How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

12,416 results for

antibiotics

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

12401. [A possible therapeutic improvement of the antibacterial effect by monitoring the production of leukocyte free oxygen radicals during antibiotic treatment of infertile patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis]. (Abstract)

[A possible therapeutic improvement of the antibacterial effect by monitoring the production of leukocyte free oxygen radicals during antibiotic treatment of infertile patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis]. In the male chronic accessory gland bacterial infections (AGBI), antibiotic treatment (AT) efficacy usually evaluates the antimicrobial outcome through one or more spermiocolture (SC) become negative. Recently, bacterial olipeptide fMPL has been used to detect a specific Radical (...) elevated and their SC remained positive (CFU/ml > or = 10(5)). In chronic BP patients, AT seems to demonstrate both antimicrobial effectiveness and reduction of L-RLO production with values similar to those of control group cA. The monitored L-RLO values during AT could be useful in order to ottimize antimicrobial effect: this tool being able to previse SC outcome, could be assumed to define clearly AT break-point and/or cycle numbers.

1996 Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12402. Randomized comparison between antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Escherichia coli-derived in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. (Abstract)

Randomized comparison between antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Escherichia coli-derived in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. A prospective, randomized study was conducted to determine if recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rh-GMCSF) (Escherichia coli-derived) could improve response rates to antibiotic therapy and shorten the duration of neutropenia in cancer patients.A total of 107 febrile (...) neutropenic cancer patients were randomly assigned to empiric therapy with ticarcillin-clavulanate (4 g ticarcillin + 0.1 g clavulanate i.v. every 4 hours) plus netilmicin (2 mg/kg i.v. every 8 hours) with or without rh-GMCSF (3 micrograms/kg per day i.v.). Clinical improvement, duration of neutropenia, and toxicity were monitored.Addition of rh-GMCSF to the antibiotics significantly improved the response rate (96% versus 82%, P = 0.03), but not the survival rate (93% versus 93%), in the evaluable

1996 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12403. Pan-European survey of patients' attitudes to antibiotics and antibiotic use. (Abstract)

Pan-European survey of patients' attitudes to antibiotics and antibiotic use. This study was carried out to determine patient perceptions of respiratory tract infections and attitudes to taking antibiotics, thus helping doctors to have a better understanding of their patients and their requirements. Telephone interviews were conducted in the UK, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain and Turkey using standardized questionnaires directed at patients who had taken an antibiotic or given one to their child (...) for a respiratory tract infection within the previous 12 months. Approximately 200 working adults (< or = 55 years), 200 elderly adults (> 55 years) and 200 mothers of children (< 12 years) from each country were contacted; in total, 3610 subjects. Pressure on GPs to prescribe antibiotics was highlighted by over 50% of interviewees' believing that they should be prescribed for most respiratory tract infections. Although interviewees were positive about antibiotics, with over 75% judging them to be effective

1996 The Journal of international medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12404. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity of daptomycin, a new lipopeptide antibiotic, in healthy volunteers. (Full text)

Single-dose pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity of daptomycin, a new lipopeptide antibiotic, in healthy volunteers. Three separate single-dose studies were performed to define the disposition and pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in healthy volunteers. Daptomycin was administered as a single 14C-labeled dose (1.0 mg/kg of body weight) and as single doses between 0.5 and 6.0 mg/kg. All doses were intravenous. Antibacterial activity was determined from doses of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg (...) , with a limited total body clearance (0.13 to 0.21 ml/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution (0.10 to 0.15 liter/kg). The small volume of distribution may be a factor of the high plasma protein binding (90 to 95%). Renal clearance made up 34 to 54% of total body clearance. Daptomycin demonstrated in vivo antibacterial activity against all three test strains, with the greatest activity observed against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The predicted MIC for all three strains was approximately 13 micrograms

1992 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

12405. Antibiotic residues and prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in heifers during early lactation following prepartum antibiotic therapy. (Abstract)

Antibiotic residues and prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in heifers during early lactation following prepartum antibiotic therapy. The present study was conducted to determine if antibiotic treatment of heifer mammary glands earlier in the prepartum period reduced the occurrence of residues in milk without compromising efficacy in treatment of intramammary infections. Heifers were assigned randomly to two groups: 1. untreated negative control (n = 42); and 2. intramammary infusion (...) , and at 3 and 30 days after calving for microbiological evaluation. For untreated control heifers, mastitis pathogens were isolated from 67.3% of samples obtained from mammary glands 14 days prior to expected calving, 55.6% obtained 3 days after calving and 36.4% of samples obtained 30 days postpartum. A similar percentage of samples (63.8%) was positive for mastitis pathogens at 14 days before expected calving prior to antibiotic treatment. However, only 15.1% of samples obtained at 3 days after

1997 Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe B. Journal of veterinary medicine. Series B Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12406. Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: a prospective randomised controlled single centre study. (Full text)

Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: a prospective randomised controlled single centre study. Neutropenic sepsis remains a potentially life-threatening complication of anticancer chemotherapy. However, it is possible to identify patients who are at low risk for serious complications and for whom less-intensive, more-convenient treatment may be appropriate. The aim of this study (...) was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral antibiotics in conjunction with early hospital discharge in comparison with standard in-patient intravenous antibiotics in patients with low-risk neutropenic fever. In all, 126 episodes of low-risk neutropenic fever occurred in 102 patients. Patients were randomised to receive either: an oral regimen of ciprofloxacin (750 mg 12 hourly) plus amoxicillin-clavulanate (675 mg 8 hourly) for a total of 5 days, or a standard intravenous regimen of gentamicin

2003 British journal of cancer Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

12407. Antibiotic pharmacodynamics in surgical prophylaxis: an association between intraoperative antibiotic concentrations and efficacy. (Full text)

Antibiotic pharmacodynamics in surgical prophylaxis: an association between intraoperative antibiotic concentrations and efficacy. The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between gentamicin concentrations during surgery and the development of wound infection following colorectal operations. Despite decades of research in surgical prophylaxis, the relationship between intraoperative antibiotic concentrations and postoperative infection and the concentrations required (...) a critical closure concentration of 1.6 mg/liter for effective surgical prophylaxis (P = 0.002; sensitivity, 70.8%; specificity, 65.9%). This study provides new and important information on antibiotic pharmacodynamics in surgical prophylaxis. It demonstrates the critical effect of the antibiotic concentration at closure on wound infection and suggests a significant association between the concentration and other well-established risk factors, like the timing of preoperative antibiotic administration

2002 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

12408. Antibiotic resistance of subgingival species during and after antibiotic therapy. (Abstract)

Antibiotic resistance of subgingival species during and after antibiotic therapy. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the percentage and identity of antibiotic-resistant species in subgingival plaque and saliva samples from chronic periodontitis patients treated by scaling and root planing followed by orally administered amoxicillin or metronidazole.In all, 20 chronic periodontitis patients were selected for study. After clinical and microbiological monitoring, subjects (...) were randomly assigned to receive either orally administered amoxicillin at the dosage of 500 mg, 3 times daily for 14 days or orally administered metronidazole at the dosage of 250 mg, 3 times daily for 14 days. For the antibiotic resistance determinations, subgingival plaque samples were taken from six posterior teeth at baseline, and 90 days; and from two randomly selected teeth at 3, 7 and 14 days during and after antibiotic administration. Samples were plated on enriched blood agar plates

2002 Journal of clinical periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12409. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis 1: relative effects of recommended antibiotics on gram-negative pathogens. (Abstract)

Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis 1: relative effects of recommended antibiotics on gram-negative pathogens. To assess whether the antibiotic chosen for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis affects the subsequent exposure of the neonate to ampicillin-resistant gram-negative bacteria.We performed a randomized clinical trial of ampicillin versus penicillin for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Genital tract cultures for Enterobacteriaceae were obtained at study entry and 8-36 hours postpartum (...) coli were higher than entry culture rates for both the ampicillin (36% versus 25%, P =.026) and penicillin (38% versus 22%, P <.001) groups. Postpartum culture rates of resistant Enterobacteriaceae were also higher than entry culture rates for both the ampicillin (51% versus 38%, P <.001) and penicillin (55% versus 32%, P <.001) groups. Results were similar when considering only women who received two or more doses and no additional antibiotics.Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with either

2002 Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12410. Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic sensitivity based treatment in Helicobacter pylori infection: advantages and outcome. (Full text)

Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic sensitivity based treatment in Helicobacter pylori infection: advantages and outcome. To compare two strategies for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.Groups 1 and 2 each consisted of 75 consecutive patients. Patients in group 1 were treated with two antibiotics based on antibiotic susceptibility testing; those in group 2 received amoxycillin and clarithromycin for eight days, together with either ranitidine or omeprazole. Eradication rate (...) was assessed in both groups six months after treatment.In group 1, H pylori grew in culture in 63/75 cases. Susceptibility testing showed that 35/63 isolates were resistant to metronidazole, 10/63 to clarithromycin, 2/63 to ampicillin, 1/63 to tetracycline, and 5/63 to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. In group 1 the infection was eradicated in 96% of the initial 75 subjects, and in 98% of the subjects treated according to the antibiotic assay (62/63). As two patients were lost at follow up

2001 Archives of disease in childhood Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

12411. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing single-agent antibiotic therapy, ciprofloxacin, to combination antibiotic therapy in open fracture wounds. (Abstract)

Prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing single-agent antibiotic therapy, ciprofloxacin, to combination antibiotic therapy in open fracture wounds. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single agent, ciprofloxacin, with that of combination antibiotic therapy consisting of cefamandole and gentamicin in all types of open fracture wounds.A prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial.A Level 1 trauma center.One hundred ninety-five consecutive patients (...) with 203 open fractures were enrolled over a twenty-month period. Twenty-nine fractures from low-velocity gunshot wounds were excluded, and three other patients were excluded because of protocol violations. Our final number of patients were 163, with 171 open fractures.The infection rates for Type I and Type II open fractures for both antibiotic groups were calculated. The infection rate of Type III open fractures for both antibiotic groups was also calculated. Chi-square analysis with Yates correction

2000 Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12412. Short-course empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the intensive care unit. A proposed solution for indiscriminate antibiotic prescription. (Full text)

) of the patients in the experimental therapy group (p = 0.0001). Mortality and length of ICU stay did not differ despite a shorter duration (p = 0.0001) and lower cost (p = 0.003) of antimicrobial therapy in the experimental as compared with the standard therapy arm. Antimicrobial resistance, or superinfections, or both, developed in 15% (5 of 37) of the patients in the experimental versus 35% (14 of 37) of the patients in the standard therapy group (p = 0.017). Thus, overtreatment with antibiotics is widely (...) prevalent, but unnecessary in most patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the ICU. The operational criteria used, regardless of the precise definition of pneumonia, accurately identified patients with pulmonary infiltrates for whom monotherapy with a short course of antibiotics was appropriate. Such an approach led to significantly lower antimicrobial therapy costs, antimicrobial resistance, and superinfections without adversely affecting the length of stay or mortality.

2000 American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

12413. Comparison of antibiotic beads and intravenous antibiotics in open fractures. (Abstract)

Comparison of antibiotic beads and intravenous antibiotics in open fractures. This study compared the efficacy of antibiotic impregnated beads with conventional intravenous antibiotics in the treatment of open fractures. A randomized prospective study was designed and conducted during a 29-month period. Sixty-seven patients with 75 open fractures were treated similarly, with the exception of the method of antibiotic administration, and were followed up for at least 1 year after injury (...) . Infection occurred in two of 24 (8.3%) fractures treated with antibiotic beads alone and in two of 38 (5.3%) fractures treated with conventional intravenous antibiotics. In an unanticipated nonrandomized third cohort group, patients received antibiotic beads and intravenous antibiotics administered for nonorthopaedic reasons or limb threatening injury, or both. Two of 13 (15.4%) fractures in this high risk group became infected. Infection ultimately resolved in all fractures treated with antibiotic

2000 Clinical orthopaedics and related research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12414. Comparison of antibiotic drops placed in the conjunctival cul-de-sac to antibiotic ointment applied to the lid margin in reduction of bacterial colonization on the lid margin. (Abstract)

Comparison of antibiotic drops placed in the conjunctival cul-de-sac to antibiotic ointment applied to the lid margin in reduction of bacterial colonization on the lid margin. To compare the efficacy of antibiotic drops placed in the conjunctival cul-de-sac to antibiotic ointment applied to the lid margin in reduction of bacterial colonization on the lid margin.A randomized, prospective, single-masked study was conducted on 19 patients with culture-proven colonization of bacteria on the lid (...) at initial visit, one week, one month, and two months. Fifteen volunteers (30 lids) served as controls. Lid cultures were taken at initial visit, one week, and one month.Both antibiotic drop and ointment reduced average bacterial CFU/mL at one week and one month. Average bacterial CFU/mL reestablished to baseline values at two months. There was no statistically significant difference between antibiotic drop and ointment in reducing bacterial colonization on the lid margin.Antibiotic drops placed

2000 Cornea Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12415. Results of a pilot trial comparing prolonged intravenous antibiotics with sequential intravenous/oral antibiotics for children with perforated appendicitis. (Abstract)

Results of a pilot trial comparing prolonged intravenous antibiotics with sequential intravenous/oral antibiotics for children with perforated appendicitis. For children with perforated appendicitis, the use of a prolonged course of intravenous (i.v.) antibiotics is equivalent to a short course of i.v. antibiotics followed by sequential conversion to oral (PO) antibiotics.Prospective, randomized, clinical trial.Multicenter study in tertiary children's hospitals.Children (aged 5-18 years (...) of oral intake, duration of fever, or return of normal white blood cell count between the groups. Conversion to oral therapy results in savings of approximately $1500 per case.There is treatment equivalence between prolonged i.v. therapy and i.v. therapy followed by conversion to oral antibiotic therapy in children with perforated appendicitis.

2001 Archives of Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12416. In vitro susceptibility of new generation of antibacterial antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. (Abstract)

In vitro susceptibility of new generation of antibacterial antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotic susceptibility of ten bacteria i.e. Neisseria catarrhalis, Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to twenty antibiotics i.e. cefpirom (30 mcg), ceftriaxone (30 mcg), erythromycin (15 mcg), doxycycline (30 mcg) lomefloxacin (10 mcg), sisomicin (30 (...) mcg), vancomycin (30 mcg), augmentin (30 mcg), ampicillin (30 mcg), cotrimoxazole (25 mcg), cefotaxime (30 mcg), Chloramphenicol (30 mcg), cephalexin (30 mcg), tetracycline (30 mcg), ciprofloxacin (5 mcg), nitrofurantoin (300 mcg), nalidixic acid (30 mcg), pefloxacin (10 mcg), norfloxacin and ofloxacin (5 mcg) was studied to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of recently introduced second and third generation antibiotics. All the test strains were sensitive to pefloxacin, erythromycin, augmentin

2002 Hindustan antibiotics bulletin Controlled trial quality: uncertain

Controlled trials

Controlled trials are important tests of an intervention, particularly randomised controlled trials.  See Testing Treatments to understand the reasons why.