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141. Exploring how non-inferiority and equivalence are assessed in paediatrics: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Exploring how non-inferiority and equivalence are assessed in paediatrics: a systematic review. To review characteristics, methodology and reporting of non-inferiority and equivalence trials in the specific context of paediatrics.PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched (up to September 2016) for non-inferiority/equivalence randomised controlled trials conducted in children published in high-impact-factor journals (>5.0 for general/specialist medical journals; >2.2 for paediatric journals (...) is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

142. How to do a postgraduate research project and write a minor thesis. (PubMed)

How to do a postgraduate research project and write a minor thesis. Many universities and colleges in low-income and middle-income countries require a masters dissertation or thesis for as part of postgraduate training, and some colleges offer a 1-year to 2-year diploma of child health as a clinical qualification to enable skills in child health for generalists, or as part of the early phase of paediatric training. This paper describes the stages of doing a research project for such a masters (...) or diploma, and describes in detail how to write a minor thesis. The paper is designed to provide a practical approach for junior researchers, and their supervisors. Colleges differ in their formal requirements of a minor thesis (word count, line spacing, referencing style), but this paper outlines the principles and practical issues rarely covered elsewhere.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

143. How do patient demographics, time-related variables, reasons for cancellation, and clinical procedures affect frequency of same-day operating room surgery cancelation? A maximum likelihood method. (PubMed)

How do patient demographics, time-related variables, reasons for cancellation, and clinical procedures affect frequency of same-day operating room surgery cancelation? A maximum likelihood method. Cancelation of same-day surgery is a common global problem, wasting valuable hospitals' operating room (OR) times and imposing significant economic costs. There is limited evidence to support the association between frequency of same-day surgery cancelation and patient demographics, time-related (...) maximum likelihood method. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center granted the institutional approval.Our study suggests that while reasons of unavailability of OR time were associated with less frequent same-day surgery cancelation, scheduling issues were linked to more frequent cancelations, compared with reasons for patients being unwell on the day of surgery. Waiting time of more than six hours and morning sessions were associated with less frequent cancelations compared to shorter

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2018 BMC health services research

144. How good are GPs at adhering to a pragmatic trial protocol in primary care? Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cluster-randomised pragmatic trial. (PubMed)

How good are GPs at adhering to a pragmatic trial protocol in primary care? Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cluster-randomised pragmatic trial. To assess the fidelity of general practitioners' (GPs) adherence to a long-term pragmatic trial protocol.Retrospective analyses of electronic primary care records of participants in the pragmatic cluster-randomised ADDITION (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment In People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care)-Cambridge trial (...) to be considered as they have the potential to dilute differences in treatment intensity and hence incremental effects.ISRCTN86769081.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 BMJ open

145. HOspitals and patients WoRking in Unity (<i>HOW R U?</i>): telephone peer support to improve older patients' quality of life after emergency department discharge in Melbourne, Australia-a multicentre prospective feasibility study. (PubMed)

HOspitals and patients WoRking in Unity (HOW R U?): telephone peer support to improve older patients' quality of life after emergency department discharge in Melbourne, Australia-a multicentre prospective feasibility study. To ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of the HOW R U? programme, a novel volunteer-peer postdischarge support programme for older patients after discharge from the emergency department (ED).A multicentre prospective mixed-methods feasibility study.Two (...) tertiary hospital EDs in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia.A convenience sample of 39 discharged ED patients aged 70 years or over, with symptoms of social isolation, loneliness and/or depression.The HOW R U? intervention comprised weekly social support telephone calls delivered by volunteer peers for 3 months following ED discharge.The primary outcomes were feasibility of study processes, intervention acceptability to participants and retention in the programme. Secondary outcomes were changes

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2018 BMJ open

146. How effective and cost-effective are innovative combinatorial technologies and practices for supporting older people with long-term conditions to remain well in the community? An evaluation protocol for an NHS Test Bed in North West England. (PubMed)

How effective and cost-effective are innovative combinatorial technologies and practices for supporting older people with long-term conditions to remain well in the community? An evaluation protocol for an NHS Test Bed in North West England. The Lancashire and Cumbria Innovation Alliance (LCIA) Test Bed is a partnership between the National Health Service in England, industry (led by Philips) and Lancaster University. Through the implementation of a combination of innovative health technologies (...) Authority and Lancaster University's Faculty of Health and Medicine Research Ethics Committee. A range of dissemination methods are adopted, including deliberative panels to validate findings and develop outcomes for policy and practice.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 BMJ open

147. Editor’s picks: How does watching a parent in pain impact children’s own pain experiences?

Editor’s picks: How does watching a parent in pain impact children’s own pain experiences? Editor's picks: How does watching a parent in pain impact children’s own pain experiences? • Body in Mind Research into the role of the brain and mind in chronic pain Editor’s picks: How does watching a parent in pain impact children’s own pain experiences? January 5, 2018 by Over this holiday season we are publishing our Editor’s picks of 2017 for you to read and enjoy again. — Pain problems tend to run (...) rated how much pain they thought the parents had experienced, and children also rated their own anxiety. Then the parent and child switched seats, and the child did the cold pressor pain task themselves and their parent observed. Again, once the task was finished, both parents and children privately provided ratings of how much pain the child had experienced during the task. In analyzing the data, we looked at pain outcomes comparing groups based on child sex (boy vs. girl), parent sex (father vs

2018 Body in Mind blog

148. How can positive and negative trainer feedback in the operating theatre impact a surgical trainee's confidence and well-being: a qualitative study in the north of England. (PubMed)

How can positive and negative trainer feedback in the operating theatre impact a surgical trainee's confidence and well-being: a qualitative study in the north of England. To identify the perception of positive feedback (PF) and negative feedback (NF) provided by trainers in the operating theatre on surgical trainees' confidence and well-being.Narrative interview study.Twelve hospitals that form part of one deanery within the UK.Maximum variation sampling of 15 higher general surgical trainees (...) provided insight into how PF and NF from trainers in the operating theatre affect confidence and well-being.Narrative telephone interviews were conducted with general surgical trainees between April and June 2016. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and anonymised. Transcriptions were analysed using the five-step framework analysis by two independent researchers.Fifteen trainees (age 28-38 years) were interviewed (median interview time: 29 min). Thematic framework analysis identified nine themes

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2018 BMJ open

149. How patients' experiences of respiratory tract infections affect healthcare-seeking and antibiotic use: insights from a cross-sectional survey in rural Anhui, China. (PubMed)

How patients' experiences of respiratory tract infections affect healthcare-seeking and antibiotic use: insights from a cross-sectional survey in rural Anhui, China. To investigate the occurrence of reported respiratory tract infection (RTI) symptoms and their effects on use of self and professional care among patients in the community.A cross-sectional retrospective household survey.12 administrative villages from rural Anhui, China.2160 rural adult residents aged ≥18 years registered as rural (...) . No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 BMJ open

150. How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research? (PubMed)

economics/cost-effectiveness research was more common than funded grants in these areas. Restricting to CV grants (n=132) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded grants (n=170) produced similar results.Identifying mismatch between funded grants in outcomes research and early-career investigators' prior/desired training may help efforts to harmonize investigator interests, training, and funding. Our findings suggest a need for further consideration of how to best prepare early-career (...) How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research? Outcomes research training programs should prepare trainees to successfully compete for research funding. We examined how early-career investigators' prior and desired training aligns with recently funded cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research.We (1) reviewed literature to identify 13 core competency areas in CV outcomes research; (2) surveyed early-career investigators

2018 American Heart Journal

151. How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular system? (PubMed)

How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular system? Physical examination of the cardiovascular system is central to contemporary teaching and practice in clinical medicine. Evidence about its value focuses on its diagnostic accuracy and varies widely in methodological quality and statistical power. This makes collation, analysis, and understanding of results difficult and limits their application to daily clinical practice. Specific factors affecting interpretation and clinical (...) , the evidence suggests that further research into the value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system is needed, particularly in low resource settings and as a potential means of limiting inappropriate overuse of technological aids to diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2016 BMJ

152. Paediatric Ebstein's anomaly: how clinical presentation predicts mortality. (PubMed)

Paediatric Ebstein's anomaly: how clinical presentation predicts mortality. Forecasting the prognosis of a child when diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly is difficult. We, therefore, studied which factors at the time of diagnosis are associated with death during childhood.All consecutive patients (0-18 years) diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2014 were included. Survival curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. By using the Cox proportional hazard (...) and a ventricular septal defect have a high risk of death during childhood.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

153. A Systematic Review of U.S. Biosimilar Approvals: What Evidence Does the FDA Require and How Are Manufacturers Responding?

A Systematic Review of U.S. Biosimilar Approvals: What Evidence Does the FDA Require and How Are Manufacturers Responding? Biosimilars undergo an abbreviated licensure pathway called 351(k), which was created by the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009. This approval process is different from the 351(a) pathway for original biologic approval and, as of August 2017, has been used to approve 5 biosimilars in the United States.To identify the types and quantities of evidence (...) a baseline understanding of what type and degree of evidence is required for biosimilar approval.There was no external funding for this study. Hung reports employment as a pharmacist for CVS Health, an AHRQ F32 grant, and meeting/accommodation/travel support from AACP, DIA, and ISPOR, all outside the submitted work. Vu and Mostovoy have nothing to disclose. Study concept and design were contributed by Hung and Mostovoy, along with Vu. Hung and Vu collected the data, and data interpretation was performed

2018 Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy

154. How adolescent health influences education and employment: investigating longitudinal associations and mechanisms (PubMed)

How adolescent health influences education and employment: investigating longitudinal associations and mechanisms Education is recognised as a strong determinant of health. Yet there is increasing concern that health in adolescence may also influence educational attainments and future life chances. We examined associations between health in early adolescence and subsequent academic and employment outcomes, exploring potential mediators of these relationships to inform intervention strategies.We (...) otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 Journal of epidemiology and community health

155. “Thinking about the future, what’s gonna happen?”—How young people in Sweden who neither work nor study perceive life experiences in relation to health and well-being (PubMed)

unemployed and not eligible for upper secondary school, or who had dropped out of school.Three themes emerged from the analysis illustrating how the young people perceive their life experiences in relation to health and well-being: Struggling with hardships in the absence of caring connections, Feeling good when closely connected to others, and Being forced to question what has been taken for granted. Each theme consists of 2-3 subthemes.Based on the young people's narrated experiences health can (...) “Thinking about the future, what’s gonna happen?”—How young people in Sweden who neither work nor study perceive life experiences in relation to health and well-being The aim of this study was to explore how young people in Sweden who neither work nor study perceive life experiences in relation to health and well-being.A task-based interview technique was used and data was analysed with qualitative content analysis. Interviews were conducted with 16 participants aged 16-20 who were

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2018 International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being

156. How many people have been bitten by dogs? A cross-sectional survey of prevalence, incidence and factors associated with dog bites in a UK community (PubMed)

How many people have been bitten by dogs? A cross-sectional survey of prevalence, incidence and factors associated with dog bites in a UK community Dog bite studies are typically based on hospital records and may be biased towards bites requiring significant medical treatment. This study investigated true dog bite prevalence and incidence at a community-level and victim-related risk factors, in order to inform policy and prevention.A cross-sectional study of a community of 1280 households (...) requires further investigation and potential consideration in the design of bite prevention schemes.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 Journal of epidemiology and community health

157. SECURE PCI: how important can a subgroup analysis be? (PubMed)

SECURE PCI: how important can a subgroup analysis be? 30023111 2018 11 14 2072-1439 10 Suppl 17 2018 Jun Journal of thoracic disease J Thorac Dis SECURE PCI: how important can a subgroup analysis be? S2032-S2034 10.21037/jtd.2018.05.155 Kerneis Mathieu M Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Yee Megan K MK Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess (...) Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Gibson C Michael CM Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. eng Editorial Comment China J Thorac Dis 101533916 2072-1439 JAMA. 2018 Apr 3;319(13):1331-1340 29525821 Conflicts of Interest: M Kerneis has received research grant support from French federation of Cardiology, Institut Servier, consulting fees or honorarium from Bayer and AstraZeneca

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2018 Journal of thoracic disease

158. Estimating Drug Costs: How do Manufacturer Net Prices Compare with Other Common US Price References? (PubMed)

Estimating Drug Costs: How do Manufacturer Net Prices Compare with Other Common US Price References? Drug costs are frequently estimated in economic analyses using wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), but what is the best approach to develop these estimates? Pharmaceutical manufacturers recently released transparency reports disclosing net price increases after accounting for rebates and other discounts.Our objective was to determine whether manufacturer net prices (MNPs) could approximate (...) granted to the VA, suggesting they may be a useful proxy for the true pharmacy benefits manager (PBM) or payer cost. However, individual discounts for products have wide variation, making a standard discount adjustment across multiple products less acceptable.

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2018 PharmacoEconomics

159. Operational research within a Global Fund supported tuberculosis project in India: why, how and its contribution towards change in policy and practice (PubMed)

Operational research within a Global Fund supported tuberculosis project in India: why, how and its contribution towards change in policy and practice The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research (...) capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices.To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice.From September 2010 to September 2016, three key OR-related activities were implemented. First, practical output-oriented modular training courses

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2018 Global health action

160. "I prefer dying fast than dying slowly", how institutional abuse worsens the mental health of stranded Syrian, Afghan and Congolese migrants on Lesbos island following the implementation of EU-Turkey deal (PubMed)

"I prefer dying fast than dying slowly", how institutional abuse worsens the mental health of stranded Syrian, Afghan and Congolese migrants on Lesbos island following the implementation of EU-Turkey deal In 2015 and early 2016, close to 1 million migrants transited through Greece, on their way to Western Europe. In early 2016, the closure of the "Balkan-route" and the EU/Turkey-deal led to a drastic reduction in the flow of migrants arriving to the Greek islands. The islands became open (...) detention centers, where people would spend months or years under the constant fear of being returned to Turkey.Syrians were generally granted refugee status in Greece and those arrived before the 20th of March 2016 had the option of being relocated to other European countries. Afghans had some chances of being granted asylum in Greece, whilst most migrants from the Democratic Republic of Congo were refused asylum.In a clinic run by Médecins sans Frontières on Lesbos Island, psychologists observed

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2018 Conflict and health

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