means of the demented and control samples. The informant questionnaires were found

1997 Alzheimer disease and associated disorders

254909. Meta-analysis: psychosocial interventions augment cardiac rehabilitation program. (PubMed)

Meta-analysis: psychosocial interventions augment cardiac rehabilitation program. 9307652 1997 10 02 2007 11 15 1056-8751 127 2 1997 Sep-Oct ACP journal club ACP J. Club Meta-analysis: psychosocial interventions augment cardiac rehabilitation program. A16 West R R eng Letter United States ACP J Club 9104824 1056-8751 IM Coronary Disease psychology rehabilitation Humans Meta-Analysis as Topic Psychotherapy 1997 10 6 1997 10 6 0 1 1997 10 6 0 0 ppublish 9307652

1997 ACP journal club

254910. Predictors of underlying coronary artery disease in cocaine associated myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of case reports. (PubMed)

Predictors of underlying coronary artery disease in cocaine associated myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of case reports. Age, number of cardiac risk factors, inferior infarction and bradyarrhythmias predicted underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with cocaine associated myocardial infarction. We sought to validate these criteria through a meta-analysis of published case reports. Cocaine associated myocardial infarctions reported in the English language literature were (...) of CAD was only 8%. Patients with and without CAD did not differ in terms of the other criteria (age > 40 y and infarct location) previously found associated with a higher likelihood of CAD. In this meta-analysis of published case reports, patients with cocaine associated myocardial infarction and 2 or more traditional cardiac risk factors were more likely to have underlying CAD, but only 18% of patients with underlying CAD would be detected through this screening criteria. Larger prospective trials

1997 Veterinary and human toxicology

254911. An application of hierarchical linear models to meta-analysis in nursing research. (PubMed)

An application of hierarchical linear models to meta-analysis in nursing research. 9316604 1997 10 22 2007 11 15 0029-6562 46 5 1997 Sep-Oct Nursing research Nurs Res An application of hierarchical linear models to meta-analysis in nursing research. 295-8 Wu Y W YW School of Nursing, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA. eng Journal Article United States Nurs Res 0376404 0029-6562 AIM IM N Bayes Theorem Linear Models Meta-Analysis as Topic Nursing Research Reproducibility of Results

1997 Nursing research

254912. Prevention of child sexual abuse victimization: a meta-analysis of school programs. (PubMed)

Prevention of child sexual abuse victimization: a meta-analysis of school programs. The aim of this article was to provide data about the effects of child sexual abuse prevention programs. A more specific aim was to estimate the contribution of potential moderator variables such as age, program duration, or sample size to effect size.A meta-analytic approach was used to calculate post-test and follow-up effect sizes of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child

1998 Child abuse & neglect

254913. Scoliosis in twins. A meta-analysis of the literature and report of six cases. (PubMed)

Scoliosis in twins. A meta-analysis of the literature and report of six cases. This study is a meta-analysis of the world's literature on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Additionally, six previously unreported cases of scoliosis in twins are presented.To compare and contrast the concordance, severity, and curve patterns in monozygotic and dizygotic twins with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in an attempt to document a genetic etiology and delineate

1997 Spine

254914. The association between the quality of inpatient care and early readmission: a meta-analysis of the evidence. (PubMed)

The association between the quality of inpatient care and early readmission: a meta-analysis of the evidence. To help resolve the current controversy over the validity of early readmission as an indicator of the quality of care, the authors critically reviewed the literature using meta-analysis to derive summary estimates of effect and evaluate inter-study heterogeneity.The authors selected reports meeting five criteria: (1) presentation of new data on medical-surgical hospitalization of adults (...) ; (2) measurement of outcome as a person-specific readmission; (3) readmission within < or = 31 days; (4) examination of some aspect of the process of inpatient care; (5) inclusion of a comparison group. One meta-analysis examined 13 comparisons of readmission rates after substandard versus normative care, another examined 9 comparisons of readmission rates after normative versus exceptional care, and the third examined all 22 comparisons together. Two authors applied inclusion criteria

1997 Medical Care

254915. Meta-analysis of the Hachinski Ischemic Score in pathologically verified dementias. (PubMed)

Meta-analysis of the Hachinski Ischemic Score in pathologically verified dementias. Our objectives were to investigate the utility of the Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS) in differentiating patients with pathologically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and "mixed" (AD plus cerebrovascular disease) dementia, and to identify the specific items of the HIS that best discriminate those dementia subtypes. Investigators from six sites participated in a meta-analysis

1997 Neurology

254916. Correlation of biochemical response to interferon alfa with histological improvement in hepatitis C: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test characteristics. (PubMed)

Correlation of biochemical response to interferon alfa with histological improvement in hepatitis C: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test characteristics. The current goal of interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C is to normalize alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and to eradicate detectable viral RNA. Many patients do not achieve this objective during treatment, and most do not sustain these outcomes after interferon is discontinued. However, biochemical or virological responses to interferon (...) may not reflect accurately the histological consequences of therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the biochemical measures reflect the histological outcomes in the treatment of hepatitis C with interferon alfa using a meta-analysis of diagnostic test characteristics. The data sources were English and non-English language studies retrieved from Medline (from 1966 to December 1995). The study selection included studies in which interferon alfa was used for treatment

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1997 Hepatology

254917. A review of survival rates for implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses using meta-analysis. (PubMed)

A review of survival rates for implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses using meta-analysis. A variety of materials and procedures are used to create adequate bone volume in the maxillary sinus for placement of endosseous implants in the posterior atrophic maxilla. This review used the structured method of meta-analysis to evaluate the survival of the implants placed into various materials that have been used in the maxillary sinus with the sinus lift procedure. A MEDLINE computer search (...) of the English literature yielded 28 studies that reported using the maxillary sinus augmentation procedure to increase bone volume for placement of endosseous implants; only 10 of these met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Data regarding immediate or delayed placement of implants were combined to simplify analysis. Implant survival was 90% for autogenous bone (484 implants in 130 patients followed for 6 to 60 months), 94% for the combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and autogenous bone (363 implants

1998 The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants

254918. Predicting relapse: a meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. (PubMed)

Predicting relapse: a meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. Evidence from 61 follow-up studies was examined to identify the factors most strongly related to recidivism among sexual offenders. On average, the sexual offense recidivism rate was low (13.4%; n = 23,393). There were, however, subgroups of offenders who recidivated at high rates. Sexual offense recidivism was best predicted by measures of sexual deviancy (e.g., deviant sexual preferences, prior sexual offenses

1998 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

254919. Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. Whole grains are nutrient rich and may protect against chronic disease. To study this, we previously reviewed 14 case-control studies of colorectal, gastric, and endometrial cancers and found consistently lower risk in those with high than in those with low whole-grain intake. Questions remained concerning other cancers, dietary assessment, quantity consumed, confounding, and differential study quality. Here we expand

1998 Nutrition and cancer

254920. Effect of perioperative blood transfusions on recurrence of colorectal cancer: meta-analysis stratified on risk factors. (PubMed)

Effect of perioperative blood transfusions on recurrence of colorectal cancer: meta-analysis stratified on risk factors. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of perioperative blood transfusions on colorectal cancer recurrence.All articles published up to December 1996 in English (or with an English abstract) were retrieved, both using MEDLINE and scanning their references, to be considered for this meta-analysis.One hundred thirty-one articles were identified, and 99 of them were

1998 Diseases of the colon and rectum

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