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1. Public Meets Private: Conversations Between Coca-Cola and the CDC. (PubMed)

; and 3 returned 295 pages from 86 emails. The CDC withheld 102 pages to "protect commercial or financial information which is privileged or confidential." The returned emails demonstrate three main themes in Coca-Cola's contact with CDC employees: to gain and expand access, to lobby, and to shift attention and blame away from sugar-sweetened beverages.The emails we obtained using FOIA requests reveal efforts by Coca-Cola to lobby the CDC to advance corporate objectives rather than health, including (...) Public Meets Private: Conversations Between Coca-Cola and the CDC. Policy Points There is growing understanding of how manufacturers of harmful products influence health policy. The strategies, approaches, and influences from such manufacturers that are detrimental to health have been termed the "corporate" or "commercial" determinants of health. However, while partnerships with the tobacco industry are clearly unacceptable for public health organizations, ties to other industries continue

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2019 Milbank Quarterly

2. Coca-Cola – a model of transparency in research partnerships? A network analysis of Coca-Cola’s research funding (2008–2016) (PubMed)

activities. Further, several funded authors appear to have failed to declare receipt of funding. Most of Coca-Cola's research support is directed towards physical activity and disregards the role of diet in obesity. Despite initiatives for greater transparency of research funding, the full scale of Coca-Cola's involvement is still not known. (...) Coca-Cola – a model of transparency in research partnerships? A network analysis of Coca-Cola’s research funding (2008–2016) To (i) evaluate the extent to which Coca-Cola's 'Transparency Lists' of 218 researchers that it funds are comprehensive; (ii) map all scientific research acknowledging funding from Coca-Cola; (iii) identify those institutions, authors and research topics funded by Coca-Cola; and (iv) use Coca-Cola's disclosure to gauge whether its funded researchers acknowledge

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2018 Public health nutrition

3. Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats (PubMed)

Prenatal dietary load of Maillard reaction products combined with postnatal Coca-Cola drinking affects metabolic status of female Wistar rats To assess the impact of prenatal exposure to Maillard reaction products (MRPs) -rich diet and postnatal Coca-Cola consumption on metabolic status of female rats. Diet rich in MRPs and consumption of saccharose/fructose sweetened soft drinks is presumed to impose increased risk of development of cardiometabolic afflictions, such as obesity or insulin (...) resistance.At the first day of pregnancy, 9 female Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, pair-fed either with standard rat chow (MRP-) or MRPs-rich diet (MRP+). Offspring from each group of mothers was divided into two groups and given either water (Cola-) or Coca-Cola (Cola+) for drinking ad libitum for 18 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed.MRP+ groups had higher weight gain

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2015 Croatian medical journal

4. Coca Cola and Energy Balance

this week friend and fellow science-blogger sent me a link to a outlining a Coca Cola-funded group called the . It’s a good article, so head over to read it in full. But the gist of it is summed up by the following quote: Marion Nestle, the author of the book “Soda Politics” and a professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University, was especially blunt: “The Global Energy Balance Network is nothing but a front group for Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola’s agenda here is very clear: Get (...) Coca Cola and Energy Balance Coca Cola and Energy Balance | Obesity Panacea PLOS Blogs Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Diverse perspectives on science and medicine Staff Blogs Blogs by Topic Biology & Life Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Post navigation in Earlier

2015 PLOS Blogs Network

5. Why do we think obesity is caused by lack of exercise and not junk food?

, that the World Health Organization’s Pan American Health Organization takes hundreds of thousands of dollars and “obesity” advice from junk food and soft drink companies. No wonder the advice stresses “exercise” and gives aggressive marketing to children a pass. Coke became Mexico’s top-selling soft drink under its former president and chief executive who was also Mexico’s president — . Coca-Cola has bought a huge economic footprint. It to the American Heart Association, the American Lung Association (...) , the American College of Cardiology, the American Academy of Pediatrics and Harvard Medical School/Partners in Health. It donates to major universities, recreation, and fitness groups and organizations serving ethnic and minority groups whose members are especially challenged with obesity. Coca-Cola also itself through the non-profit CDC Foundation created by Congress in 1992 to encourage “relationships” between industry and government. Even the press is affected. Last year, the BMJ on Coca-Cola’s secret

2018 KevinMD blog

6. The potential impact of sugar taxation on young people?s dietary intake

than 5% of our daily energy intake from food and drinks. Secondary school-age children and young people (CYP) in Scotland experience a range of adverse health impacts, including high levels of obesity and dental decay, associated with ‘added sugar’ intake in their diets which is well in excess of national recommendations. Among 11- 18 year-olds – the age group with the highest sugar intake – the single largest contributor is sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). There is, therefore, a public imperative (...) the diet of Scottish CYP. 7 Introduction Too much sugar is bad for our health – added sugars should not make up more than 5% of our daily energy intake from food and drinks 1 . Secondary school-age children and young people (CYP) in Scotland experience adverse health impacts that are associated with high sugar intake: around a third are overweight or obese 2 and a third have signs of tooth decay by age five 2 . Nearly three-quarters of secondary school children have had treatment for dental decay 3

2017 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

7. Is exercise-related transient abdominal pain (stitch) while running preventable?

of four fluids: water, commercially available energy drink Exceed (main energy constituent is glucose polymers), decarbonated Coca-Cola (main energy constituent is sucrose), and a hypertonic solution of the sugar lactulose or no fluid; Each exercise session consisted of five 5-min bouts of hard running on a treadmill, with 10-min rest between each bout; There were several days between each testing exercise. Crossover trial (randomised according to Latin Square design) (level of evidence: 2b) Mean (...) Is exercise-related transient abdominal pain (stitch) while running preventable? BestBets: Is exercise-related transient abdominal pain (stitch) while running preventable? Is exercise-related transient abdominal pain (stitch) while running preventable? Report By: Nele S. Pauwels - Staff member Centre of Expertise Search checked by Emmy De Buck - Staff member Centre of Expertise Institution: Belgian Red Cross-Flanders Date Submitted: 14th June 2012 Date Completed: 15th April 2013 Last Modified

2012 BestBETS

8. Sugars intake for adult and children

considered by the NUGAG Subgroup on Diet and Health. However, after extensive discussions, it was decided that excess weight gain and dental caries should be the key outcomes of concern in relation to free sugars intake. Risk of developing type 2 diabetes and CVD is often mediated through the effects of overweight and obesity, among other risk factors. Therefore, measures aimed at reducing overweight and obesity are likely to also reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and CVD (...) on Diet and Health, a number of pending questions and implications for future research were identified, as outlined below. • Questions and research implications relevant to obesity and related NCDs: - Need for systematic reviews and meta-analyses relating free sugars intake to blood lipid levels, blood pressure and diabetes-related outcomes (i.e. glucose, insulin, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and insulin resistance). - Need for longer term (>8 weeks) controlled trials of the effect of increasing

2015 World Health Organisation Guidelines

9. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990–2016 (PubMed)

the Economist Intelligence Unit's World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study.In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income (...) Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990–2016 The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income.We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from

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2017 Preventing chronic disease

10. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome

of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide in the last four decades. In the USA, there has been a twofold increase, and in developing countries such as India and China, Coca Cola reported a 14% and 18% sales increase respectively in 2007 alone. The list of sugar-sweetened drinks comprises sodas or fizzy drinks, fruit drinks and energy and vitamin water drinks and excludes 100% fruit juices not blended with sweetening agents such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or fruit juice (...) of developing type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome Article Text Adult nursing Systematic review with meta-analysis Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome Jackie Sturt Statistics from Altmetric.com Commentary on: Malik VS , Popkin BM , Bray GA , et al . Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis . Sugary drink consumption associated with obesity The consumption

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2011 Evidence-Based Nursing

11. High Intensity Interval Versus Continuous Moderate Intensity Training: Maximizing the Benefits of Exercise in Overweight Adolescents

: NCT01935323 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : September 5, 2013 Last Update Posted : January 12, 2016 Sponsor: University of Alabama at Birmingham Collaborator: The Coca-Cola Company Information provided by (Responsible Party): David Allison, Phd, University of Alabama at Birmingham Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: 6-week, single site, two parallel arm, randomized, controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) versus a continuous (...) as an average consumption of 3 or more alcohol containing beverages daily. Unwilling to limit alcohol intake to ≤2 drink per day (one drink = 4 oz. wine, 12 oz. beer, or ½ shot of liquor). Current exerciser (>30 min organized exercise per week). Indication of unsuitability of current health for exercise protocol (PARQ). Any other conditions which, in opinion of the investigators, would adversely affect the conduct of the trial. Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine

2013 Clinical Trials

12. Science organisations and Coca-Cola’s ‘war’ with the public health community: insights from an internal industry document (PubMed)

the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN). The documents reveal that Coca-Cola funded and supported the GEBN because it would serve as a 'weapon' to 'change the conversation' about obesity amidst a 'growing war between the public health community and private industry'. Despite its close links to the Coca-Cola company, the GEBN was to be portrayed as an 'honest broker' in this 'war'. The GEBN's (...) message was to be promoted via an extensive advocacy campaign linking researchers, policy-makers, health professionals, journalists and the general public. Ultimately, these activities were intended to advance Coca-Cola's corporate interests: as they note, their purpose was to 'promote practices that are effective in terms of both policy and profit'. Coca-Cola's proposal for establishing the GEBN corroborates concerns about food and beverage corporations' involvement in scientific organisations

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2018 Journal of epidemiology and community health

13. Zosia Kmietowicz: One policy to reduce sugar intake—what would you do?

as other large food manufacturers, such as Kraft, Kelloggs, and Coca Cola. It is looking at how it can remove some of the sugar in its products in advance of what could be a consumer backlash against overly sweetened foods. According to Whalley, shareholders should be asking similar things of other manufacturers by attending their AGMs, asking what they are doing about the sugar content of their products, and pushing for accurate and user friendly labelling. And by disinvesting if they don’t like (...) of California, San Francisco, is an engaging orator, combining the charm of Bill Clinton with the dogged enthusiasm granted to Tigger by AA Milne. His views on the causes of the obesity epidemic—that the body’s feedback system for satiety is broken from over consumption of sugar, especially fructose—are . What was interesting about his talk on Tuesday night was his favoured solution for tackling sugar consumption levels, which in the United Sates rose from 73lbs per person per year in 1970 to 113lbs in 2000

2015 The BMJ Blog

14. Fiona Sim: The Winter Olympics and junk food—who cares about the health legacy?

has seen this steadily increase since monitoring began in the 1990s. About 30% of the population , and this is projected to increase by a further 5% within 10 years. It would be sad and ironic if the endorsement of Coca-Cola and McDonalds at the 2018 Winter Olympics helps to promote South Korea—or any country—up the world’s obesity league table. Buroni A. Rapid health impact assessment of the proposed London Olympic Games and their legacy. 2004. London Health Commission and the London Development (...) commercial partners and sponsors. Among these is Coca-Cola, , and McDonald’s, which is a sponsor of this year’s Olympic Winter Games. This observation is not new: , when commentators pointed out that despite a key aim of the Olympic legacy being to create a more physically active, healthier public, the food and soft drinks available at Olympic venues were dominated by junk foods and sugar sweetened beverages. Since London 2012, we have seen Sochi 2014 and Rio 2016, which both failed to change

2018 The BMJ Blog

15. A wife who couldn’t fully accept her spouse’s health problems

Coca-Colas. As most couples know, the non-engaged, critical approach doesn’t work well in any relationship, and ours was no exception. Dinner is now more relaxed, and we enjoy each other’s company instead of worrying about overeating or eating the wrong thing. I’ve accepted my role in my husband’s health, and I make a point nowadays of encouraging him in his efforts. He thanks me at every meal, often noting something special he liked. What is healthier than tiny seeds of encouragement, planted (...) A wife who couldn’t fully accept her spouse’s health problems A wife who couldn't fully accept her spouse's health problems A wife who couldn’t fully accept her spouse’s health problems | | March 19, 2019 130 Shares My husband, who’s had type 2 diabetes for 20 years, had been struggling for a long while to lower his hemoglobin A1C — a number that measures how well he’s managing his blood sugar over time. When he and I finally investigated the issue, it turned out that someone close to him

2019 KevinMD blog

16. Greek Childhood Obesity (GRECO) Study

Coca Cola Hellenic Bottling Company Cereal Partners Hellas FAGE S.A. Unilever Hellas Nestle Hellas Kraft Foods Hellas European Union and Greek national funds - Research Funding Program: Heraclitus II. Information provided by (Responsible Party): Paul Farajian, Agricultural University of Athens Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of the GRECO study were to: a) to provide national data on overweight and obesity prevalence in a representative sample of primary (...) of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02102763 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : April 3, 2014 Last Update Posted : April 8, 2014 Sponsor: Agricultural University of Athens Collaborators: General Secretariat of Consumers-Greek Ministry of Development Hellenic Association of Food and Beverage Companies Coca Cola Hellas

2014 Clinical Trials

17. Conflicts of interest in health care journalism. Who’s watching the watchdogs? We are. Part 1 of 3

and for the public. . Another campus, another issue. Paul Thacker wrote about the University of Colorado accepting Coca-Cola money to sponsor a health journalism workshop on obesity. Thacker wrote: “The tactic bore fruit. In one example, a CNN reporter attended the 2014 journalism conference and later contributed to a story that argued that obesity’s cause could be lack of exercise, not consumption of sugary soft drinks. Critics told The BMJ that Coca-Cola’s $37 000 support for that particular conference (...) had she known of Coca-Cola’s funding. wrote for us about her conversation with Lauren Sausser, who reports on health care for the Charleston, SC Post and Courier newspaper. Sausser attended a National Press Foundation obesity workshop in May 2013 at the University of Colorado. A year later, she signed up for, but then backed out of, another National Press Foundation cancer news workshop that was sponsored by Bayer. “I would not accept lunch from a local hospital so why would I accept a hotel

2017 HealthNewsReview

18. Diet-induced pigmented purpuric dermatosis. (PubMed)

rapidly provoked by dietary factors, namely Coca Cola and apple-cherry fruit spritzer. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists. (...) Diet-induced pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are chronic and relapsing disorders characterised by a localised or generalised purpuric rash. Even though the clinical presentation of PPD subtypes varies, they have a similar histopathology. The aetiology is largely unknown, but trigger factors, such as drugs, infections and systemic illnesses have been described. To our knowledge, this is the only case showing widespread PPD lesions not only induced but also

2013 Australasian Journal of Dermatology

19. CPG on Prevention and Treatment of Childhood/Adolescent Obesity

and exercise-based interventions to prevent obesity 39 5.1.4. Interventions to improve diet 45 5.1.5. Interventions to increase physical activity levels 49 5.1.6. Interventions to reduce sedentary lifestyles 49 5.2. Healthcare interventions 53 5.2.1. Measuring height and weight 54 5.2.2. Screening programmes 54 5.2.3. Dietary interventions 56 5.2.3.1.Breastfeeding 56 5.2.4. Exercise-based interventions 58 5.2.5. Dietary and exercise-based interventions 59 5.3. Community interventions 62 5.3.1. Dietary (...) as part of a change in lifestyle, including physical exercise, behavioural therapy and family-centred actions. v For children and adolescents who are overweight or obese, calorie intake must be lower than the energy they expend, and changes to their diet must be customised and consistent with healthy eating. The use of restric- tive, unbalanced diets is not recommended, as these are not effective in the long term and may prove dangerous. v Advice on changes to diet must be given by healthcare

2009 GuiaSalud

20. What’s the fix for the care disparity in corporate-owned health care?

patient care beyond all else. I wonder, who was the CEO/trustee equivalent of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and how did he manage to get Osler to drink the 19th Century equivalent of Kool-Aid (perhaps it was a cocaine-laced Coca Cola?) and align himself with the interests of the new School of Medicine. It’s interesting to note as a tangent that Johns Hopkins himself started his fortune shipping whiskey which ultimately led to warehouses, railroads and the considerable fortune that started the Johns (...) What’s the fix for the care disparity in corporate-owned health care? What's the fix for the care disparity in corporate-owned health care? What’s the fix for the care disparity in corporate-owned health care? | | March 2, 2017 95 Shares “We must not allow a mineshaft gap!” famously spoken by George C. Scott as General Turgidson in Dr. Strangelove as the post-nuclear holocaust planning begins in earnest. For some reason, this quote goes through my mind as I sit through meetings, assemblages

2017 KevinMD blog

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