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181. How do smoking cessation medicines compare with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety? A protocol for a systematic review, network meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. (Full text)

How do smoking cessation medicines compare with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety? A protocol for a systematic review, network meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking (...) cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers. Secondary aims include updating the evidence regarding the effectiveness and cardiovascular safety of these medicines for use in a cost-effectiveness analysis.We will include randomised controlled

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

182. How does a physical activity programme in elementary school affect fracture risk? A prospective controlled intervention study in Malmo, Sweden. (Full text)

How does a physical activity programme in elementary school affect fracture risk? A prospective controlled intervention study in Malmo, Sweden. Recent evidence from the 7-year follow-up of the Pediatric Osteoporosis Prevention (POP) study indicates an inverse correlation between years of participation in a physical activity (PA) intervention and fracture risk in children. However, we could not see a statistically significant reduction in fracture risk, which urged for an extension (...) was 52% lower in the intervention group than in the control group (IRR 0.48 (0.25 to 0.91) (mean 95% CI))].Introduction of the school-based intervention programme is associated with a higher fracture risk in the intervention group during the first year followed by a gradual reduction, so that during the eighth year, the fracture risk was lower in the intervention group.NCT00633828.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

183. How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study. (Full text)

How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study. Diagnostic assessment programmes (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis, but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organisational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs.A mixed-methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews (...) lung cancer DAPs. Ongoing research is needed to identify ideal roles for navigators, and staffing models tailored to case volumes.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

184. Home palliative care works: but how? A meta-ethnography of the experiences of patients and family caregivers. (Full text)

Home palliative care works: but how? A meta-ethnography of the experiences of patients and family caregivers. To understand patients and family caregivers' experiences with home palliative care services, in order to identify, explore and integrate the key components of care that shape the experiences of service users.We performed a meta-ethnography of qualitative evidence following PRISMA recommendations for reporting systematic reviews. The studies were retrieved in 5 electronic databases (...) of living life and preparing death at home.Home palliative care teams improve patients and caregivers experience of security when facing life-limiting illnesses at home, by providing competent care and being present. These teams should therefore be widely available and empowered with the resources to be present and provide competent care.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products

2017 BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care PubMed abstract

185. Human Rights and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: How Does a Large Funder of Basic Health Services Meet the Challenge of Rights-Based Programs? (Full text)

Human Rights and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: How Does a Large Funder of Basic Health Services Meet the Challenge of Rights-Based Programs? The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was created to greatly expand access to basic services to address the three diseases in its name. From its beginnings, its governance embodied some human rights principles: civil society is represented on its board, and the country coordination mechanisms that oversee (...) funding requests to the Global Fund include representatives of people affected by the diseases. The Global Fund's core strategies recognize that the health services it supports would not be effective or cost-effective without efforts to reduce human rights-related barriers to access and utilization of health services, particularly those faced by socially marginalized and criminalized persons. Basic human rights elements were written into Global Fund grant agreements, and various technical support

2017 Health and human rights PubMed abstract

186. How can primary care enhance end-of-life care for liver disease? Qualitative study of general practitioners' perceptions and experiences. (Full text)

How can primary care enhance end-of-life care for liver disease? Qualitative study of general practitioners' perceptions and experiences. Liver disease is the third most common cause of premature death in the UK. The symptoms of terminal liver disease are often difficult to treat, but very few patients see a palliative care specialist and a high proportion die in hospital. Primary care has been identified as a setting where knowledge and awareness of liver disease is poor. Little is known about (...) general practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of their role in managing end-stage liver disease.To explore GPs' experiences and perceptions of how primary care can enhance end-of-life care for patients with liver disease.Qualitative interview study, thematic analysis.Purposive sample of 25 GPs from five regions of England.GPs expressed a desire to be more closely involved in end-of-life care for patients with liver disease but identified a number of factors that constrained their ability to contribute

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

187. How does preclinical laboratory training impact physical examination skills during the first clinical year? A retrospective analysis of routinely collected objective structured clinical examination scores among the first two matriculating classes of a ref (Full text)

How does preclinical laboratory training impact physical examination skills during the first clinical year? A retrospective analysis of routinely collected objective structured clinical examination scores among the first two matriculating classes of a ref As a result of a curriculum reform launched in 2012 at our institution, preclinical training was shortened to 2 years instead of the traditional 3 years, creating additional incentives to optimise teaching methods. In accordance with the new (...) preclinical training.Our results suggest the importance of preclinical training in a CS laboratory to improve students' competence in physical examination at the completion of introductory clinical clerkships during the first clinical year.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

188. An analysis of redactions in Canada's Common Drug Review Clinical Review Reports and how they relate to the patients' voice. (Full text)

An analysis of redactions in Canada's Common Drug Review Clinical Review Reports and how they relate to the patients' voice. Canada's Common Drug Review (CDR) evaluates drug data from published and unpublished research, as well as input from patient groups, to recommend provincial coverage. Currently, the CDR process gives manufacturers the opportunity to redact information in the final publicly available report. Patients often have strong feelings regarding the efficacy, harms, health-related (...) stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

189. What factors are associated with reporting lacking interest in sex and how do these vary by gender? Findings from the third British national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. (Full text)

What factors are associated with reporting lacking interest in sex and how do these vary by gender? Findings from the third British national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. To investigate factors associated with reporting lacking interest in sex and how these vary by gender.British general population.Complex survey analyses of data collected for a cross-sectional probability sample survey, undertaken 2010-2012, specifically logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted OR (AOR (...) to some relationship variables. Findings highlight the need to assess, and if appropriate, treat lacking interest in sex in a holistic and relationship-specific way.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

190. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study. (Full text)

How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study. Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research.The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing (...) form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive planning procedures such as those used by expert clinical researchers.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

191. Advanced chronic liver disease in the last year of life: a mixed methods study to understand how care in a specialist liver unit could be improved. (Full text)

Advanced chronic liver disease in the last year of life: a mixed methods study to understand how care in a specialist liver unit could be improved. To identify the limitations in palliative care provision in the last year of life for people with liver cirrhosis and potential barriers to and enablers of palliative care.Mixed methods, including a retrospective case note review, qualitative focus groups and individual interviews.A tertiary referral liver centre in the south of England (UK (...) unpredictable trajectories, but share a common pathway of frequent admissions and worsening symptoms as death approaches. The use of clinical tools to identify the point of irreversible deterioration and joint working between liver services and palliative care may improve care for people with cirrhosis.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

192. Improving patient safety through better teamwork: how effective are different methods of simulation debriefing? Protocol for a pragmatic, prospective and randomised study. (Full text)

Improving patient safety through better teamwork: how effective are different methods of simulation debriefing? Protocol for a pragmatic, prospective and randomised study. Medical errors have an incidence of 9% and may lead to worse patient outcome. Teamwork training has the capacity to significantly reduce medical errors and therefore improve patient outcome. One common framework for teamwork training is crisis resource management, adapted from aviation and usually trained in simulation (...) settings. Debriefing after simulation is thought to be crucial to learning teamwork-related concepts and behaviours but it remains unclear how best to debrief these aspects. Furthermore, teamwork-training sessions and studies examining education effects on undergraduates are rare. The study aims to evaluate the effects of two teamwork-focused debriefings on team performance after an extensive medical student teamwork training.A prospective experimental study has been designed to compare a well

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

193. How can we ensure that the coroner's autopsy is not an invasion of human rights? (Abstract)

How can we ensure that the coroner's autopsy is not an invasion of human rights? Despite public inquiries, and some changes to legislation following high-profile multiple homicides that were not detected by autopsy, coroners continue to rely largely on the autopsy. Regardless of the extent of quality failings and excess deaths at some hospitals, not detected through the coroner system, the autopsy is scarcely used by hospitals to monitor standards and educate.To explore when a compulsory (...) in healthcare can undoubtedly result from detailed coroners' inquiries, those deaths where the matters investigated relate only to the accuracy of a natural cause of death or sit with a healthcare provider's internal quality assurance, should be investigated by the healthcare system in collaboration with the bereaved.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 Journal of Clinical Pathology

194. How to feed a baby recovering from necrotising enterocolitis when maternal milk is not available. (Abstract)

How to feed a baby recovering from necrotising enterocolitis when maternal milk is not available. Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease with significant mortality and serious adverse outcomes in at least 50% including short gut and poor neurodevelopment. Research and management are complicated by a lack of robust clinical markers, and without histological confirmation, there is a risk of both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. Interunit variations in the thresholds (...) composition and quality of formula milk.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition

195. How are age-related differences in sleep quality associated with health outcomes? An epidemiological investigation in a UK cohort of 2406 adults. (Full text)

How are age-related differences in sleep quality associated with health outcomes? An epidemiological investigation in a UK cohort of 2406 adults. To examine age-related differences in self-reported sleep quality and their associations with health outcomes across four domains: physical health, cognitive health, mental health and neural health.Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) is a cohort study in East Anglia/England, which collected self-reported health and lifestyle (...) symptoms that vary in prevalence across the lifespan. Better self-reported sleep is associated with better health outcomes, and the strength of these associations differs across health domains. Notably, we do not observe associations between self-reported sleep quality and white matter.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

196. How do trends in mortality inequalities by deprivation and education in Scotland and England & Wales compare? A repeat cross-sectional study. (Full text)

How do trends in mortality inequalities by deprivation and education in Scotland and England & Wales compare? A repeat cross-sectional study. To compare the trends in mortality inequalities by educational attainment with trends using area deprivation.Scotland and England & Wales (E&W).All people resident in Scotland and E&W between 1981 and 2011 aged 35-79 years.Absolute inequalities (measured using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII)) and relative inequalities (measured using the Relative (...) attainment data in Great Britain prior to 2001 that make these education-based estimates less certain.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

197. Autopsy interrogation of emergency medicine dispute cases: how often are clinical diagnoses incorrect? (Abstract)

Autopsy interrogation of emergency medicine dispute cases: how often are clinical diagnoses incorrect? Emergency medicine is a 'high risk' specialty. Some diseases develop suddenly and progress rapidly, and sudden unexpected deaths in the emergency department (ED) may cause medical disputes. We aimed to assess discrepancies between antemortem clinical diagnoses and postmortem autopsy findings concerning emergency medicine dispute cases and to figure out the most common major missed (...) exist in emergency medical disputes cases; acute aortic dissection and myocardial infarction are the most frequently major missed diagnoses that ED clinicians should pay special attention to in practice. This study reaffirmed the necessity and usefulness of autopsy in auditing death in EDs.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 Journal of Clinical Pathology

198. How do different brands of size 1 laryngeal mask airway compare with face mask ventilation in a dedicated laryngeal mask airway teaching manikin? (Abstract)

How do different brands of size 1 laryngeal mask airway compare with face mask ventilation in a dedicated laryngeal mask airway teaching manikin? International neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with newborn infants (≥34 weeks' gestation or >2 kg weight) when bag-mask ventilation (BMV) or tracheal intubation is unsuccessful. Previous publications do not allow broad LMA device comparison.To compare delivered ventilation of seven brands of size 1 (...) expressly granted.

2017 Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition

199. How to prepare cytological samples for molecular testing. (Full text)

How to prepare cytological samples for molecular testing. This review is focused on the challenges in standardising and optimising molecular testing workflow in cytopathology. Although cytological samples yield optimal quality DNA, whose minimal amounts in most cases suffice even for multigene mutational profiling, the success of molecular testing is strongly dependent on standardised preanalytical protocols for maximising DNA yield and quality. Sample cytopreparation influences, even more (...) , underlining the modern role of the cytopathologist, whose continuous education is crucial to meet the opportunities of molecular medicine.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 Journal of Clinical Pathology PubMed abstract

200. How people with dementia and carers understand and react to social functioning changes in mild dementia: a UK-based qualitative study. (Full text)

How people with dementia and carers understand and react to social functioning changes in mild dementia: a UK-based qualitative study. To analyse people with dementia and their family carers' attribution of social changes in dementia and the consequences of these attributions.Qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide. Individual interviews continued to theoretical saturation. Two researchers independently analysed interview transcripts.People with mild dementia and family (...) . Explaining that these may be due to dementia and considering strategies to overcome them may be beneficial.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2017 BMJ open PubMed abstract

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