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121. T-piece resuscitators: how do they compare? (PubMed)

T-piece resuscitators: how do they compare? The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has seen increased use as a primary resuscitation device with newborns. Traditional TPR design uses a high resistance expiratory valve to produce positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at resuscitation. A new TPR device that uses a dual flow ratio valve (fluidic flip) to produce PEEP/CPAP is now available (rPAP). We aimed to compare the measured ventilation performance (...) compliances expected at birth. Device-generated inadvertent PEEP and overdelivery of PIP may be clinically deleterious for term and preterm newborns or infants with larger Crs during resuscitation.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2019. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition

122. From in vivo to in vitro: How the Guatemala STD Experiments Transformed Bodies Into Biospecimens. (Full text)

From in vivo to in vitro: How the Guatemala STD Experiments Transformed Bodies Into Biospecimens. Policy Points: While most scholarship regarding the US Public Health Service's STD experiments in Guatemala during the 1940s has focused on the intentional exposure experiments, secondary research was also conducted on biospecimens collected from these subjects. These biospecimen experiments continued after the Guatemala grant ended, and the specimens were used in conjunction with those from

2018 Milbank Quarterly

123. How will South Africa's mandatory salt reduction policy affect its salt iodisation programme? A cross-sectional analysis from the WHO-SAGE Wave 2 Salt & Tobacco study. (Full text)

How will South Africa's mandatory salt reduction policy affect its salt iodisation programme? A cross-sectional analysis from the WHO-SAGE Wave 2 Salt & Tobacco study. The WHO's global targets for non-communicable disease reduction recommend consumption of<5 g salt/day. In 2016, South Africa was the first country to legislate maximum salt levels in processed foods. South Africa's salt iodisation fortification programme has successfully addressed iodine deficiency but information is dated (...) adequacy of iodine intakes in a country with mandatory iodisation of table salt. The iodine status of populations undergoing salt reduction strategies needs to be closely monitored to prevent re-emergence of iodine deficiency.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

124. Paediatric Ebstein's anomaly: how clinical presentation predicts mortality. (PubMed)

Paediatric Ebstein's anomaly: how clinical presentation predicts mortality. Forecasting the prognosis of a child when diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly is difficult. We, therefore, studied which factors at the time of diagnosis are associated with death during childhood.All consecutive patients (0-18 years) diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2014 were included. Survival curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. By using the Cox proportional hazard (...) and a ventricular septal defect have a high risk of death during childhood.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

125. How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research? (PubMed)

economics/cost-effectiveness research was more common than funded grants in these areas. Restricting to CV grants (n=132) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded grants (n=170) produced similar results.Identifying mismatch between funded grants in outcomes research and early-career investigators' prior/desired training may help efforts to harmonize investigator interests, training, and funding. Our findings suggest a need for further consideration of how to best prepare early-career (...) How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research? Outcomes research training programs should prepare trainees to successfully compete for research funding. We examined how early-career investigators' prior and desired training aligns with recently funded cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research.We (1) reviewed literature to identify 13 core competency areas in CV outcomes research; (2) surveyed early-career investigators

2018 American Heart Journal

126. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West (Full text)

How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs).Online survey of 221 clinical trainees (...) participants to successfully achieve a higher degree.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

127. How to prevent and manage radiation-induced coronary artery disease. (Full text)

How to prevent and manage radiation-induced coronary artery disease. Radiation-induced coronary heart disease (RICHD) is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and other prevalent mediastinal malignancies. The risk of RICHD increases with radiation dose. Exposed patients may present decades after treatment with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic myocardial perfusion defects to ostial, triple (...) Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 Heart

128. How does exercise dose affect patients with long-term osteoarthritis of the knee? A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial in Sweden and Norway: the SWENOR Study. (Full text)

How does exercise dose affect patients with long-term osteoarthritis of the knee? A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial in Sweden and Norway: the SWENOR Study. Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is characterised by knee pain, disability and degenerative changes, and places a burden on societies all over the world. Exercise therapy is an often-used modality, but there is little evidence of what type of exercise dose is the most effective, indicating a need for controlled studies (...) and presented at national and international conferences.NCT02024126; Pre-results.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open Controlled trial quality: predicted high

129. How a deliberative approach includes women in the decisions of screening mammography: a citizens' jury feasibility study in Andalusia, Spain. (Full text)

How a deliberative approach includes women in the decisions of screening mammography: a citizens' jury feasibility study in Andalusia, Spain. To verify whether a citizens' jury study is feasible to the Andalusian population and to know if women, when better informed, are able to answer the research question of whether the Andalusian Public Health System must continue offering screening mammography to women aged 50-69. The reasons for the pertinent decision and recommendations to the political (...) desire informed decision making and to keep or increase medicalisation in their lives.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

130. How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers? Findings from focus group discussions in New York City. (Full text)

How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers? Findings from focus group discussions in New York City. Symptoms of endometriosis, including pelvic pain, back and nerve pain, and gastrointestinal pain, often begin in adolescence. Yet, research on the experience of these debilitating symptoms among young people is scarce. Of particular concern is the influence of adolescent girls' social context. This study qualitatively examined how, among (...) . No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

131. How to do a postgraduate research project and write a minor thesis. (Full text)

How to do a postgraduate research project and write a minor thesis. Many universities and colleges in low-income and middle-income countries require a masters dissertation or thesis for as part of postgraduate training, and some colleges offer a 1-year to 2-year diploma of child health as a clinical qualification to enable skills in child health for generalists, or as part of the early phase of paediatric training. This paper describes the stages of doing a research project for such a masters (...) or diploma, and describes in detail how to write a minor thesis. The paper is designed to provide a practical approach for junior researchers, and their supervisors. Colleges differ in their formal requirements of a minor thesis (word count, line spacing, referencing style), but this paper outlines the principles and practical issues rarely covered elsewhere.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

132. End-of-life care in the Western world: where are we now and how did we get here? (PubMed)

End-of-life care in the Western world: where are we now and how did we get here? Recent movements in end-of-life care emphasise community care for the dying; however, integrating community with medical care continues to be a work in progress. Historically tracing brain hemispheric dominance, Ian McGilchrist believes we are overemphasising functionality, domination and categorisation to the detriment of symbolism, empathy and connectedness with others. The aim of this historical review (...) of what seems a rather simple change in end-of-life care.We must question whether it is possible to hand death responsibilities back to the community when medical services have largely assumed this responsibility in countries supporting individualism, secularism and materialism.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care

133. How do Australian women cope with pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy? A qualitative study protocol. (Full text)

How do Australian women cope with pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy? A qualitative study protocol. Pelvic girdle pain is commonly experienced during pregnancy and results in significant physical, psychosocial and work-related challenges. Few studies have investigated the lived experiences of pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain and their coping strategies. There is a need to develop a greater understanding of this prevalent condition among Australian women. Thus, this study seeks to gain (...) information about the impact of pelvic girdle pain on daily life and how women cope with this condition during pregnancy.A qualitative research design, situated within a phenomenological framework, is adopted. The participants will be invited to describe their lived experiences of pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain, the impact on their daily life and the strategies they use to cope with the condition. A stratified purposive sample will be undertaken to ensure the sample provides information-rich cases

2018 BMJ open

134. How does the UK childcare energy-balance environment influence anthropometry of children aged 3-4 years? A cross-sectional exploration. (Full text)

How does the UK childcare energy-balance environment influence anthropometry of children aged 3-4 years? A cross-sectional exploration. To assess the association between time spent in care, the childcare energy-balance environment, and preschool-aged children's body mass index z-score (z-BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and sum of skinfold thickness (SST).Cross-sectional study.Children aged 3-4 years were recruited from 30 childcare centres in Cambridgeshire (UK) in 2013.Objectively measured (...) prevention strategies for young children.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

135. How do iLead? Validation of a scale measuring active and passive implementation leadership in Swedish healthcare. (Full text)

How do iLead? Validation of a scale measuring active and passive implementation leadership in Swedish healthcare. This study aims to describe the creation of a scale-the iLead scale-through adaptations of existing domain-specific scales that measure active and passive implementation leadership, and to describe the psychometric properties of this scale.Data collected from a leadership intervention were used in this validation study. Respondents were 336 healthcare professionals (90% female (...) consistency and convergent, discriminant and criterion-related validity were all satisfactory.The iLead scale is a valid measure of implementation leadership and is a tool for understanding how active and passive leader behaviours influence an implementation process. This brief scale may be particularly valuable to apply in training focusing on facilitating implementation, and in evaluating leader training. Moreover, the scale can be useful in evaluating various leader behaviours associated

2018 BMJ open

136. How good are GPs at adhering to a pragmatic trial protocol in primary care? Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cluster-randomised pragmatic trial. (Full text)

How good are GPs at adhering to a pragmatic trial protocol in primary care? Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cluster-randomised pragmatic trial. To assess the fidelity of general practitioners' (GPs) adherence to a long-term pragmatic trial protocol.Retrospective analyses of electronic primary care records of participants in the pragmatic cluster-randomised ADDITION (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment In People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care)-Cambridge trial (...) to be considered as they have the potential to dilute differences in treatment intensity and hence incremental effects.ISRCTN86769081.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

137. HOspitals and patients WoRking in Unity (<i>HOW R U?</i>): telephone peer support to improve older patients' quality of life after emergency department discharge in Melbourne, Australia-a multicentre prospective feasibility study. (Full text)

HOspitals and patients WoRking in Unity (HOW R U?): telephone peer support to improve older patients' quality of life after emergency department discharge in Melbourne, Australia-a multicentre prospective feasibility study. To ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of the HOW R U? programme, a novel volunteer-peer postdischarge support programme for older patients after discharge from the emergency department (ED).A multicentre prospective mixed-methods feasibility study.Two (...) tertiary hospital EDs in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia.A convenience sample of 39 discharged ED patients aged 70 years or over, with symptoms of social isolation, loneliness and/or depression.The HOW R U? intervention comprised weekly social support telephone calls delivered by volunteer peers for 3 months following ED discharge.The primary outcomes were feasibility of study processes, intervention acceptability to participants and retention in the programme. Secondary outcomes were changes

2018 BMJ open

138. How do patient demographics, time-related variables, reasons for cancellation, and clinical procedures affect frequency of same-day operating room surgery cancelation? A maximum likelihood method. (Full text)

How do patient demographics, time-related variables, reasons for cancellation, and clinical procedures affect frequency of same-day operating room surgery cancelation? A maximum likelihood method. Cancelation of same-day surgery is a common global problem, wasting valuable hospitals' operating room (OR) times and imposing significant economic costs. There is limited evidence to support the association between frequency of same-day surgery cancelation and patient demographics, time-related (...) maximum likelihood method. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center granted the institutional approval.Our study suggests that while reasons of unavailability of OR time were associated with less frequent same-day surgery cancelation, scheduling issues were linked to more frequent cancelations, compared with reasons for patients being unwell on the day of surgery. Waiting time of more than six hours and morning sessions were associated with less frequent cancelations compared to shorter

2018 BMC health services research

139. How do ED patients with criminal justice contact compare with other ED users? A retrospective analysis of ED visits in California. (Full text)

How do ED patients with criminal justice contact compare with other ED users? A retrospective analysis of ED visits in California. To assess the patterns of emergency department (ED) utilisation among those with and without criminal justice contact in California in 2014, comparing variation in ED use, visit frequency, diagnoses and insurance coverage.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Analyses included ED visits to all licensed hospitals in California using statewide data on all ED encounters (...) utilisation among this group.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

140. How effective and cost-effective are innovative combinatorial technologies and practices for supporting older people with long-term conditions to remain well in the community? An evaluation protocol for an NHS Test Bed in North West England. (Full text)

How effective and cost-effective are innovative combinatorial technologies and practices for supporting older people with long-term conditions to remain well in the community? An evaluation protocol for an NHS Test Bed in North West England. The Lancashire and Cumbria Innovation Alliance (LCIA) Test Bed is a partnership between the National Health Service in England, industry (led by Philips) and Lancaster University. Through the implementation of a combination of innovative health technologies (...) Authority and Lancaster University's Faculty of Health and Medicine Research Ethics Committee. A range of dissemination methods are adopted, including deliberative panels to validate findings and develop outcomes for policy and practice.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ open

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