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antibiotics

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12381. [Antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in liver cirrhosis--for which patients, with what antibiotics?]. (Abstract)

[Antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in liver cirrhosis--for which patients, with what antibiotics?]. 9381749 1997 11 14 2013 11 21 0044-2771 35 8 1997 Aug Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie Z Gastroenterol [Antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in liver cirrhosis--for which patients, with what antibiotics?]. 659-60 Gerbes A L AL Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Grosshádern, München. ger Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial (...) Antibiotikaprophylaxe nach gastrointestinaler Blutung bei Leberzirrhose--für welche Patienten, mit welchen Antibiotika? Germany Z Gastroenterol 0033370 0044-2771 5E8K9I0O4U Ciprofloxacin 74469-00-4 Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination IM Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination administration & dosage Antibiotic Prophylaxis Bacterial Infections mortality prevention & control Ciprofloxacin administration & dosage Critical Care Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Drug Administration Schedule

1997 Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12382. How does a "wait and see" approach to prescribing antibiotics for acute otitis media (AOM) compare with immediate antibiotic treatment? (Abstract)

How does a "wait and see" approach to prescribing antibiotics for acute otitis media (AOM) compare with immediate antibiotic treatment? 11350715 2001 07 12 2015 11 19 0094-3509 50 5 2001 May The Journal of family practice J Fam Pract How does a "wait and see" approach to prescribing antibiotics for acute otitis media (AOM) compare with immediate antibiotic treatment? 469 Bascelli L M LM University of Washington, Seattle, USA. lbascelli@resnet.fammed.washington.edu Losh D P DP eng Clinical Trial

2001 The Journal of family practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12383. [Antibacterial therapy of purulent peritonitis: a prospective randomized study on the effects of antibiotics and taurolin, a new chemotherapeutic and antiendotoxic agent (author's transl)]. (Abstract)

[Antibacterial therapy of purulent peritonitis: a prospective randomized study on the effects of antibiotics and taurolin, a new chemotherapeutic and antiendotoxic agent (author's transl)]. A prospective randomized study on the value of additional antibacterial therapy in surgically treated, purulent peritonitis (69 patients) is presented. A new chemotherapeutic agent Taurolin with antiendotoxin activity is tested against conventional antibiotic therapy. There was an increased rate of secondary (...) wound healing and overall complications in the Taurolin group (especially bronchopneumonia). Local complications and lethality due to peritonitis occur similarly frequently in both groups. The bactericidal and antiendotoxic effects of Taurolin, its lacking toxicity (possibility of higher dosage), and the choice of combination with antibiotics make it a most interesting substance for additional antibacterial therapy for purulent peritonitis following surgical treatment.

1980 Chirurgisches Forum für experimentelle und klinische Forschung Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12384. Antibiotic prophylaxis in pacemaker surgery: a prospective double blind trial with systemic administration of antibiotic versus placebo at implantation of cardiac pacemakers. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis in pacemaker surgery: a prospective double blind trial with systemic administration of antibiotic versus placebo at implantation of cardiac pacemakers. In a double blind clinical trial, 106 consecutive patients scheduled for pacemaker implantation were randomly assigned either to a systemic prophylaxis group (SPG) (to be given flucloxacillin) or to a control group who would be given a placebo (CPG). The SPG group received 2 g IV flucloxacillin 1 hour before the operation (...) antibiotic concentration. The mean flucloxacillin concentration of pocket fluid from 23 patients in the SPG was 7.5 micrograms/ml. The bacteriological cultures were positive in 9/32 patients in the SPG group and in 10/34 patients in the CPG group. This study suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis need not routinely be given at implantation of permanent pacemaker systems.

1986 Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12385. Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics and no antibiotics compared in penetrating chest trauma. Conflicting data exist concerning the value of antimicrobial prophylaxis in chest trauma. In a prospective and randomized study, we assessed the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in 80 consecutive relatively young, predominantly male patients admitted for gunshot or knife injuries of the chest. Forty patients received intravenous doxycycline and 40 received no antibiotic. Between the two groups we found (...) no difference in the incidence of postoperative infections: we conclude that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended in penetrating chest trauma in patients such as ours.

1985 Journal of Trauma Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12386. A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. (Abstract)

A comparison of the new topical antibiotic mupirocin ('Bactroban') with oral antibiotics in the treatment of skin infections in general practice. A trial was carried out in general practice in 200 patients presenting with skin infections to compare topical antibiotic treatment with mupirocin ointment with orally administered flucloxacillin or erythromycin. Patients were assigned at random to receive 4 to 10 days' treatment with either mupirocin applied 3-times daily or one of the oral (...) antibiotics in the dosage normally used by the general practitioner for skin infections. The majority of infections were impetigo and infected wounds/lacerations; the main organisms isolated initially from 127 of the patients were either Staphylococcus aureus or beta-haemolytic Group A streptococci. Clinical response to mupirocin ointment (86% cured, 13% improved) was significantly better than that seen with erythromycin (47% cured, 26% improved) and similar to that with flucloxacillin (76% cured, 23

1986 Current medical research and opinion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12387. Intraincisional antibiotic in addition to systemic antibiotic treatment fails to reduce wound infection rates in contaminated abdominal surgery. A controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Intraincisional antibiotic in addition to systemic antibiotic treatment fails to reduce wound infection rates in contaminated abdominal surgery. A controlled clinical trial. One hundred ninety patients with peritonitis at the time of abdominal surgery were allocated at random to systemic antibiotic treatment alone or systemic antibiotic treatment combined with topical application of antibiotics in the wound at the time of wound closure. The overall wound infection rate was 17 percent without

1989 Diseases of the colon and rectum Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12388. Efficacy of oral antibiotics following parenteral antibiotics for serious infections in obstetrics and gynecology. (Abstract)

Efficacy of oral antibiotics following parenteral antibiotics for serious infections in obstetrics and gynecology. Patients with serious soft-tissue infections in obstetrics and gynecology are frequently treated with parenteral antibiotics until afebrile and clinically well for 48-72 hours, and then discharged on a broad-spectrum oral antibiotic. To evaluate the efficacy of this type of management, we designed a prospective, randomized single-blinded study comparing a group of patients who (...) received oral antibiotics after hospital discharge (N = 80) with a group who did not (N = 83). No significant differences in age, race, parity, diagnosis, or pathogen isolated were observed between the patients in the two groups. No significant difference was noted in delayed morbidity between those who did and those who did not take oral antibiotics (P greater than .06). In light of the cost of oral antibiotics and the chance of drug-induced side effects, the data suggest that oral antibiotics after

1989 Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12389. A randomized trial of empirical antibiotic therapy with one of four beta-lactam antibiotics in combination with netilmicin in febrile neutropenic patients. (Abstract)

A randomized trial of empirical antibiotic therapy with one of four beta-lactam antibiotics in combination with netilmicin in febrile neutropenic patients. Over a two year period 174 evaluable episodes of fever in neutropenic patients were treated in a randomized study comparing four beta-lactam antibiotics, each given in combination with netilmicin. Exclusions included episodes due to viral or fungal infection, and trial violations. Most patients were receiving treatment for leukaemia

1988 The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12390. Treatment of fever and neutropenia with antibiotics versus antibiotics plus intravenous gammaglobulin in childhood leukemia. (Abstract)

Treatment of fever and neutropenia with antibiotics versus antibiotics plus intravenous gammaglobulin in childhood leukemia. Thirty-three children with leukemia who had neutropenia and fever were randomized to receive cefataxim and amikacin, versus the same antibiotics plus intravenous gammaglobulin (i.v. IgG). Duration of neutropenia, hospitalization and the interruption of chemotherapy were not different in the two groups; however, duration of fever was significantly shorter in the i.v. IgG

1989 European journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12391. [Randomized trial of empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile episodes after bone marrow transplantation. Comparison of an aminoglycoside-beta lactam (tobramycin-ticarcillin) combination with 2 beta-lactam antibiotics (ticarcillin-latamoxef)]. (Abstract)

[Randomized trial of empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile episodes after bone marrow transplantation. Comparison of an aminoglycoside-beta lactam (tobramycin-ticarcillin) combination with 2 beta-lactam antibiotics (ticarcillin-latamoxef)]. From February 1986 to July 1987, 87 patients who underwent an autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation were randomized to receive ticarpen tobramycin or ticarpen moxalactam for their first febrile episode. Forty received ticarpen tobramycin

1988 Pathologie-biologie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12392. Prophylaxis of bacterial infections after bone marrow transplantation. A randomized prospective study comparing oral broad-spectrum nonabsorbable antibiotics (vancomycin-tobramycin-colistin) to absorbable antibiotics (ofloxacin-amoxicillin). (Abstract)

Prophylaxis of bacterial infections after bone marrow transplantation. A randomized prospective study comparing oral broad-spectrum nonabsorbable antibiotics (vancomycin-tobramycin-colistin) to absorbable antibiotics (ofloxacin-amoxicillin). Bacterial infection is a common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. It is related to the toxic effects of the conditioning regimen on mucosal surfaces, to bone marrow aplasia and to the prolonged lymphopenia with immune deficiency (...) that lasts for several weeks after bone marrow transplantation. We have performed a prospective randomized study comparing two methods of prophylaxis. Group I (OA) received a combination of ofloxacin 400 mg/day and amoxicillin 20 g/day; group II (VTC) received the oral nonabsorbable antibiotics vancomycin 450 mg/day, tobramycin 450 mg/day and colistin 4.5.10(6) units daily, from day -15 to 15 days after discharge from laminar air flow (LAF) rooms. All patients were nursed in LAF rooms with a strict

1991 Chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12393. Antibiotics in elective colon surgery. A randomized trial of oral, systemic, and oral/systemic antibiotics for prophylaxis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics in elective colon surgery. A randomized trial of oral, systemic, and oral/systemic antibiotics for prophylaxis. A prospective, randomized double-blind study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of three prophylactic regimens (oral neomycin and erythromycin, intravenous cefoxitin, and a combination of both oral and intravenous antibiotics) in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. One hundred sixty-nine patients were randomized and 146 patients were evaluable. Septic (...) complications occurred in 11.4 per cent of patients receiving oral antibiotics only, in 11.7 per cent of patients receiving intravenous cefoxitin alone, and in 7.8 per cent of patients receiving both oral and intravenous antibiotics. These differences were not statistically different. The greatest number of septic complications occurred in those patients with anastomotic disruptions. Two patients died (1.3%), both of whom had major anastomotic failures. There was no advantage between any of the groups

1990 The American surgeon Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12394. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotic therapy following intravenous antibiotic therapy for postpartum endometritis. (Abstract)

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotic therapy following intravenous antibiotic therapy for postpartum endometritis. One hundred thirty-six patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotic therapy (amoxicillin) versus placebo following successful intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for postpartum endometritis. No subjects were readmitted to the hospital for recurrent endometritis and there were no wound infections (...) or recurrent fevers. Minor side effects were seen in 10% of those taking amoxicillin and 14% of those taking placebo. Compliance was fair; only 52% of those taking amoxicillin and 65% of those taking placebo completed therapy. The lack of infectious complications in this high-risk population suggests that oral antibiotic therapy is unnecessary after successful IV antibiotic therapy for endometritis.

1991 Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12395. ["Single shot" prevention in abdominal surgery. Antibiotics with long half-life (ceftriaxone, ornidazole) vs. antibiotics with short half-life (cefazolin, metronidazole, clindamycin)]. (Abstract)

["Single shot" prevention in abdominal surgery. Antibiotics with long half-life (ceftriaxone, ornidazole) vs. antibiotics with short half-life (cefazolin, metronidazole, clindamycin)]. Single-shot antibiotic prophylaxis is well established in abdominal surgery. There is evidence suggesting that it prevents wound infections and some authors report also prevention against postoperative urinary tract infection and pneumonia. From April 1988 to December 1990 we randomly assigned 429 patients (...) . There was no statistically significant difference in pulmonary or urinary tract infections in all groups. Although the protocol for antibiotics with a short half-life included a second dose of antibiotics in cases of operations with a duration of more than four hours, this was forgotten in 19 of 39 concerned patients (49%!).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1994 Helvetica chirurgica acta Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12396. [A possible therapeutic improvement of the antibacterial effect by monitoring the production of leukocyte free oxygen radicals during antibiotic treatment of infertile patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis]. (Abstract)

[A possible therapeutic improvement of the antibacterial effect by monitoring the production of leukocyte free oxygen radicals during antibiotic treatment of infertile patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis]. In the male chronic accessory gland bacterial infections (AGBI), antibiotic treatment (AT) efficacy usually evaluates the antimicrobial outcome through one or more spermiocolture (SC) become negative. Recently, bacterial olipeptide fMPL has been used to detect a specific Radical (...) elevated and their SC remained positive (CFU/ml > or = 10(5)). In chronic BP patients, AT seems to demonstrate both antimicrobial effectiveness and reduction of L-RLO production with values similar to those of control group cA. The monitored L-RLO values during AT could be useful in order to ottimize antimicrobial effect: this tool being able to previse SC outcome, could be assumed to define clearly AT break-point and/or cycle numbers.

1996 Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12397. Randomized comparison between antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Escherichia coli-derived in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. (Abstract)

Randomized comparison between antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Escherichia coli-derived in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. A prospective, randomized study was conducted to determine if recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rh-GMCSF) (Escherichia coli-derived) could improve response rates to antibiotic therapy and shorten the duration of neutropenia in cancer patients.A total of 107 febrile (...) neutropenic cancer patients were randomly assigned to empiric therapy with ticarcillin-clavulanate (4 g ticarcillin + 0.1 g clavulanate i.v. every 4 hours) plus netilmicin (2 mg/kg i.v. every 8 hours) with or without rh-GMCSF (3 micrograms/kg per day i.v.). Clinical improvement, duration of neutropenia, and toxicity were monitored.Addition of rh-GMCSF to the antibiotics significantly improved the response rate (96% versus 82%, P = 0.03), but not the survival rate (93% versus 93%), in the evaluable

1996 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12398. Pan-European survey of patients' attitudes to antibiotics and antibiotic use. (Abstract)

Pan-European survey of patients' attitudes to antibiotics and antibiotic use. This study was carried out to determine patient perceptions of respiratory tract infections and attitudes to taking antibiotics, thus helping doctors to have a better understanding of their patients and their requirements. Telephone interviews were conducted in the UK, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain and Turkey using standardized questionnaires directed at patients who had taken an antibiotic or given one to their child (...) for a respiratory tract infection within the previous 12 months. Approximately 200 working adults (< or = 55 years), 200 elderly adults (> 55 years) and 200 mothers of children (< 12 years) from each country were contacted; in total, 3610 subjects. Pressure on GPs to prescribe antibiotics was highlighted by over 50% of interviewees' believing that they should be prescribed for most respiratory tract infections. Although interviewees were positive about antibiotics, with over 75% judging them to be effective

1996 The Journal of international medical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12399. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity of daptomycin, a new lipopeptide antibiotic, in healthy volunteers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Single-dose pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activity of daptomycin, a new lipopeptide antibiotic, in healthy volunteers. Three separate single-dose studies were performed to define the disposition and pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in healthy volunteers. Daptomycin was administered as a single 14C-labeled dose (1.0 mg/kg of body weight) and as single doses between 0.5 and 6.0 mg/kg. All doses were intravenous. Antibacterial activity was determined from doses of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg (...) , with a limited total body clearance (0.13 to 0.21 ml/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution (0.10 to 0.15 liter/kg). The small volume of distribution may be a factor of the high plasma protein binding (90 to 95%). Renal clearance made up 34 to 54% of total body clearance. Daptomycin demonstrated in vivo antibacterial activity against all three test strains, with the greatest activity observed against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The predicted MIC for all three strains was approximately 13 micrograms

1992 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12400. Antibiotic residues and prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in heifers during early lactation following prepartum antibiotic therapy. (Abstract)

Antibiotic residues and prevalence of mastitis pathogen isolation in heifers during early lactation following prepartum antibiotic therapy. The present study was conducted to determine if antibiotic treatment of heifer mammary glands earlier in the prepartum period reduced the occurrence of residues in milk without compromising efficacy in treatment of intramammary infections. Heifers were assigned randomly to two groups: 1. untreated negative control (n = 42); and 2. intramammary infusion (...) , and at 3 and 30 days after calving for microbiological evaluation. For untreated control heifers, mastitis pathogens were isolated from 67.3% of samples obtained from mammary glands 14 days prior to expected calving, 55.6% obtained 3 days after calving and 36.4% of samples obtained 30 days postpartum. A similar percentage of samples (63.8%) was positive for mastitis pathogens at 14 days before expected calving prior to antibiotic treatment. However, only 15.1% of samples obtained at 3 days after

1997 Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe B. Journal of veterinary medicine. Series B Controlled trial quality: uncertain

Controlled trials

Controlled trials are important tests of an intervention, particularly randomised controlled trials.  See Testing Treatments to understand the reasons why.