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antibiotics

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12401. Treatment of fever and neutropenia with antibiotics versus antibiotics plus intravenous gammaglobulin in childhood leukemia. (Abstract)

Treatment of fever and neutropenia with antibiotics versus antibiotics plus intravenous gammaglobulin in childhood leukemia. Thirty-three children with leukemia who had neutropenia and fever were randomized to receive cefataxim and amikacin, versus the same antibiotics plus intravenous gammaglobulin (i.v. IgG). Duration of neutropenia, hospitalization and the interruption of chemotherapy were not different in the two groups; however, duration of fever was significantly shorter in the i.v. IgG

1989 European journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12402. Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. Conflicting data exist concerning the value of antimicrobial prophylaxis in chest trauma. In a prospective and randomized study, we assessed the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in 80 consecutive relatively young, predominantly male patients admitted for gunshot or knife injuries of the chest. Forty patients received intravenous doxycycline and 40 received no antibiotic. Between the two groups we found (...) no difference in the incidence of postoperative infections: we conclude that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended in penetrating chest trauma in patients such as ours.

1985 Journal of Trauma Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12403. A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. (Abstract)

A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. A trial was carried out in general practice in 200 patients presenting with skin infections to compare topical antibiotic treatment with mupirocin ointment with orally administered flucloxacillin or erythromycin. Patients were assigned at random to receive 4 to 10 days' treatment with either mupirocin applied 3-times daily or one of the oral (...) antibiotics in the dosage normally used by the general practitioner for skin infections. The majority of infections were impetigo and infected wounds/lacerations; the main organisms isolated initially from 127 of the patients were either Staphylococcus aureus or beta-haemolytic Group A streptococci. Clinical response to mupirocin ointment (86% cured, 13% improved) was significantly better than that seen with erythromycin (47% cured, 26% improved) and similar to that with flucloxacillin (76% cured, 23

1986 Current medical research and opinion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12404. ["Single shot" prevention in abdominal surgery. Antibiotics with long half-life (ceftriaxone, ornidazole) vs. antibiotics with short half-life (cefazolin, metronidazole, clindamycin)]. (Abstract)

["Single shot" prevention in abdominal surgery. Antibiotics with long half-life (ceftriaxone, ornidazole) vs. antibiotics with short half-life (cefazolin, metronidazole, clindamycin)]. Single-shot antibiotic prophylaxis is well established in abdominal surgery. There is evidence suggesting that it prevents wound infections and some authors report also prevention against postoperative urinary tract infection and pneumonia. From April 1988 to December 1990 we randomly assigned 429 patients (...) . There was no statistically significant difference in pulmonary or urinary tract infections in all groups. Although the protocol for antibiotics with a short half-life included a second dose of antibiotics in cases of operations with a duration of more than four hours, this was forgotten in 19 of 39 concerned patients (49%!).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1994 Helvetica chirurgica acta Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12405. Randomized comparison between antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Escherichia coli-derived in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. (Abstract)

Randomized comparison between antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Escherichia coli-derived in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. A prospective, randomized study was conducted to determine if recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rh-GMCSF) (Escherichia coli-derived) could improve response rates to antibiotic therapy and shorten the duration of neutropenia in cancer patients.A total of 107 febrile (...) neutropenic cancer patients were randomly assigned to empiric therapy with ticarcillin-clavulanate (4 g ticarcillin + 0.1 g clavulanate i.v. every 4 hours) plus netilmicin (2 mg/kg i.v. every 8 hours) with or without rh-GMCSF (3 micrograms/kg per day i.v.). Clinical improvement, duration of neutropenia, and toxicity were monitored.Addition of rh-GMCSF to the antibiotics significantly improved the response rate (96% versus 82%, P = 0.03), but not the survival rate (93% versus 93%), in the evaluable

1996 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12406. [A possible therapeutic improvement of the antibacterial effect by monitoring the production of leukocyte free oxygen radicals during antibiotic treatment of infertile patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis]. (Abstract)

[A possible therapeutic improvement of the antibacterial effect by monitoring the production of leukocyte free oxygen radicals during antibiotic treatment of infertile patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis]. In the male chronic accessory gland bacterial infections (AGBI), antibiotic treatment (AT) efficacy usually evaluates the antimicrobial outcome through one or more spermiocolture (SC) become negative. Recently, bacterial olipeptide fMPL has been used to detect a specific Radical (...) elevated and their SC remained positive (CFU/ml > or = 10(5)). In chronic BP patients, AT seems to demonstrate both antimicrobial effectiveness and reduction of L-RLO production with values similar to those of control group cA. The monitored L-RLO values during AT could be useful in order to ottimize antimicrobial effect: this tool being able to previse SC outcome, could be assumed to define clearly AT break-point and/or cycle numbers.

1996 Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12407. Pan-European survey of patients' attitudes to antibiotics and antibiotic use. (Abstract)

Pan-European survey of patients' attitudes to antibiotics and antibiotic use. This study was carried out to determine patient perceptions of respiratory tract infections and attitudes to taking antibiotics, thus helping doctors to have a better understanding of their patients and their requirements. Telephone interviews were conducted in the UK, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain and Turkey using standardized questionnaires directed at patients who had taken an antibiotic or given one to their child (...) for a respiratory tract infection within the previous 12 months. Approximately 200 working adults (< or = 55 years), 200 elderly adults (> 55 years) and 200 mothers of children (< 12 years) from each country were contacted; in total, 3610 subjects. Pressure on GPs to prescribe antibiotics was highlighted by over 50% of interviewees' believing that they should be prescribed for most respiratory tract infections. Although interviewees were positive about antibiotics, with over 75% judging them to be effective

1996 The Journal of international medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12408. Antibiotic residues and prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in heifers during early lactation following prepartum antibiotic therapy. (Abstract)

Antibiotic residues and prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in heifers during early lactation following prepartum antibiotic therapy. The present study was conducted to determine if antibiotic treatment of heifer mammary glands earlier in the prepartum period reduced the occurrence of residues in milk without compromising efficacy in treatment of intramammary infections. Heifers were assigned randomly to two groups: 1. untreated negative control (n = 42); and 2. intramammary infusion (...) , and at 3 and 30 days after calving for microbiological evaluation. For untreated control heifers, mastitis pathogens were isolated from 67.3% of samples obtained from mammary glands 14 days prior to expected calving, 55.6% obtained 3 days after calving and 36.4% of samples obtained 30 days postpartum. A similar percentage of samples (63.8%) was positive for mastitis pathogens at 14 days before expected calving prior to antibiotic treatment. However, only 15.1% of samples obtained at 3 days after

1997 Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe B. Journal of veterinary medicine. Series B Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12409. Comparison of antibiotic drops placed in the conjunctival cul-de-sac to antibiotic ointment applied to the lid margin in reduction of bacterial colonization on the lid margin. (Abstract)

Comparison of antibiotic drops placed in the conjunctival cul-de-sac to antibiotic ointment applied to the lid margin in reduction of bacterial colonization on the lid margin. To compare the efficacy of antibiotic drops placed in the conjunctival cul-de-sac to antibiotic ointment applied to the lid margin in reduction of bacterial colonization on the lid margin.A randomized, prospective, single-masked study was conducted on 19 patients with culture-proven colonization of bacteria on the lid (...) at initial visit, one week, one month, and two months. Fifteen volunteers (30 lids) served as controls. Lid cultures were taken at initial visit, one week, and one month.Both antibiotic drop and ointment reduced average bacterial CFU/mL at one week and one month. Average bacterial CFU/mL reestablished to baseline values at two months. There was no statistically significant difference between antibiotic drop and ointment in reducing bacterial colonization on the lid margin.Antibiotic drops placed

2000 Cornea Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12410. Comparison of antibiotic beads and intravenous antibiotics in open fractures. (Abstract)

Comparison of antibiotic beads and intravenous antibiotics in open fractures. This study compared the efficacy of antibiotic impregnated beads with conventional intravenous antibiotics in the treatment of open fractures. A randomized prospective study was designed and conducted during a 29-month period. Sixty-seven patients with 75 open fractures were treated similarly, with the exception of the method of antibiotic administration, and were followed up for at least 1 year after injury (...) . Infection occurred in two of 24 (8.3%) fractures treated with antibiotic beads alone and in two of 38 (5.3%) fractures treated with conventional intravenous antibiotics. In an unanticipated nonrandomized third cohort group, patients received antibiotic beads and intravenous antibiotics administered for nonorthopaedic reasons or limb threatening injury, or both. Two of 13 (15.4%) fractures in this high risk group became infected. Infection ultimately resolved in all fractures treated with antibiotic

2000 Clinical orthopaedics and related research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12411. Short-course empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the intensive care unit. A proposed solution for indiscriminate antibiotic prescription. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) of the patients in the experimental therapy group (p = 0.0001). Mortality and length of ICU stay did not differ despite a shorter duration (p = 0.0001) and lower cost (p = 0.003) of antimicrobial therapy in the experimental as compared with the standard therapy arm. Antimicrobial resistance, or superinfections, or both, developed in 15% (5 of 37) of the patients in the experimental versus 35% (14 of 37) of the patients in the standard therapy group (p = 0.017). Thus, overtreatment with antibiotics is widely (...) prevalent, but unnecessary in most patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the ICU. The operational criteria used, regardless of the precise definition of pneumonia, accurately identified patients with pulmonary infiltrates for whom monotherapy with a short course of antibiotics was appropriate. Such an approach led to significantly lower antimicrobial therapy costs, antimicrobial resistance, and superinfections without adversely affecting the length of stay or mortality.

2000 American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

Controlled trials

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