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161. A Randomized, Open-labelled, Interventional Study to Evaluate the Incidence of Infection with or Without Use of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Patients of Episiotomy in a Normal Vaginal Delivery. (Full text)

A Randomized, Open-labelled, Interventional Study to Evaluate the Incidence of Infection with or Without Use of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Patients of Episiotomy in a Normal Vaginal Delivery. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of infection in patients of episiotomy with or without the use of prophylactic antibiotics and to compare other morbidities associated with episiotomy and the role of antibiotics in their prevention and treatment.This open-labelled, randomized (...) , interventional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, from October 2014 to October 2015. Three hundred women subjected to episiotomy during normal vaginal delivery in the labour ward from BYL Nair Charitable Hospital fulfilling specific criteria were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two study groups A and B. In group A, 5-day course of prophylactic antibiotics including tablet cefixime 200 mg BD and tablet

2018 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

162. Steroid vs. antibiotic impregnated absorbable nasal packing for wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. (Full text)

Steroid vs. antibiotic impregnated absorbable nasal packing for wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Endoscopic sinus surgery can lead to crusting or synechiae formation, which can affect the healing process.The aim of our study was to compare the influence of steroid versus antibiotic versus saline solution impregnated absorbable nasal spacers on postoperative wound healing and patient satisfaction.Eighty patients, 33 women and 47 (...) men, were enrolled in this study. At the end of the surgery, two pieces of 4cm biodegradable material were applied in each ethmoid cavity. One of them was impregnated with saline solution, while the second one with steroid, or with antibiotic.We observed statistically significant differences in the Lund-Kennedy score between the control and both treatment groups: for the Antibiotic-group on days 10 and 30 (p=0.009; p=0.009) and for the Steroid-group on day 90 (p=0.008). The extended endoscopic

2018 Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

163. Assessment of antibacterial activity of 2.5% NaOCl, chitosan nano-particles against Enterococcus faecalis contaminating root canals with and without diode laser irradiation: an in vitro study. (Abstract)

Assessment of antibacterial activity of 2.5% NaOCl, chitosan nano-particles against Enterococcus faecalis contaminating root canals with and without diode laser irradiation: an in vitro study. This study was done to evaluate the antibacterial effect of chitosan nano-particles (CNPs) root canal irrigant as a new alternative to Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for disinfection of root canals inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, with and without laser activation.Sixty single rooted human premolars

2018 Acta odontologica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

164. Home intravenous versus oral antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Home intravenous versus oral antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children: a randomized controlled trial. To compare the effect of home intravenous (IV) versus oral antibiotic therapy on complication rates and resource utilization following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.This was a randomized controlled trial of patients aged 4-17 with surgically treated perforated appendicitis from January 2011 to November 2013. Perforation was defined intraoperatively (...) and divided into three grades: I-contained perforation, II-localized contamination to right gutter/pelvis, and III-diffuse contamination. Patients were randomized to complete a ten-day course of home antibiotic therapy with either IV ertapenem or oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. Thirty-day postoperative complication rates including abscess, readmission, wound infection, and charges were compared.Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Forty four (54%) were randomized to the IV group and 38 (46%) to the oral group

2018 Pediatric surgery international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

165. Evaluation of the local effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment with and without systemic antibiotic and photodynamic therapy in generalized aggressive periodontitis. A randomized clinical trial. (Abstract)

Evaluation of the local effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment with and without systemic antibiotic and photodynamic therapy in generalized aggressive periodontitis. A randomized clinical trial. This study's aim was to evaluate the local effect of clarithromycin associated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis.The study sample comprised 72 periodontal pockets on single-rooted teeth in multiple quadrants, with both probing (...) were evaluated: plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level. A 5% significance level was used in the statistical analysis.At 3 months, UPD + aPDT, UPD + CLM, and UPD + CLM + aPDT groups all exhibited reduced probing depths relative to the UPD group (p <  0.05). However, at 6 months, the reduction in mean probing depth was greater in the antibiotic groups (UPD+CLM and UPD+CLM+aPDT) than in the UPD and UPD+aPDT groups (p <  0.05). Regarding

2018 Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

166. Extended antibiotic therapy versus placebo after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for mild and moderate acute calculous cholecystitis: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. (Full text)

Extended antibiotic therapy versus placebo after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for mild and moderate acute calculous cholecystitis: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) is the most common complication of cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment in mild and moderate forms. Currently there is consensus for the use of antibiotics in the preoperative phase of ACC. However, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery (...) remains undefined with a low level of scientific evidence.The CHART (Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial) study is a single-center, prospective, double blind, and randomized trial. Patients with mild to moderate ACC operated by LC were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) or placebo treatment for 5 consecutive days. The primary endpoint was postoperative infectious complications. Secondary endpoints were as follows: (1) duration of hospital stay, (2

2018 Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

167. Efficacy and Safety of Sarecycline, a Novel, Once-Daily, Narrow Spectrum Antibiotic for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Facial Acne Vulgaris: Results of a Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study. (Abstract)

Efficacy and Safety of Sarecycline, a Novel, Once-Daily, Narrow Spectrum Antibiotic for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Facial Acne Vulgaris: Results of a Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study. There is a need for new oral antibiotics for acne with improved safety profiles and targeted antibacterial spectra. Sarecycline is a novel, tetracycline-class antibiotic specifically designed for acne, offering a narrow spectrum of activity compared with currently available tetracyclines, including less (...) versus 1.5 mg/kg. Sarecycline may represent a novel, once-daily treatment for patients with moderate to severe acne. It offers a narrow antibacterial spectrum relative to other tetracycline options, which may lead to less selective pressure on enteric Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in less disruption of commensal organisms and less potential for antibiotic resistance.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):333-338.

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2018 Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD Controlled trial quality: predicted high

168. Re: Six Weeks of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Elevated Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen is Not Clinically Beneficial: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. (Abstract)

Re: Six Weeks of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Elevated Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen is Not Clinically Beneficial: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. 29539905 2018 12 21 2018 12 21 1527-3792 197 5 2017 05 The Journal of urology J. Urol. Re: Six Weeks of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Elevated Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen is Not Clinically Beneficial: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. 1276 S0022-5347(17)30279-3 10.1016/j.juro

2018 The Journal of urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

169. Antibiotic prophylaxis in transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis in transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. Transarterial chemoembolization remains a common treatment option in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. However, protocols for pre- and post-procedure care and the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been evaluated. The aim of this work was to compare 3 different groups of prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing chemoembolization and to compare the efficacy of intravenous versus oral route.180 (...) hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization were selected. Patients were classified into 3 groups; Group 1: 60 patients; 30 received intravenous ceftriaxone, and 30 received oral cefixime. Group 2: 60 patients; 30 patients received intravenous levofloxacin and 30 received oral levofloxacin. Group 3: 60 patients; 30 received intravenous ciprofloxacin and 30 received oral ciprofloxacin. All antibiotics were given one day before intervention and for 4 days afterwards. Complete

2018 Arab journal of gastroenterology : the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

170. Impact of Mouthwashes on Antibacterial Activity of Subjects with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (Abstract)

Impact of Mouthwashes on Antibacterial Activity of Subjects with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The study aimed to assess the impact of mouthwashes on antibacterial activity of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances.A total of 60 individuals were considered in the study. Sixty (20 each group) nonextraction class I individuals were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Group I: Experimental group [chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash], group II (...) among CHX and neem mouthwash groups (p = 0.002, p = 0.032 respectively) were significantly reduced after intervention and also the SM colonies count was reduced in CHX and neem mouthwash groups and there was significant difference between the groups.As both mouthwashes showed significant effectiveness on antibacterial activity in individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances, neem mouthwash can be used as an alternative to CHX.It is better to have a sound knowledge regarding the use of mouthwash

2018 The journal of contemporary dental practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171. Prehospital antibiotics in the ambulance for sepsis: a multicentre, open label, randomised trial. (Abstract)

Prehospital antibiotics in the ambulance for sepsis: a multicentre, open label, randomised trial. Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel have already made substantial contributions to improving care for patients with time-dependent illnesses, such as trauma and myocardial infarction. Patients with sepsis could also benefit from timely prehospital care.After training EMS personnel in recognising sepsis, we did a randomised controlled open-label trial in ten large regional ambulance services (...) serving 34 secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the Netherlands. We compared the effects of early administration of antibiotics in the ambulance with usual care. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using block-randomisation with blocks of size 4 to the intervention (open-label intravenous ceftriaxone 2000 mg in addition to usual care) or usual care (fluid resuscitation and supplementary oxygen). Randomisation was stratified per region. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28

2018 The lancet. Respiratory medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

172. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis: Time to change the goal of our research? (Full text)

Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis: Time to change the goal of our research? 29180069 2018 01 04 2018 12 02 1743-9159 48 2017 12 International journal of surgery (London, England) Int J Surg Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis: Time to change the goal of our research? 264-265 S1743-9191(17)31453-X 10.1016/j.ijsu.2017.11.035 Podda Mauro M General, Emergency and Robotic Surgical Unit, San Francesco Hospital (...) Agents Appendectomy Appendicitis Goals Humans Antibiotics Appendectomy Appendicitis Conservative management Letter to the editor No-antibiotic management 2017 10 31 2017 11 17 2017 11 29 6 0 2018 1 5 6 0 2017 11 29 6 0 ppublish 29180069 S1743-9191(17)31453-X 10.1016/j.ijsu.2017.11.035

2018 International journal of surgery (London, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

173. A novel cysteine-linked antibacterial surface coating significantly inhibits bacterial colonization of nasal silicone prongs in a phase one pre-clinical trial. (Abstract)

A novel cysteine-linked antibacterial surface coating significantly inhibits bacterial colonization of nasal silicone prongs in a phase one pre-clinical trial. Ventilator associated pneumonia and sepsis are frequent complications in neonatal care. Bacterial colonization of medical devices and interfaces used for respiratory support may contribute by functioning as a bacterial reservoir seeding bacteria into airways. We have developed an antibacterial surface coating based on a cysteine ligand (...) covalently coupled via a spacer to a carboxylic backbone layer on an acrylic acid grafted silicone surface. This coating was applied on a commercially available nasal prong and the antibacterial effect was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in a first-in-human phase 1 trial. The coated nasal prongs had strong antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. In a randomized pre-clinical trial study of 24 + 24 healthy adult volunteers who carried coated or non-coated

2018 Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Controlled trial quality: uncertain

174. Topical Antibacterial Agent for Treatment of Adult and Pediatric Patients With Impetigo: Pooled Analysis of Phase 3 Clinical Trials. (Abstract)

Topical Antibacterial Agent for Treatment of Adult and Pediatric Patients With Impetigo: Pooled Analysis of Phase 3 Clinical Trials. Ozenoxacin is a novel topical antibacterial agent with potent bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been developed as a 1% cream for treatment of impetigo. This article presents pooled results of pivotal clinical trials of ozenoxacin with the objective of evaluating the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ozenoxacin 1% cream after twice

2018 Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD Controlled trial quality: uncertain

175. Cefepime vs. cefoperazone/sulbactam in combination with amikacin as empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia. (Abstract)

Cefepime vs. cefoperazone/sulbactam in combination with amikacin as empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia. Beta lactams are standard empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia (FN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cefepime monotherapy compared with cefoperazone/sulbactam plus amikacin (CS + A) for empirical treatment of high risk FN.One hundred seventy-five patients with 336 FN episodes were randomized to receive either cefepime (2 g q8h for adults (...) and 50 mg/kg q8h for children) or CS (2 g q8h for adults and 50 mg/kg q8h for children) plus amikacin (15 mg/kg once a day). Positive response was defined as afebrile within 72 h of starting antibiotics, persistent afebrile status more than 48 h and no requirement of second-line antibiotics and antifungal agents.Three hundred thirty-six episodes were assessable for efficacy (168 cefepime, 168 CS + A). The positive response to antibiotics was identical for cefepime (53%) and CS + A (53%). Positive

2018 Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Controlled trial quality: uncertain

176. Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of enrofloxacin as a second-line antibiotic for treatment of acute Escherichia coli mastitis. (Abstract)

Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of enrofloxacin as a second-line antibiotic for treatment of acute Escherichia coli mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enrofloxacin (ERFX) as a second-line antibiotic for treatment of acute Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis. Forty-two cows with naturally occurring acute E. coli mastitis were enrolled. On the first day of treatment (day 0), empirically selected antibiotics (oxytetracycline: n (...)  = 32, kanamycin: n = 10) were administered. Although systemic signs improved in 10 cows (first-line group), the signs remained unchanged or worsened in 32 cows on day 1, including two cows that were found dead. The 30 surviving cows were randomly assigned to second-line groups constituting an ERFX group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 11) that was treated with other antibiotics. Response to each treatment was evaluated by measuring clinical signs from day 0 to day 3, subsequent quarter milk

2018 Animal Science Journal = Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho Controlled trial quality: uncertain

177. Antibacterial Effect and Substantivity of Toothpaste Slurries In Vivo. (Abstract)

Antibacterial Effect and Substantivity of Toothpaste Slurries In Vivo. This double-blind, clinical, cross-over study evaluated the antibacterial effect of three toothpastes (ASF, HTP and STP) and a chlorhexidine mouthrinse (0.2%; CHX; positive control) after a single application on established biofilm over a period of 24 h (substantivity).Twenty-four subjects refrained from all oral hygiene measures for a period of 72 h. After 48 h, a baseline biofilm sample was taken and vitality (...) in vitality compared to VF0 (p<0.05). CHX and ASF revealed the most pronounced effect (49% and 40% reduction), while the other toothpastes (HTP: 24%, STP: 11%) reached lower but still statistically significant effects. At each further time point CHX and ASF showed the lowest biofilm vitality. ASF demonstrated a significant antibacterial effect on dental biofilm over a 24-h period compared to baseline and superiority over both other toothpastes at time points VF2-VF14.ASF toothpaste showed a significant

2018 Oral health & preventive dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

178. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in open tracheostomy: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in open tracheostomy: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. The efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of wound infection in open tracheostomy has been minimally studied and remains controversial.A preliminary double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. A total of 159 patients who underwent open tracheostomy were enrolled, and 88 patients were excluded because of lack of desire to participate in research (...) , emergency condition, administration of other antibiotics, immunocompromise, or cervical skin infection. The remainings were randomly assigned to an antibiotic group or a control group. Another 11 patients were excluded after the randomization due to intraoperative contamination, death from the underlying disease, receiving other antibiotics, or lost to the follow-up. A total of 30 patients in each group were qualified for analysis. In the antibiotic group, clindamycin was intravenously administered

2018 International journal of surgery (London, England) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

179. Evaluating the Duration of Prophylactic Post-Operative Antibiotic Agents after Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Closed Fractures. (Abstract)

Evaluating the Duration of Prophylactic Post-Operative Antibiotic Agents after Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Closed Fractures. The importance of timely pre-operative antibiotic agents for effective surgical prophylaxis has been established but the optimal duration of antimicrobial coverage post-operatively has not yet been defined clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine if prophylactic post- operative cefazolin for 23 hours decreases the risk of surgical site infection (SSI (...) . Patients with diabetes mellitus were 4.33 times more likely to develop an SSI (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-14.38; p = 0.02). Patients with a risk score of two or more were 3.14 times more likely to develop an infection (95% CI, 1.02-9.68; p < 0.05).Although not statistically significant, in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial, patients who were treated with a 23-hour post-operative regimen of antibiotics after ORIF were less likely to develop SSIs. Patients with diabetes

2018 Surgical infections Controlled trial quality: predicted high

180. A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. (Abstract)

A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. 29282970 2018 01 01 2018 12 02 1533-4406 377 26 2017 12 28 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. e36 10.1056/NEJMc1711124 Yeoh Daniel K DK Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA, Australia daniel.yeoh@health.wa.gov.au Blyth Christopher C CC Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA, Australia Bowen Asha C AC Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA

2018 The New England journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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