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121. Negative affect, message reactance and perceived risk: how do pictorial cigarette pack warnings change quit intentions? (PubMed)

Negative affect, message reactance and perceived risk: how do pictorial cigarette pack warnings change quit intentions? Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs increase motivation to quit smoking. We sought to examine the potential mediating role of negative affect, message reactance (ie, an oppositional reaction to a message) and perceived risk in shaping quit intentions.In 2014 and 2015, we randomly assigned 2149 adult US smokers to receive either pictorial warnings or text-only warnings (...) by increasing negative affect. Message reactance partially attenuated this increase in intentions. The opposing associations of negative affect and reactance on perceived risk may explain why pictorial warnings did not lead to observable changes in perceived risk.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 Tobacco Control

122. How do time trends in inhospital mortality compare? A retrospective study of England and Scotland over 17 years using administrative data. (PubMed)

How do time trends in inhospital mortality compare? A retrospective study of England and Scotland over 17 years using administrative data. To examine the trends in inhospital mortality for England and Scotland over a 17-year period to determine whether and if so to what extent the time trends differ after controlling for differences in the patients treated.Analysis of retrospective administrative hospital data using descriptive aggregate statistics of trends in inhospital mortality (...) (elective and emergency), we examine aggregate time trends of the proportion of patients who die in hospital and a binary variable indicating whether an individual patient died in hospital or survived, and how that indicator is influenced by the patient's characteristics, the year and the country (England or Scotland) in which they were admitted.Inhospital mortality has declined in both countries over the period studied, for both elective and emergency admissions, but has declined more in England than

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2018 BMJ open

123. How Does Orthopaedic Research Affect Patient Care? (PubMed)

How Does Orthopaedic Research Affect Patient Care? Academic medicine hinges on high-quality results from research. Surgeon scientists spend their career acquiring grants, writing papers, and educating a next generation of scientists. The real question is how well are we at playing this game? Does our research change surgical practice or affect patient care or government policy? Ideally, published research does and will continue to shape the way care is delivered. Key questions remain, however (...) ; what is the return on research investment in orthopaedics? How can surgeons decide which "evidence" matters, and does practice-change only refer to Level I evidence (randomized trials)? This review considers all these questions.

2018 Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma

124. How can emergency physicians harness the power of new technologies in clinical practice and education? (PubMed)

to the emergency clinician. This paper outlines areas of our practice that are already changing and speculates on how we might need to prepare our workforce for a technologically enhanced future.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. (...) How can emergency physicians harness the power of new technologies in clinical practice and education? As the Royal College of Emergency Medicine looks back on 50 years of progress towards the future it is clear that new and emerging technologies have the potential to substantially change the practice of emergency medicine. Education, diagnostics, therapeutics are all likely to change as algorithms, personalised medicine and insights into complexity become more readily available

2018 Emergency Medicine Journal

125. Undergraduate medical students' behavioural intentions towards medical errors and how to handle them: a qualitative vignette study. (PubMed)

to adequately deal with errors. Educators need to introduce knowledge and skills on how to deal with errors and emotional preparedness for errors into undergraduate medical education.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. (...) Undergraduate medical students' behavioural intentions towards medical errors and how to handle them: a qualitative vignette study. In undergraduate medical education, the topics of errors in medicine and patient safety are under-represented. The aim of this study was to explore undergraduate medical students' behavioural intentions when confronted with an error.A qualitative case vignette survey was conducted including one of six randomly distributed case scenarios in which a hypothetical

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2018 BMJ open

126. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West (PubMed)

How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs).Online survey of 221 clinical trainees (...) participants to successfully achieve a higher degree.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 BMJ open

127. How a symbol influenced this patient encounter

to begin my line of questioning. I smiled at the boy and asked how he was doing. He responded with an indifferent, “Fine.” I then began to ask him the usual questions essential for an HPI (history of present illness), but I couldn’t take my mind off the fact that he was wearing a symbol that I felt characterized a tradition filled with rebellion and hatred. What troubled me even more was that as a kid, he had already been exposed to and taught to support what the Confederacy stood for. Granted, I may (...) How a symbol influenced this patient encounter How a symbol influenced this patient encounter How a symbol influenced this patient encounter | | February 1, 2018 151 Shares I lightly knocked on the door of the next patient that I was set to obtain a history from. It was late in the morning in the middle of the week, and my mind was becoming increasingly preoccupied with deciding what to eat for lunch. My preceptor had allowed me to practice my history-taking skills with every patient that had

2018 KevinMD blog

128. The story of how this physician got into debt

The story of how this physician got into debt The story of how this physician got into debt The story of how this physician got into debt | | January 19, 2018 97 Shares When I was a young lad, just heading off to college, I had no debt. I had no credit cards. My family didn’t use debt for purchases other than buying our house. I really didn’t have any knowledge about how to best use debt. My student loan package included a scholarship, a work-study program and $1,500 a year in student loans. I (...) where that was heading so I joined the Navy, and Uncle Sam paid for the remaining three years of medical school expenses, with enough extra to pay for the necessities of life. I also took on a part-time job in the evenings covering the phones at a local multi-specialty clinic. Life was good, and I was temporarily broke. At that time, my student loan payments were in deferment and not accumulating any interest. I borrowed money, but didn’t need to pay anything back yet. How sweet. During my residency

2018 KevinMD blog

129. End-of-life care in the Western world: where are we now and how did we get here? (PubMed)

End-of-life care in the Western world: where are we now and how did we get here? Recent movements in end-of-life care emphasise community care for the dying; however, integrating community with medical care continues to be a work in progress. Historically tracing brain hemispheric dominance, Ian McGilchrist believes we are overemphasising functionality, domination and categorisation to the detriment of symbolism, empathy and connectedness with others. The aim of this historical review (...) of what seems a rather simple change in end-of-life care.We must question whether it is possible to hand death responsibilities back to the community when medical services have largely assumed this responsibility in countries supporting individualism, secularism and materialism.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care

130. Resident Autonomy in the Operating Room: How Faculty Assess Real-time Entrustability. (PubMed)

Resident Autonomy in the Operating Room: How Faculty Assess Real-time Entrustability. This study aimed to identify the empirical processes and evidence that expert surgical teachers use to determine whether to take over certain steps or entrust the resident with autonomy to proceed during an operation.Assessing real-time entrustability is inherent in attending surgeons' determinations of residents' intraoperative autonomy in the operating room. To promote residents' autonomy, it is necessary (...) to understand how attending surgeons evaluate residents' performance and support opportunities for independent practice based on the assessment of their entrustability.We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 43 expert surgical teachers from 21 institutions across 4 regions of the United States, using purposeful and snowball sampling. Participants represented a range of program types, program size, and clinical expertise. We applied the Framework Method of content analysis to iteratively

2018 Annals of Surgery

131. How Participants Perceive Biomedical Research in Pulmonology

How Participants Perceive Biomedical Research in Pulmonology How Participants Perceive Biomedical Research in Pulmonology - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. How Participants Perceive Biomedical (...) Hospital, Montpellier Information provided by (Responsible Party): University Hospital, Montpellier Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The primary objective of this study is to determine how biomedical research is perceived by patients already participating in a pulmonology research project. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Biomedical Research Other: Questionnaire Detailed Description: Over time, clinical research has become a challenge both in terms of public health

2018 Clinical Trials

132. How do iLead? Validation of a scale measuring active and passive implementation leadership in Swedish healthcare. (PubMed)

How do iLead? Validation of a scale measuring active and passive implementation leadership in Swedish healthcare. This study aims to describe the creation of a scale-the iLead scale-through adaptations of existing domain-specific scales that measure active and passive implementation leadership, and to describe the psychometric properties of this scale.Data collected from a leadership intervention were used in this validation study. Respondents were 336 healthcare professionals (90% female (...) consistency and convergent, discriminant and criterion-related validity were all satisfactory.The iLead scale is a valid measure of implementation leadership and is a tool for understanding how active and passive leader behaviours influence an implementation process. This brief scale may be particularly valuable to apply in training focusing on facilitating implementation, and in evaluating leader training. Moreover, the scale can be useful in evaluating various leader behaviours associated

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2018 BMJ open

133. How do ED patients with criminal justice contact compare with other ED users? A retrospective analysis of ED visits in California. (PubMed)

How do ED patients with criminal justice contact compare with other ED users? A retrospective analysis of ED visits in California. To assess the patterns of emergency department (ED) utilisation among those with and without criminal justice contact in California in 2014, comparing variation in ED use, visit frequency, diagnoses and insurance coverage.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Analyses included ED visits to all licensed hospitals in California using statewide data on all ED encounters (...) utilisation among this group.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 BMJ open

134. How writing fiction can free physicians

a physician reacts to stress; I can explore how he or she deals with a missed diagnosis that may be haunting, or manages an especially difficult patient. After all, a simple sore throat can be a sign of leukemia, and a depressed patient may cause self-harm. Though such scenarios are rare, giving them consideration in story form can allow doctors to better deal with such issues in the real world. Making doctors real Fiction grants physicians the opportunity to show sides of their lives that patients don’t (...) How writing fiction can free physicians How writing fiction can free physicians How writing fiction can free physicians | | April 12, 2018 33 Shares Every person working in medicine has stories to tell, and sharing those stories is a great way to process grief or stress, celebrate triumphs, vent, move on or think more deeply. Occasionally, writing about an experience helps others facing a similar situation. True narratives of and reflections on medicine are now encouraged, honored, promoted

2018 KevinMD blog

135. From in vivo to in vitro: How the Guatemala STD Experiments Transformed Bodies Into Biospecimens. (PubMed)

From in vivo to in vitro: How the Guatemala STD Experiments Transformed Bodies Into Biospecimens. Policy Points: While most scholarship regarding the US Public Health Service's STD experiments in Guatemala during the 1940s has focused on the intentional exposure experiments, secondary research was also conducted on biospecimens collected from these subjects. These biospecimen experiments continued after the Guatemala grant ended, and the specimens were used in conjunction with those from

2018 Milbank Quarterly

136. How will South Africa's mandatory salt reduction policy affect its salt iodisation programme? A cross-sectional analysis from the WHO-SAGE Wave 2 Salt & Tobacco study. (PubMed)

How will South Africa's mandatory salt reduction policy affect its salt iodisation programme? A cross-sectional analysis from the WHO-SAGE Wave 2 Salt & Tobacco study. The WHO's global targets for non-communicable disease reduction recommend consumption of<5 g salt/day. In 2016, South Africa was the first country to legislate maximum salt levels in processed foods. South Africa's salt iodisation fortification programme has successfully addressed iodine deficiency but information is dated (...) adequacy of iodine intakes in a country with mandatory iodisation of table salt. The iodine status of populations undergoing salt reduction strategies needs to be closely monitored to prevent re-emergence of iodine deficiency.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 BMJ open

137. How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers? Findings from focus group discussions in New York City. (PubMed)

How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers? Findings from focus group discussions in New York City. Symptoms of endometriosis, including pelvic pain, back and nerve pain, and gastrointestinal pain, often begin in adolescence. Yet, research on the experience of these debilitating symptoms among young people is scarce. Of particular concern is the influence of adolescent girls' social context. This study qualitatively examined how, among (...) . No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

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2018 BMJ open

138. Exploring how non-inferiority and equivalence are assessed in paediatrics: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Exploring how non-inferiority and equivalence are assessed in paediatrics: a systematic review. To review characteristics, methodology and reporting of non-inferiority and equivalence trials in the specific context of paediatrics.PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched (up to September 2016) for non-inferiority/equivalence randomised controlled trials conducted in children published in high-impact-factor journals (>5.0 for general/specialist medical journals; >2.2 for paediatric journals (...) is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

139. How to do a postgraduate research project and write a minor thesis. (PubMed)

How to do a postgraduate research project and write a minor thesis. Many universities and colleges in low-income and middle-income countries require a masters dissertation or thesis for as part of postgraduate training, and some colleges offer a 1-year to 2-year diploma of child health as a clinical qualification to enable skills in child health for generalists, or as part of the early phase of paediatric training. This paper describes the stages of doing a research project for such a masters (...) or diploma, and describes in detail how to write a minor thesis. The paper is designed to provide a practical approach for junior researchers, and their supervisors. Colleges differ in their formal requirements of a minor thesis (word count, line spacing, referencing style), but this paper outlines the principles and practical issues rarely covered elsewhere.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use

2018 Archives of Disease in Childhood

140. How do patient demographics, time-related variables, reasons for cancellation, and clinical procedures affect frequency of same-day operating room surgery cancelation? A maximum likelihood method. (PubMed)

How do patient demographics, time-related variables, reasons for cancellation, and clinical procedures affect frequency of same-day operating room surgery cancelation? A maximum likelihood method. Cancelation of same-day surgery is a common global problem, wasting valuable hospitals' operating room (OR) times and imposing significant economic costs. There is limited evidence to support the association between frequency of same-day surgery cancelation and patient demographics, time-related (...) maximum likelihood method. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center granted the institutional approval.Our study suggests that while reasons of unavailability of OR time were associated with less frequent same-day surgery cancelation, scheduling issues were linked to more frequent cancelations, compared with reasons for patients being unwell on the day of surgery. Waiting time of more than six hours and morning sessions were associated with less frequent cancelations compared to shorter

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2018 BMC health services research

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