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161. A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. (Abstract)

A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. 29282970 2018 01 01 2018 12 02 1533-4406 377 26 2017 12 28 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. e36 10.1056/NEJMc1711124 Yeoh Daniel K DK Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA, Australia daniel.yeoh@health.wa.gov.au Blyth Christopher C CC Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA, Australia Bowen Asha C AC Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA

2018 The New England journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

162. Prospective comparison of prophylactic antibiotic use between intravenous moxifloxacin and ceftriaxone for high-risk patients with post-ERCP cholangitis. (Abstract)

Prospective comparison of prophylactic antibiotic use between intravenous moxifloxacin and ceftriaxone for high-risk patients with post-ERCP cholangitis. The use of prophylactic antibiotics before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is recommended by all major international gastroenterological societies, especially in the presence of an obstructed biliary system. This study compared the occurrence rate of post-procedural complications, including cholangitis and septicemia (...) , between prophylactic intravenous moxifloxacin and ceftriaxone in patients with bile duct obstruction scheduled for therapeutic ERCP.From November 2013 to July 2015, 86 consecutive patients with biliary obstruction with one or more factors predicting benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to ERCP were included in the current randomized open-label non-inferiority trial (ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT02098486). Intravenous moxifloxacin (400 mg/day) or ceftriaxone (2 g/day) were given 90 minutes

2018 Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT Controlled trial quality: uncertain

163. Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant. Antibiotic treatment can deplete the commensal bacteria of a patient's gut microbiota and, paradoxically, increase their risk of subsequent infections. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), antibiotic administration is essential for optimal clinical outcomes but significantly disrupts intestinal microbiota diversity, leading to loss of many beneficial (...) diversity and composition revealed that the auto-FMT intervention boosted microbial diversity and reestablished the intestinal microbiota composition that the patient had before antibiotic treatment and allo-HSCT. These results demonstrate the potential for fecal sample banking and posttreatment remediation of a patient's gut microbiota after microbiota-depleting antibiotic treatment during allo-HSCT.Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association

2018 Science translational medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

164. Effect of Commonly Used Pediatric Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity in Preschool Children in Burkina Faso: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Commonly Used Pediatric Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity in Preschool Children in Burkina Faso: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Exposure to antibiotics may result in alterations to the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, few trials have been conducted, and observational studies are subject to confounding by indication. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of 3 commonly used pediatric antibiotics on the intestinal microbiome in healthy (...) preschool children.Children aged 6-59 months were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a 5-day course of 1 of 3 antibiotics, including amoxicillin (25 mg/kg/d twice-daily doses), azithromycin (10 mg/kg dose on day 1 and then 5 mg/kg once daily for 4 days), cotrimoxazole (240 mg once daily), or placebo. Rectal swabs were obtained at baseline and 5 days after the last dose and were processed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The prespecified primary outcome was inverse Simpson's α-diversity index.Post-treatment

2018 Open forum infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

165. Effects of Zinc Combined with Probiotics on Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea Secondary to Childhood Pneumonia. (Abstract)

Effects of Zinc Combined with Probiotics on Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea Secondary to Childhood Pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of zinc combined with probiotics (Bifico) on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) secondary to pneumonia.A total of 50 patients with AAD secondary to pneumonia were randomly divided into a probiotics group (Bifico) and a combined group (zinc combined with Bifico) and 25 pneumonia patients without AAD as the control group. Serum levels

2018 Journal of tropical pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

166. The efficacy of social cognitive theory-based self-care intervention for rational antibiotic use: a randomized trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The efficacy of social cognitive theory-based self-care intervention for rational antibiotic use: a randomized trial. Misuse of antibiotics can be described as a failure to complete treatment, skipping of the doses and reuse of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. Health education interventions are expected to enhance awareness and general belief on rational antibiotics use. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the efficacy of social cognitive theory (SCT)-based self-care (...) intervention for rational antibiotic use.This randomized trial was conducted in a sample of 260 adults. The study participants were randomly assigned as the intervention (n=130) and a control (n=130) groups. The intervention group received self-care educational intervention of four sessions lasting 45-60 min augmented with the text messages and the control groups attended usual education program in health centers. The study participants were invited to complete questionnaires at the baseline and end

2018 European journal of public health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

167. A Randomized, Open-labelled, Interventional Study to Evaluate the Incidence of Infection with or Without Use of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Patients of Episiotomy in a Normal Vaginal Delivery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Randomized, Open-labelled, Interventional Study to Evaluate the Incidence of Infection with or Without Use of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Patients of Episiotomy in a Normal Vaginal Delivery. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of infection in patients of episiotomy with or without the use of prophylactic antibiotics and to compare other morbidities associated with episiotomy and the role of antibiotics in their prevention and treatment.This open-labelled, randomized (...) , interventional study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, from October 2014 to October 2015. Three hundred women subjected to episiotomy during normal vaginal delivery in the labour ward from BYL Nair Charitable Hospital fulfilling specific criteria were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two study groups A and B. In group A, 5-day course of prophylactic antibiotics including tablet cefixime 200 mg BD and tablet

2018 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India Controlled trial quality: uncertain

168. Impact of combined antibiotic treatment on multidrug-resistant bacteria emergence after postoperative intra-abdominal infections : Discussion on the DURAPOP randomised clinical trial. (Abstract)

Impact of combined antibiotic treatment on multidrug-resistant bacteria emergence after postoperative intra-abdominal infections : Discussion on the DURAPOP randomised clinical trial.

2018 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

169. Never put equipoise in appendix! Final results of ASAA (antibiotics vs. surgery for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adults) randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Never put equipoise in appendix! Final results of ASAA (antibiotics vs. surgery for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adults) randomized controlled trial. Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency; however, its etiology and diagnosis are still discussed with a considerable proportion of wrong diagnosis resulting in appendectomies for non inflamed appendix. Moreover, the biologic function of the appendix is still unclear. For uncomplicated acute appendicitis the conservative (...) treatment with antibiotics has been proposed with interesting results. The aim of this study was to compare surgical treatment vs. antibiotics in uncomplicated acute appendicitis. This is a monocentric randomized controlled trial comparing surgery with antibiotic therapy in adults with uncomplicated acute appendicitis. The primary outcome was the success rate (resolution of symptoms within 2 weeks and no need for further treatments); secondary outcomes were complication rate; negative appendectomy rate

2018 Updates in surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

170. Probiotic Yogurt for the Prevention of Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea in Adults: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Probiotic Yogurt for the Prevention of Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea in Adults: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. To evaluate the effect of yogurt supplemented with probiotic bacteria on the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in hospitalized patients.Diarrhea following antibiotic administration is a frequent clinical problem. The usefulness of probiotics for the prevention of AAD in the hospitalized adult population remains unclear.A randomized, double-blind (...) , placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in hospitalized patients who started antibiotic treatment. Patients were randomized (2:2:1) to receive a daily amount of 200 mL of placebo-yogurt (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), 200 mL of probiotic yogurt (previous plus Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei Lc-01 or no yogurt (unblinded control) within 48 hours of beginning

2018 Journal of clinical gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

171. Evaluation of the local effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment with and without systemic antibiotic and photodynamic therapy in generalized aggressive periodontitis. A randomized clinical trial. (Abstract)

Evaluation of the local effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment with and without systemic antibiotic and photodynamic therapy in generalized aggressive periodontitis. A randomized clinical trial. This study's aim was to evaluate the local effect of clarithromycin associated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis.The study sample comprised 72 periodontal pockets on single-rooted teeth in multiple quadrants, with both probing (...) were evaluated: plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level. A 5% significance level was used in the statistical analysis.At 3 months, UPD + aPDT, UPD + CLM, and UPD + CLM + aPDT groups all exhibited reduced probing depths relative to the UPD group (p <  0.05). However, at 6 months, the reduction in mean probing depth was greater in the antibiotic groups (UPD+CLM and UPD+CLM+aPDT) than in the UPD and UPD+aPDT groups (p <  0.05). Regarding

2018 Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

172. Home intravenous versus oral antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Home intravenous versus oral antibiotics following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children: a randomized controlled trial. To compare the effect of home intravenous (IV) versus oral antibiotic therapy on complication rates and resource utilization following appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.This was a randomized controlled trial of patients aged 4-17 with surgically treated perforated appendicitis from January 2011 to November 2013. Perforation was defined intraoperatively (...) and divided into three grades: I-contained perforation, II-localized contamination to right gutter/pelvis, and III-diffuse contamination. Patients were randomized to complete a ten-day course of home antibiotic therapy with either IV ertapenem or oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. Thirty-day postoperative complication rates including abscess, readmission, wound infection, and charges were compared.Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Forty four (54%) were randomized to the IV group and 38 (46%) to the oral group

2018 Pediatric surgery international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

173. Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. (Abstract)

Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. To investigate whether switching ciprofloxacin to fosfomycin in the case of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal bacteria influences the incidence of infectious complications after transrectal prostate biopsy.From December 2015 until December 2017, patients undergoing prostate biopsy were randomly assigned to a control group or an intervention group in a prospective, open-label fashion (...) in the intervention group (P = 0.09).This represents the first prospective randomized study using rectal cultures for targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. Study findings show promising results for use of fosfomycin in patients with fluoroquinolone resistance.© 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

2018 International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

174. Azithromycin-based Extended-Spectrum Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean: Role of Placental Colonization with Genital Ureaplasmas and Mycoplasmas. (Abstract)

Azithromycin-based Extended-Spectrum Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean: Role of Placental Colonization with Genital Ureaplasmas and Mycoplasmas.  To explore whether the effect of azithromycin (AZI) on postcesarean infections varied by the presence/absence of genital mycoplasmataceae placental colonization. This was a single-center substudy of multicenter double-blind C/SOAP (Cesarean Section Optimal Antibiotic Prophylaxis) trial of women randomized to AZI or placebo (+cefazolin) antibiotic

2018 American journal of perinatology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

175. Low Concentration of Antibiotics Modulates Gut Microbiota at Different Levels in Pre-Weaning Dairy Calves. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low Concentration of Antibiotics Modulates Gut Microbiota at Different Levels in Pre-Weaning Dairy Calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding milk replacer (MR) with two different antibiotics treatments on the gut microbiota of pre-weaning calves. Twelve (12) Holstein male calves at 1-day-old were randomly assigned to: milk replacer without antibiotics (CON), milk replacer plus low cocktail of antibiotics (LCA) concentration (penicillin 0.024 mg/L, streptomycin 0.025 (...) mg/L, tetracycline 0.1 mg/L, ceftiofur 0.33 mg/L), and milk replacer plus a low concentration of single antibiotic (LSA; ceftiofur 0.33 mg/L). All the calves were harvested at 35-day-old, and the digesta from the ileum and colon was collected in addition to fecal samples. Samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq platform. Results showed that there were significant differences among treatments in the ileum, where LCA significantly reduced the relative abundance

2018 Microorganisms Controlled trial quality: uncertain

176. Antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of urinary tract infection in patients with sterile urine before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of urinary tract infection in patients with sterile urine before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. One of the lithotripsy complications is urinary tract infection (UTI) and sepsis after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The aim was to study the prophylactic effect of antibiotics on UTI after ESWL.This randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 600 patients admitted to Babol Clinic hospital in 2014-2015. Patients were (...) randomly divided into treatment group (receiving 200 mg ofloxacin and control group (receiving placebo. The effect of prophylactic antibiotics on the incidence of bacteriuria after ESWL and the impact of variables such as gender, age, urolithiasis size and location and underlying diseases in the incidence of UTI after ESWL were evaluated.Totally, 67 of the population had positive urine cultures. Twenty-nine (10.13%) of them were in the treatment group (n=286) and 38 (13.01%) of them were in the control

2018 Caspian journal of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

177. The Effects of Two New Dual Zinc plus Arginine Dentifrices in Reducing Oral Bacteria in Multiple Locations in the Mouth: 12-Hour Whole Mouth Antibacterial Protection for Whole Mouth Health. (Abstract)

The Effects of Two New Dual Zinc plus Arginine Dentifrices in Reducing Oral Bacteria in Multiple Locations in the Mouth: 12-Hour Whole Mouth Antibacterial Protection for Whole Mouth Health. To compare the effects of two new fluoride toothpastes with Dual Zinc plus Arginine to the effects of a fluoride control toothpaste in reducing bacteria in oral biofilm on teeth and in multiple soft tissue locations, as well as in saliva, 12 hours after 14 and 29 days of product use.A randomized, single (...) with fluoride alone, 12 hours after 29 days of twice-daily tooth brushing. The results demonstrate that regular and continued twice-daily use of these new toothpastes provide 12-hour whole mouth antibacterial protection for whole mouth health.Copyright© by the YES Group, Inc.

2018 The Journal of clinical dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

178. Application of antibiotic impregnated beads on the patients with tibial chronic osteomyelitis. (Abstract)

Application of antibiotic impregnated beads on the patients with tibial chronic osteomyelitis. To investigate the clinical efficacy of antibiotic impregnated beads on the tibial chronic osteomyelitis, so as to search for a more applicable method for the treatment. Through comparative analysis, we divided 72 patients with chronic tibial osteomyelitis who received treatment in hospital between January 2016 and December 2016 randomly into two groups: Control group (n=36) and the experiment group (...) (n=36). Patients in the control group underwent closed lavage plus drainage for treatment, while those in the experiment group received the antibiotic impregnated beads. After treatment, we compared the times of treatment, average length of stay in hospital and the efficacy between two groups, and data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. In the control group, average length of stay in hospital was ((3.3±0.9) months, average time of surgery was (2.9±1.8) times, cure rate was 25.0

2018 Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

179. Assessment of antibacterial activity of 2.5% NaOCl, chitosan nano-particles against Enterococcus faecalis contaminating root canals with and without diode laser irradiation: an in vitro study. (Abstract)

Assessment of antibacterial activity of 2.5% NaOCl, chitosan nano-particles against Enterococcus faecalis contaminating root canals with and without diode laser irradiation: an in vitro study. This study was done to evaluate the antibacterial effect of chitosan nano-particles (CNPs) root canal irrigant as a new alternative to Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for disinfection of root canals inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, with and without laser activation.Sixty single rooted human premolars

2018 Acta odontologica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

180. Steroid vs. antibiotic impregnated absorbable nasal packing for wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Steroid vs. antibiotic impregnated absorbable nasal packing for wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Endoscopic sinus surgery can lead to crusting or synechiae formation, which can affect the healing process.The aim of our study was to compare the influence of steroid versus antibiotic versus saline solution impregnated absorbable nasal spacers on postoperative wound healing and patient satisfaction.Eighty patients, 33 women and 47 (...) men, were enrolled in this study. At the end of the surgery, two pieces of 4cm biodegradable material were applied in each ethmoid cavity. One of them was impregnated with saline solution, while the second one with steroid, or with antibiotic.We observed statistically significant differences in the Lund-Kennedy score between the control and both treatment groups: for the Antibiotic-group on days 10 and 30 (p=0.009; p=0.009) and for the Steroid-group on day 90 (p=0.008). The extended endoscopic

2018 Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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