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189661. The treatment of tardive dyskinesia--a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

The treatment of tardive dyskinesia--a systematic review and meta-analysis. This systematic review aimed to collate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of various interventions used to treat tardive dyskinesia (TD) and, where appropriate, to combine the data for meta-analysis. Clinical trials were identified by electronic searches, handsearches and contact with principal investigators. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers, for outcomes related to improvement, deterioration, side (...) associated with baclofen, deanol, L-dopa, oxypertine and reserpine. Meta-analysis of the impact of placebo (n=485) showed that 37.3% of participants showed an improvement. Interpretation of this systematic review requires caution as the individual trials identified tended to have small sample sizes. For many compounds, data from only one trial were available, and where meta-analyses were possible, these were based on a small number of trials. Despite these concerns, the review facilitated

1999 Schizophrenia research

189662. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: a structured review of the methodological literature. (PubMed)

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: a structured review of the methodological literature. To systematically review methods for systematic review/meta-analysis in order to identify the different methodological and statistical methods that have been proposed. A summary of the main findings is presented here, with emphasis given to health services research topics.A thorough systematic search for methodological papers was carried out using a variety of methods, including the use of electronic (...) databases. Approximately 1000 potentially relevant references were identified, a number of them from education, psychology and sociology.After briefly reviewing the procedural methods required to carry out a review, and the basic statistical methods used to combine study estimates, less established methods are discussed. These include methods for dealing with publication bias, meta-regression, meta-analysis of individual patient data, the synthesis of non-randomized evidence alone and in combination

1999 Journal of health services research & policy

189663. Furosemide in indomethacin-treated infants--systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Furosemide in indomethacin-treated infants--systematic review and meta-analysis. This study was designed to assess: (1) whether furosemide modifies the incidence of failure to close a symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in response to indomethacin in premature infants, (2) whether furosemide decreases renal and hydromineral side effects of indomethacin, and (3) whether the effects of furosemide on renal function depend on initial extracellular volume [assessed by blood urea nitrogen (BUN (...) )/creatinine ratio]. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published controlled trials assessing either ductal closure or renal function after randomized allocation to treatment with indomethacin and furosemide versus indomethacin alone. All of the three studies meeting entry criteria were small and had methodological limitations. The number of patients was too small to rule out a 10% risk increase in failure of ductal closure. After the first dose of indomethacin, patients receiving

1999 Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)

189664. The role of mitomycin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis of the literature. (PubMed)

The role of mitomycin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis of the literature. In order to clarify the role of mitomycin (MMC) in the treatment of NSCLC, we performed a systematic review of the literature and qualitatively assessed the selected studies using the ELCWP and Chalmers scales. 5 trials (202 patients) assessed the activity of MMC as single-agent chemotherapy in NSCLC. The overall response rate was 25% (95% Cl 19-31). In 10 randomized (...) phase III trials (1769 patients), we studied the role of MMC in combination therapy. A meta-analysis, based on the available published data, failed to show any survival advantage of the MMC containing regimens (hazard ratio = 0.95; 95% Cl 0.83-1.10). Finally, 4 eligible trials (139 patients) assessed the activity of MMC regimens as salvage therapy, 3 in combination with vindesine and one with cisplatin and vinblastine. The overall response rate for the MMC-vindesine regimen was 10.5% (95% Cl 1.7

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2001 British journal of cancer

189665. Role of granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with methodological assessment and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Role of granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with methodological assessment and meta-analysis. In order to clarify the role of haematological colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer, we performed a systematic review of the randomised trials published on this topic. Since 1991, 12 studies were eligible, including a total of 2107 randomised patients (...) scales (Chalmers and ELCWP). The median quality scores for the pooled 12 trials was 59.9% (range: 42.2-82.0%) for the ELCWP scale and 55.8% (range: 38.0-76.8%) for the Chalmers scale. No statistically significant difference was observed between positive (significant) and negative (non-significant) studies allowing us to perform a meta-analysis. A detrimental effect on response rate was associated with CSF administration in the maintenance group (RR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.97

2002 Lung Cancer

189666. Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions for postoperative fatigue. (PubMed)

Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions for postoperative fatigue. Postoperative fatigue is common, even after uncomplicated operations. Various theories have been presented regarding its aetiology, each suggesting different possible interventions. The purpose of this review was to identify all studies that have assessed interventions for postoperative fatigue and to evaluate these interventions using meta-analytical techniques.Randomized controlled trials of interventions (...) , identified from a systematic search of relevant databases, were evaluated according to standardized criteria and categorized according to intervention modality. Data relating to the efficacy of each intervention at four different postoperative time-points were collated and data synthesis by meta-analysis was performed.Analgesia is effective in reducing fatigue immediately after operation. Perioperative administration of human growth hormone reduces fatigue between 8 and 30 days after abdominal surgery

2002 British Journal of Surgery

189667. Pharmacotherapy for thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Pharmacotherapy for thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis. The review highlights the uncertainty in the management of nodular thyroid disease. Thyroxine suppressive treatment is given in the hope that nodules might decrease in size, sometimes assuming that dependency on TSH is different in benign and malignant nodular disease. Follow-up of benign nodules over 10 years suggested that most remain the same, shrink, or disappear [14]. TSH suppression may lead to hyperthyroidism

2002 Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America

189668. HIV prevention research for men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

HIV prevention research for men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review of HIV prevention reports published or distributed in the United States as of June 1998 yielded 9 rigorous controlled trials reporting intervention effects on unprotected sex for men who have sex with men. A summary measure of these effects was favorable (odds ratio,.69), statistically significant (95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.86), and very homogeneous. This summary value

2002 Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)

189669. Continuous vs intermittent beta-agonists in the treatment of acute adult asthma: a systematic review with meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Continuous vs intermittent beta-agonists in the treatment of acute adult asthma: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Since the late 1980s, there has been considerable clinical and academic interest in the use of continuous aerosolized bronchodilators for the treatment of patients with acute asthma. These studies have suggested that this therapy is safe, is at least as effective as intermittent nebulization, and may be superior to intermittent nebulization in patients with the most severely (...) impaired pulmonary function.To determine whether continuous nebulization offered an advantage over intermittent nebulization for the treatment of adults with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED).Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of adults with acute asthma.Change in pulmonary function tests as primary outcome, and admissions to the hospital and side effects as secondary outcomes.Six studies including 393 adults with acute asthma were selected. No significant differences were

2002 Chest

189670. Systematic review and meta-analysis of monotherapy compared with combined androgen blockade for patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. (PubMed)

Systematic review and meta-analysis of monotherapy compared with combined androgen blockade for patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. The current systematic review and meta-analysis compared monotherapy and combined androgen blockade in the treatment of men with advanced prostate carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included overall, cancer specific, and progression-free survival; time to treatment failure; adverse events; and quality of life.The literature search identified randomized trials (...) comparing monotherapy (orchiectomy and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonists) with combination therapy using orchiectomy or a LHRH agonist plus a nonsteroidal or steroidal antiandrogen. Dual independent review occurred. The meta-analysis used a random effects model.Twenty-one trials compared survival after monotherapy with survival after combined androgen blockade (n = 6871 patients). The meta-analysis found no statistically significant difference in survival at 2 years between patients

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2002 Cancer

189671. The effect of pregnancy on survival in women infected with HIV: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

The effect of pregnancy on survival in women infected with HIV: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. To investigate the effect of pregnancy on disease progression and survival in women infected with HIV by a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.Appropriate publications were identified using electronic and hand searching of relevant journals from 1983 to 1996. Studies were included in the review if they were cohort studies, either prospective or retrospective

1998 British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology

189672. The association between maternal HIV infection and perinatal outcome: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

The association between maternal HIV infection and perinatal outcome: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. To investigate the association between maternal HIV infection and perinatal outcome by a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.Appropriate publications were identified using electronic and hand searching of relevant journals from 1983 to 1996. Studies were included in the review if they were prospective cohorts with pregnant women identified as being HIV

1998 British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology

189673. Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications.A search

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1999 Annals of surgery

189674. Effect of intensive therapy on early macrovascular disease in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Effect of intensive therapy on early macrovascular disease in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) in type 1 diabetes to determine the effect on macrovascular complications.MEDLINE (1966-1996), Citation Index, reference lists, and personal files were used to identify RCTs of > 2 years' duration comparing IIT to conventional therapy (CT) in type 1

1999 Diabetes Care

189675. [Duplicate publication a way of embellishing research results. Unethical misuse which threatens the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis]. (PubMed)

[Duplicate publication a way of embellishing research results. Unethical misuse which threatens the validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis]. Studies showing favourable results tend to be published more than once. This practice of duplicate publication is, however, dishonest and unethical on the part of scientists and pharmaceutical companies. Inclusion into a meta-analysis of the results from multiple papers derived from one and the same controlled study gives an inflated picture

2000 Läkartidningen

189676. Pygeum africanum for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Pygeum africanum for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis. To conduct a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis of the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of Pygeum africanum in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.Studies were identified through the search of Medline (1966 to 2000), Embase, Phytodok, the Cochrane Library, bibliographies of identified trials and review articles, and contact (...) total of 18 randomized controlled trials involving 1,562 men met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Many studies did not report results in a method that permitted meta-analysis. Only 1 of the studies reported a method of treatment allocation concealment, although 17 were double-blinded. The mean study duration was 64 days (range 30 to 122). Compared with placebo in 6 studies, P. africanum provided a moderately large improvement in the combined outcome of urologic symptoms and flow measures

2000 The American journal of medicine

189677. A systematic review of the role of etoposide and cisplatin in the chemotherapy of small cell lung cancer with methodology assessment and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

A systematic review of the role of etoposide and cisplatin in the chemotherapy of small cell lung cancer with methodology assessment and meta-analysis. Cisplatin (CDDP) and etoposide (VP16) are considered major standard cytotoxic drugs for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The present systematic review had as its objective the evaluation of their role, as components of chemotherapy regimens, on survival.Published randomised clinical trials (from 1980 to 1998) were selected comparing, in SCLC (...) required to construct the difference between expected and observed numbers of events as calculated in the log-rank statistic. A combined hazard ratio was obtained by the Peto method (a value < 1 meaning a benefit for CDDP and/or VP16).Thirty-six trials eligible for our systematic review were identified, classified into four groups (I-IV): group I, 1 trial testing a CDDP-based regimen (without VP16) against another arm not including either CDDP or VP16; group II, 17 trials testing a VP16-based regimen

2000 Lung Cancer

189678. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in the prevention of leprosy in endemic countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. MILEP2 Study Group. Mucosal Immunology of Leprosy. (PubMed)

Chemoprophylaxis is effective in the prevention of leprosy in endemic countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. MILEP2 Study Group. Mucosal Immunology of Leprosy. To quantify the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis against leprosy.Literature searching of Medline and Embase databases, hand-searching of references and correspondence with investigators.published papers relating to the prevention of leprosy and the use of chemotherapy in leprosy were identified for critical appraisal. Trials were (...) on chemoprophylaxis of leprosy. The trials were categorized into randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, and uncontrolled trials. The overall results of the meta-analysis shows that chemoprophylaxis gives around 60% protection against leprosy. The NNT are low in trials of household contacts.The evidence shows that chemoprophylaxis against leprosy is an effective way to reduce the incidence of leprosy, particularly in household contacts. The role of chemoprophylaxis needs to be re-examined

2000 The Journal of infection

189679. Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic therapy for bone and joint infections. (PubMed)

Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic therapy for bone and joint infections. We set out to evaluate the clinical efficacy of individual antibiotic agents for bone and joint infections in adults. Published and unpublished controlled trials reported between 1966 and 2000 were reviewed to determine if they involved random or quasi-random allocation to systemically administered antimicrobials or local antibiotic therapy for osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Quiescence of infection

2001 Lancet infectious diseases

189680. Therapeutic use of granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in febrile neutropenic cancer patients. A systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Therapeutic use of granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in febrile neutropenic cancer patients. A systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. The effectiveness of granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF and GM-CSF) in the treatment of febrile neutropenic cancer patients remains controversial. To assess their role in this condition, we conducted a systematic review of randomised trials published as full papers (...) . A methodological evaluation using a specifically designed quality scale was performed before meta-analysis. Eleven trials were eligible, 8 of which were meta-analysable. The median quality score for the 11 pooled trials was 58.3% (range: 33.3%-68.8%). No significant quality difference was observed between positive (colony-stimulating factor more effective) and negative trials ( P=0.36). No quality difference was observed between the 8 meta-analysable studies and the 3 others, with respective median scores

2002 Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer

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